Welcome to Alan Thompson's Biology Quiz Sheets Links: Matching Items in Printable Format.

Topic Preview Gateway Page.

 This page is a gateway to other pages, as well as a comprehensive listing of the topics covered, the questions and their matched answers.

 By using CTRL-F various terms or words can be found so that the most useful topic can be located amongst the preview sheets.

 Links to each printable topic quiz can be found both near the top of this page, and between the preview sheets.

 Each topic has matching items statements to assist in gaining familiarisation with Biological science terms.


  

1. Link to all the topic question pages, with answers beside the questions, located further down on this webpage.

   Preview Topic Tests on this webpage.


2. Link to individual topic links for printable, 2 page sheets: questions followed by answers, all on separate web pages.

These links are below on this webpage. Note the links are also between between the preview topics located further down this webpage.

  Question/Answer single topic sheet links below


  

3. Link to the complete set of 89 topic question papers with answers collated onto separate consecutive pages, all on a single webpage.

   Question Sheets collated with Answer Sheets, all 89 topics.


  

4. Link to all the questions-only pages (no answers provided), all on a single webpage.

   Question Sheets only, all 89 topics.


  

5. Link to all the answers-only pages, in topic groups of 3, all on a single webpage.

   Answers only webpage, all 89 topics


  

6. Link to Preview sheets: all the question pages with-answers beside the questions. This is located on a separate webpage.

   Preview: Answers and Questions on the same page, all 89 topics.


 Further instructions for finding a suitable topic to print, or a set of answers, accompanies each of the pages indicated in 3 to 6 above.

 Essentially, once a page has loaded, find a topic with CTRL-F, and print by selecting a suitable area (with mouse) and then right click on the selected area to print.

Warning: using Ctrl-P can result the printing of the entire set of question/answer/question and answer sheets, up to around 200 pages depending on which web page you are viewing. Unfortunately, suitable pagination is not available.

  For suitable pagination it is best to access the separate topics from this webpage either via the topic index links immediately below, or via the links located between the preview pages further below.

 The site is set up like this so that you can navigate to the desired topic without relying on specific topic headings which often don't explain fully the contents of the topic.



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The following links open Printable Single Topic pages.

 These pages are composed of a page of matching items and a page with the answers. Using CTRL-P or right-click-mouse (then select print from pop-up menu), will lead to a 2 page print out. Questions on the first page. Answers on the second page.


    Worksheet   1    Science Method and other Terminology 1

    Worksheet   2    Science Method and other Terminology 2

    Worksheet   3    Science Method and other Terminology 3

    Worksheet   4    Science Method and other Terminology 4

    Worksheet   5    Science Method and other Terminology 5

    Worksheet   6    Science Method and other Terminology 6

    Worksheet   7    Life on Earth 1

    Worksheet   8    Life on Earth 2

    Worksheet   9    Life on Earth 3

    Worksheet  10   Life on Earth 4

    Worksheet  11   Life on Earth 5

    Worksheet  12   Life on Earth 6

    Worksheet  13   Life on Earth 7

    Worksheet  14   Life on Earth 8

    Worksheet  15   Patterns in Nature 1

    Worksheet  16   Patterns in Nature 2

    Worksheet  17   Patterns in Nature 3

    Worksheet  18   Patterns in Nature 4

    Worksheet  19   Patterns in Nature 5

    Worksheet  20   Patterns in Nature 6

    Worksheet  21   Patterns in Nature 7

    Worksheet  22   Local Ecosystem 1

    Worksheet  23   Local Ecosystem 2

    Worksheet  24   Local Ecosystem 3

    Worksheet  25   Australian Biota 1

    Worksheet  26   Australian Biota 2

    Worksheet  27   Australian Biota 3

    Worksheet  28   Australian Biota 4

    Worksheet  29   Australian Biota 5

    Worksheet  30   Australian Biota 6

    Worksheet  31   Australian Biota 7

    Worksheet  32   Australian Biota 8

    Worksheet  33   Australian Biota 9

    Worksheet  34   Australian Biota 10

    Worksheet  35   Maintaining a balance 1

    Worksheet  36   Maintaining a balance 2

    Worksheet  37   Maintaining a balance 3

    Worksheet  38   Maintaining a balance 4

    Worksheet  39   Maintaining a balance 5

    Worksheet  40   Blueprint of Life: genetics 1

    Worksheet  41   Blueprint of Life: genetics 2

    Worksheet  42   Blueprint of Life: genetics 3

    Worksheet  43   Blueprint of Life: genetics 4

    Worksheet  44   Blueprint of Life: genetics 5

    Worksheet  45   Blueprint of Life: genetics 6

    Worksheet  46   Blueprint of Life: genetics 7

    Worksheet  47   Health and Disease 1

    Worksheet  48   Health and Disease 2

    Worksheet  49   Health and Disease 3

    Worksheet  50   Health and Disease 4

    Worksheet  51   Health and Disease 5

    Worksheet  52   Health and Disease 6

    Worksheet  53   Health and Disease 7

    Worksheet  54   Health and Disease 8

    Worksheet  55   Health and Disease 9

    Worksheet  56   Health and Disease 10

    Worksheet  57   Health and Disease 11

    Worksheet  58   Human Species 1

    Worksheet  59   Human Species 2

    Worksheet  60   Human Species 3

    Worksheet  61   Human Species 4

    Worksheet  62   Human Species 5

    Worksheet  63   Human Species 6

    Worksheet  64   Human Species 7

    Worksheet  65   Human Species 8

    Worksheet  66   Human Species 9

    Worksheet  67   Human Species 10

    Worksheet  68   Human Species 11

    Worksheet  69   Human Species 12

    Worksheet  70   Communication 1

    Worksheet  71   Communication 2

    Worksheet  72   Communication 3

    Worksheet  73   Communication 4

    Worksheet  74   Communication 5

    Worksheet  75   Communication 6

    Worksheet  76   Communication 7

    Worksheet  77   Communication 8

    Worksheet  78   Communication 9

    Worksheet  79   Communication 10

    Worksheet  80   Communication 11

    Worksheet  81   Communication 12

    Worksheet  82   Communication 13

    Worksheet  83   Communication 14

    Worksheet  84   Communication 15

    Worksheet  85   Communication 16

    Worksheet  86   Communication 17

    Worksheet  87   Communication 18

    Worksheet  88   Communication 19

    Worksheet  89   Communication 20



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Answers: Sheet   1   Science Method and other Terminology 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   propose to put forward an idea for consideration, acceptance or action
  2   distinguish between show ways in which two alternatives differ, both things need to be mentioned
  3   hot equipment one of the dangers in a laboratory, when using a Bunsen Burner to do things
  4   aim the purpose of an experiment, quite often based on an hypothesis, and indicating only one variable to be studied
  5   explain to make plain or clear; tell how to do a process; to tell the meaning of something; to interpret; to give reasons for a phenomena; account for
  6   describe set forth in written or spoken words, give an account of
  7   produce to yield, furnish or supply an idea or an observation
  8   account for explain a reason for an action or a phenomena, a justification
  9   label to write identifying words or statements on diagrams or the axes of graphs
10   state to describe or set forth formally or in proper form, the condition of a person or thing, physical condition, eg structure or phase of matter
11   what a word used in asking about people or things
12   evaluate to explain the value of something or a procedure, to weigh up both sides of an argument or discussion and draw a conclusion
13   prediction a future possible occurrence that can be logically obtained from a law, theory or an hypothesis
14   risk assessment determination of the danger or the amount of damage to the environment that a procedure will cause
15   tabulate organise information into table form with columns and rows that have identifying headings
16   result the effect of the method or an occurrence or phenomena
17   contradiction the act of denying what has been said; saying the opposite
18   determine to find something previously unknown or uncertain by observation, calculation or logical deduction
19   impacts to have a forceful or dramatic effect on something



   Science Method and other Terminology 1 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   2   Science Method and other Terminology 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   pattern the structure, trend or design in a results table, graph, or other data
  2   process information to analyse data so that conclusions, inferences, predictions and implications can be made
  3   symbol something that stands for or represents something else, eg a couple of letters representing an element
  4   inference a conclusion obtained by deduction or reasoning about an observation or a theory. Not testable by experiment (compared to hypothesis)
  5   gather information collecting details about a phenomenon from a variety of sources
  6   refute to disprove; to show (a claim, opinion, argument or hypothesis) to be incorrect or wrong
  7   hypothesis an idea that is used to explain something that has happened. Used as the basis for an experiment, used to provide an aim to the experiment
  8   subjective belonging to the thinking of a person rather than to the results of an experiment, being biased opinions and feelings
  9   assumption underlying concepts that are taken for granted to be correct without proof, concepts upon which other logical conclusions have been drawn
10   formulate express in a precise form, develop a systematic means of giving information, make up an idea
11   extrapolate to extend a graph beyond the actual data, to calculate or infer from what is known something that is possible but unknown; predict from facts
12   relate describe, recite, or recount, to give an account of; to connect in thought or meaning
13   modify to make partial changes in; change somewhat; change a technique after it has been used
14   contrast to place (two things) side by side to show their differences, both alternatives need to be mentioned in a description, as well as the alternative features
15   give to offer or present information
16   suggest to put forward; propose; to bring to mind; to call up the thought of an idea
17   justify give a good reason for a chosen action
18   model any formula, diagram, physical structure that is used to illustrate a system or scheme in an attempt to understand the system or scheme
19   plan answers during tests and exams this must be done in order to answer questions succinctly, completely and accurately with all relevant information



   Science Method and other Terminology 2Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   3   Science Method and other Terminology 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   technology tools, machines, techniques and processes used to study nature and living things
  2   when at what time
  3   bar graph a chart for comparison of quantities by means of shaded rectangles, used when there is no continuous gradations of values
  4   define to make the meaning of a word, process or phenomenon clear; explain.
  5   difference the condition of being unalike; or not the same
  6   proposal a plan or suggestion put forward for consideration, discussion, acceptance, or trial
  7   specify to mention or name definitely, to state in detail
  8   variable factors that can vary during an experiment. Only one is allowed to vary between treatment and control set ups
  9   chemical these substances can be poisonous and corrosive and so they must be handled with care
10   method the way in which an experiment is done, procedure, explains fully how the aim of an experiment is to be tested
11   control the experimental set up that is used for comparison with the treatment, and which varies only in one way from the treatment experimental set up
12   treatment experimental set up that has the one variable being tested different from the control set up, used to determine if the variable being tested has had an effect
13   objective term describing interpretation of experiments based on real and observable results, free from personal feelings or bias
14   implication an indirect suggestion based on information without saying it outright
15   secondary sources information obtained from the published results of other people who have made observations obtained experimental results
16   phenomenon a fact, event or circumstance that can be observed
17   adjustment a small modification in an experiment, technique or model made necessary because of new information obtained
18   line graph a graph in which points are plotted and then connected by a series of short straight or curved lines (line of best fit where appropriate)
19   recommend to speak in favour of an idea, person or action



   Science Method and other Terminology 3Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   4   Science Method and other Terminology 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   theory an explanation or a thought that is in the process of being tested by experiment or obtaining supporting evidence
  2   controls possible variables that are kept the same between the two experimental set ups, treatment and control
  3   analysis using tables, graphs, diagrams and reasoned discussion to obtain valid conclusions, inferences and hypotheses from gathered information
  4   independent variable a factor that is deliberately changed in an experiment and as a result changes another changeable factor called the dependent variable
  5   relevant connected with the matter in hand; applicable, appropriate, purposeful, meaningful
  6   anticipate to take care of ahead of time; consider in advance, to look for possible problems before they actually occur
  7   best fit term describing a line on a graph drawn amongst points rather than just joining the dots
  8   flow diagrams a chart showing the flow of events or information in a series of processes
  9   hazard that which could cause a chance of loss or harm; risk; danger; peril, injury, damage.
10   why for what reason cause or purpose
11   biological of plant and animal life; connected with the processes of life.
12   establish to set up on a firm basis, to show beyond doubt
13   compare to place (two things) side by side to show their similarities
14   glassware these pieces of equipment are easily broken to form sharp edges and so must be handled with care
15   bias the tendency of a sample to be unrepresentative of all samples in a study or experiment
16   effect something made to happen by a person or thing; a result.
17   sequential in a certain order, connected in a series, the order of events shown in a flow chart
18   suitability being right for the occasion; being fit, proper, or appropriate.
19   demonstrate to establish the truth of for example by argument or deduction, show clearly, prove, attest



   Science Method and other Terminology 4 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   5   Science Method and other Terminology 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   variables factors that can vary during an experiment. Only one is allowed to vary between treatment and control experimental set ups
  2   name identify a process, structure or phenomenon by a title or a term
  3   care this is always taken in the laboratory so that no one is hurt and equipment is not damaged
  4   hypothesis an idea that is used to explain something that has happened. A statement used as the basis for an experiment
  5   dependent variable a factor that changes as a result of changes deliberately made in another changeable factor called the independent variable
  6   information presentation putting data into a form ready for publication, in prose, point form, tables, graphs, diagrams, flow charts
  7   prove to show as true and right; make certain; demonstrate the truth of by evidence (experiment or observation) or argument
  8   trend to have a general tendency; the general direction
  9   present information putting forward data in forms such as prose, tables, graphs, diagrams, flow charts
10   cooperation this is necessary so that people can work together with the limited equipment available
11   interpolate to find or insert (an unknown term) between two known terms in a series; to determine a value between known values using a graph
12   safety being careful in the laboratory so that equipment is not damaged and people are not hurt
13   destructive test a method used to take samples of materials or living things which destroys the samples, eg, cutting grass and drying it in an oven to find its water content
14   formula an expression showing a rule by algebraic symbols; also an expression showing by symbols and figures the composition of a compound
15   support to be in favour of, to help prove, verify, confirm, or substantiate
16   select pick or choose from a group of alternatives, to list a group of related observations
17   predict to announce or tell beforehand; forecast; prophesy.
18   goggles eye protection that needs to be worn during experiments
19   consequence a result or effect; the relation of a result or effect to its cause; a logical result, deduction of an inference



   Science Method and other Terminology 5Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   6   Science Method and other Terminology 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   effectiveness able to cause some desired result; getting results.
  2   non-destructive test a method used to observe materials or living things which does not destroy them eg, photographing instead of taking samples
  3   reliability trustworthiness or dependability of experimental results or conclusions based on experimental results
  4   identify to recognise as being a particular person or thing, to put forward an observation or reason
  5   collate to arrange in order; put together
  6   observation what has been seen to happen
  7   conclusion summing up at the end of an experiment, related back to the aim, based directly on the results; also a discussion and evaluation can have this
  8   random selection choosing a sample by chance so that bias can be eliminated from an experiment, very important in biological studies due to variations between individuals of a species
  9   law a statement of what always occurs under certain conditions, has plenty of supporting evidence
10   repetition to do something over again. This is done in experiments to eliminate bias and to obtain average results and so make conclusions more reliable
11   assess to estimate the value of a procedure or technique, or the impact of a procedure on the environment, for example
12   reason an explanation, justification or conclusion as to why or how something occurs
13   where in what place; at what place.
14   how in what way or manner; by what means; in what state or condition; to what effect; with what meaning
15   primary sources obtaining information personally by performing experiments or observations
16   similarities resemblances or likenesses between two or more alternative things
17   valid supported by facts or the results of an experiment
18   provide to give or put forward an idea, observation or reason
19   biological variation reason why statistical analysis is essential in analysing the results of biological experiments
20   statistical analysis the application of mathematical statistics to the analysis of numerical results of biological experiments.



   Science Method and other Terminology 6 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   7   Life on Earth 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   nanobes microscopic organisms living on earth that are similar to fossils found in Martian meteorites
  2   electron microscope technology used to show details of microscopic fossils to compare early life forms with existing microorganisms
  3   living fossils organisms that have remained unchanged for many millions of years: crocodile, horseshoe crab, cockroaches
  4   terrestrial life life that was able to develop as a result of the formation of ozone to protect land organisms from UV
  5   radioactive dating method used to find absolute age of rocks and fossils, found by comparing products of radioactive decay with the amounts of original isotopes
  6   original earth atmosphere water vapour, hydrogen, hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, possibly ammonia, and methane
  7   traces of organisms fossils that are preserved footprints, trails, burrows, animal excreta (coprolites)
  8   homologous structure parts of living things that are present in a wide variety of them indicating common ancestry, eg the pentadactyl limb of lobe finned fish (ancestor), amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
  9   Urey and Miller experiment experiment with primitive atmosphere and electrical discharge that showed that the molecules of living things could have formed on primitive earth
10   archaeobacteria procaryote with no murein in cell wall, branched lipids in cell membrane and not sensitive to common antibiotics
11   procaryotic cells that do not contain membrane bound organelles, bacteria and cyanobacteria
12   communication aim of classification systems so that biologists can talk to each other without having to describe the organisms in detail
13   order a group of related families
14   binomial nomenclature system of classification that uses names composed of two words for each species: genus name and species name
15   species level of classification that contains the least diverse range of organisms, all having a large number of features in common
16   nitrogen-fixing bacteria bacteria found in legume root nodules converting gaseous nitrogen to nitrates allowing the plants to live in poor soils
17   constancy reason why structure is used in classification, stays the same all lifetime
18   2 kingdom system plant and animals kingdoms after Linnaeus 1737
19   protists (Protista) single celled organisms with eucaryotic cells: includes protozoa, and algae



   Life on Earth 1 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   8   Life on Earth 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   membrane structure that needed to be formed before primitive cells could maintain a constant internal environment despite variations outside
  2   hard parts pieces of organisms that are most often preserved as fossils because they take a long time to decay, teeth, bones, shells, exoskeletons
  3   archaeobacteria methanogens, halophiles and thermophiles are all bacteria belonging to these primitive bacteria
  4   eucaryotic cells that contain membrane bound organelles, the cells of fungi, algae, protozoans, plants and animals
  5   carbon 14 radioactive isotope that is useful for dating fossils up to 50 000 years
  6   oxygen gas present in the atmosphere now but absent originally
  7   fossils remains of life forms that have been trapped in sediments and preserved
  8   horse large mammal for which we have a series of fossil organisms over the past 60 million years showing evolution as a gradual process
  9   pentadactyl limb five digit appendages that have a humerus and radius and ulna, found in lobe fin fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
10   Svante Arrhenius person who first put forward the cosmic origin of life on Earth theory in early 1900's
11   aerobic organisms living things that evolved to more efficiently produce energy by respiration once the air contained oxygen
12   genus a group of related species
13   scientific name binomial names of species based on ancient Greek or Latin words to describe them or name them after someone
14   recycling matter essential role of most procaryotes in all environments due to decomposition of organic matter
15   monera single celled organisms with procaryotic cells, bacteria and cyanobacteria
16   taxonomy science of classification of organisms
17   Carolus Linnaeus Englishman who in 1737 first divided the world into animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms
18   3 kingdom system protist, plant and animal kingdoms after Haekel 1800



   Life on Earth 2Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   9   Life on Earth 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   methanogens archaebacteria found in bogs, herbivore intestines, sewage treatment; anaerobic only, use hydrogen and carbon dioxide to make methane and release energy
  2   uranium radioactive element that is useful for dating the age of volcanic rocks and hence determining the age of nearby sedimentary rocks due to a half life of 4.5 million years
  3   Phillipa Unwins person who discovered nanobes which are similar to organisms in Martian meteorites, 1996
  4   deep sea equipment modern technology used to study remote environments in deep sea trenches, providing evidence of evolution of life near volcanic vents
  5   quick burial one of the conditions necessary for an organism to become a fossil, being covered fast in soil, mud, ice, tree sap
  6   palaeontological type of evidence of early life forms represented by fossils of stromatolites and single celled anaerobic procaryotes in rocks 3.4 to 3.5 billion years old
  7   creationists people who believe all the different organisms were made at the same time, by God, and haven't changed
  8   3.8 billion years ago when life began in the oceans on earth
  9   complex organic molecules first major stage in evolution of life, enabling proteins and DNA to form
10   eucaryotic cells fifth major stage in evolution, cells that contain membrane bound organelles, possibly formed by engulfing procaryotes
11   4.6 billion years age of the earth
12   Systema Naturae published in 1748 by Linnaeus describing his classification system
13   producer role of cyanobacteria in ecosystems because of their ability to carry out photosynthesis
14   Banksia genus of plants named after the botanist Joseph Banks who sailed with Captain Cook on the Endeavour
15   arbitrary classification systems are considered to be this because each one reflects the views of the biologist who devised it
16   4 kingdom system monera, protist, plant and animal kingdoms after electron microscope in 1950's
17   fungi organisms that do not contain chlorophyll, have eucaryotic cells surrounded by a cell wall
18   species a population of similar living things, capable of reproducing fertile offspring under natural conditions



   Life on Earth 3Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   10   Life on Earth 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   anatomical structure most practical feature of living things for use in classification, parts of organisms,
  2   Georges Cuvier Frenchman who developed a system for classifying animals about 1800 when he noticed that animals have only a few basic shapes
  3   halophites archaeobacteria found in high salt concentrations eg Dead Sea. Aerobic
  4   mutualism the close relationship between nitrogen fixing bacteria and the legumes and other species that contain them in their roots
  5   comparative embryology study of similarities between embryos, all vertebrate embryos are similar at early stages indicating relationship
  6   5 kingdom system fungi, monera, protist, plant and animal kingdoms after Whittaker, 1967
  7   dichotomous key a tool used by biologists to identify living things. Table form, constructed by dividing all species into pairs of successively smaller, more closely related groups
  8   lichens organisms that are mutualists composed of fungi and algae, and classified as fungi according to their fungal symbiont
  9   plasmids small circular pieces of DNA found in procaryotes, which are self replicating and not essential for survival (used in genetic engineering)
10   cosmic ancestry theory that life originated somewhere else in the universe or the chemicals of living things arose elsewhere and came to earth
11   great creative and spirit beings Aboriginal cultural belief of those responsible for creating everything: people, way of life, physical earth
12   membrane formation second major stage in evolution of life, protecting large molecules from changes in the outside environment, and enabling replication of the molecules
13   geological type of evidence of early life forms represented by banded iron oxides and red rock formations 2.5 billion years old, resulting from oxygen production during photosynthesis
14   ultraviolet radiation that has recently been used to make molecules of life from primitive atmosphere containing hydrogen cyanide
15   preservation one of the conditions necessary for an organism to become a fossil, prevention of decay (lack of oxygen, cold, dry)
16   cyanobacteria organisms that formed stromatolites due to gels they produced trapping sediments in the shallow seas where they lived
17   interstellar gases material from which the solar system was formed by condensation into planets and the sun
18   colonial organisms sixth major stage in evolution, unspecialised cells grouping together, stomatolites, volvox



   Life on Earth 4Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   11   Life on Earth 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   ozone the lack of this gas in the early earth atmosphere resulted in high levels of ultra violet reaching the surface of the earth
  2   merged the Aboriginal spirit beings did this with respect to the things (hills, rocks, waterholes) they created and so live on
  3   artificial breeding evidence of evolution: farmers picking the best animals to mate with the best
  4   mould fossil structure formed by dissolving the material of the original organism leaving a space in sediments
  5   oxic term describing the atmosphere, containing oxygen
  6   stromatolites mounds of sediments trapped in glue-like mats of cyanobacteria, from 3.5 billion years ago, to present
  7   Haldane one of the people who came up with the theory that life molecules were originally produced in the conditions on primitive earth, at the same time as Oparin
  8   multicellular organisms seventh major stage in evolution, organisms composed of large numbers of eucaryotic cells, differentiation to specialised cells so that the cells are fully dependent on each other
  9   deep sea volcanic vents environment in deep ocean where life could have evolved
10   heterotrophic procaryotes third major stage in evolution of life, cells that have no membrane bound organelles, relying on energy in organic molecules formed in the primitive environment
11   enzyme secretion means by which bacteria provide enzymes for the purpose of decomposing organic matter prior to absorbing the simpler products
12   features of living things anatomy (structure), physiology (function), behaviour (doing), biochemistry (molecular activity), chromosome number. Ways in which organisms differ
13   thermophiles archaeobacteria found in hot springs, geysers, volcanic ocean vents using sulfur and hydrogen as a source of energy (make hydrogen sulfide)
14   dichotomous key a device to assist identification of organisms based on deciding between two alternative characteristics over numerous steps
15   Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu Frenchman who developed a system for classifying plants about 1800
16   6 kingdom system archaeobacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals kingdoms after Woese 1977
17   levels of classification kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
18   starfish embryos of these and related organisms (echinoderms) are similar to those of vertebrates



   Life on Earth 5Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   12   Life on Earth 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   autotrophic procaryotes fourth major stage in evolution of life, cells that have no membrane bound organelles, but have chemicals to make their own food
  2   Dreaming Aboriginal stories about eternity and patterns of life which are the legacy of great creative and spirit beings
  3   Oparin person who put forward a theory about life originating on primitive earth in 1924, at the same time as Haldane
  4   evolution trends simple to complex living things, marine to terrestrial, plants before animals, asexual reproduction before sexual reproduction
  5   volvox colonial form of algae cells in which a ball of undifferentiated cells stick together to form a hollow ball
  6   anoxic term describing the atmosphere, lacking oxygen
  7   amino acids substances found in meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites, essential to living things
  8   clines evidence of evolution: variations in populations across regions related to variation in the environment
  9   infrared space observation new telescopic technology that has enabled space studies to discover the nature of interstellar ice and dust
10   cast fossil structure formed by filling a mould or space left in sediments when the original organism's substances dissolve
11   eubacteria procaryotes sensitive to common antibiotics, with murein in cell wall and unbranched lipids in cell membrane
12   kingdom a group of related phyla
13   mitochondrial DNA genes in mitochondria that mutate at a particular rate and so can be used to determine how long two types of organisms have been evolving along separate paths
14   classification system method of grouping together organisms that have similar characteristics
15   structure feature of animals used for classifying them
16   Ernst Haeckel German who proposed a kingdom for all microscopic unicellular organisms which he called Protista in 1866
17   electron microscope instrument used to divide procaryotic protists into kingdom Monera in the early 1950's
18   hierarchical system a system which consists of levels which increase in diversity and numbers towards the top



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Answers: Sheet   13   Life on Earth 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   undisturbed one of the conditions necessary for an organism to become a fossil: not removed by erosion or broken up after being buried
  2   Harold Urey person who provided the laboratory for the Stanley Miller to experiment with electric discharge through methane, ammonia, hydrogen and water, 1953
  3   ER2 aircraft high altitude plane (new technology) that has collected space dust shown to contain up to 50% carbon
  4   transitional fossils fossil species that link together two main groups of species, eg, ferns and gymnosperms are linked by seed ferns
  5   palaeontology the study of fossils
  6   anoxic to oxic change in the primitive atmosphere as a result of the evolution of photosynthesis
  7   vertebrate evolution fish --> amphibians --> reptiles ==>> birds and mammals, indicated from fossil dating
  8   embryo similarity evidence of evolution: vertebrates all look the same in the early stages, indicating common ancestry
  9   panspermia theory put forward by Svante Arrhenius (early 1900's) that bacteria could have originated in space and drifted to earth
10   sexual reproduction type of reproduction that resulted in a more rapid rate of evolutionary change
11   R. H. Whittaker person who placed fungi in separate kingdom in 1967
12   cosmos the universe
13   diversity reason for classification being necessary, as there is a very wide range of living things of which to make sense
14   structure and reproduction features of plants used for classifying them
15   archaeobacteria primitive procaryotes found in extreme conditions of temperature, salinity, anoxic environments
16   plants (Plantae) organisms containing chlorophyll, make their own food, eucaryotic cells, cellulose cell wall
17   phylum a group of related classes
18   five (5) million years ago time that humans and chimpanzees have been evolving separately from a common ancestor as determined by analysing mutations in mitochondrial DNA



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Answers: Sheet   14   Life on Earth 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   eubacteria shapes spheres (cocci), rods (bacilli), bent rods (vibrios), spirals (spirillum)
  2   Carl Woese person who discovered differences between archaeobacteria and eubacteria and divided Monera into two kingdoms in 1977
  3   relationships one of the aims of a classification system, so that we can determine evolutionary sequences
  4   animals (Animalia) organisms that do not contain chlorophyll, cannot make their own food, eucaryotic cells, no cell wall
  5   kingdom level of classification that contains the most diverse range of organisms, having only a few features in common
  6   class in classification: a group of related orders
  7   easily observed reason why structure is used in classification systems for plants and animals, living and fossilised
  8   species a group of organisms that are anatomically, behaviourally, and physiologically very similar, they can reproduce and their offspring are fertile
  9   sub-fossils actual organisms preserved by being frozen in ice (mammoths), trapped in tree resin (insects), mummified in peat bogs
10   camera object retrieved from the moon in 1969 that had earth bacteria having survived 31 months in extreme temperature, vacuum, radiation, lack of water
11   transitional fossils fossil species that link together two main groups of species, eg, reptiles and birds are linked by archaeopteryx
12   geology the study of rocks
13   ozone layer part of the atmosphere which developed once oxygen levels increased as a result of photosynthesis. Protects life from harmful UV from the sun
14   Stanley Miller person who found that amino acids could be made in the laboratory by electric discharge through methane, ammonia, hydrogen and water, 1953
15   Martian meteorite a piece of rock from space that has been found to constain evidence of fossilised microscopic organisms
16   radioactive isotopes technology used to accurately date the age of sedimentary rock and fossils
17   asexual reproduction type of reproduction that was associated with a slow rate of evolutionary change
18   plant evolution algae --> mosses --> ferns --> seed ferns --> gymnosperms --> angiosperms, indicated from fossil dating



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Answers: Sheet   15   Patterns in Nature 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   cancer uncontrolled cells that do not differentiate correctly after mutations have occurred, resulting in disease
  2   protein large body building substance produced by ribosomes from amino acids
  3   transpiration stream water moving through the xylem in response to water lost by transpiration through the stomates
  4   centromere structure joining together the two chromatids of a chromosome during cell division
  5   cell building block of living things
  6   mitosis cell division in which two cells are produced which have identical information
  7   energy this agent of change is used up during active transport and accumulation of substances by cells against a diffusion gradient
  8   capillary finest blood vessels, thin walls to allow diffusion of food, waste and oxygen, large surface area
  9   lymphatic system vessels that drain interstitial fluids back to the blood stream in vertebrates
10   prophase first stage of mitosis, nuclear membrane disappears, chromosomes shorten and thicken as pairs of chromatids
11   maturation plant root cells do this as they differentiate into tissues (xylem, phloem, cortex) after elongation
12   circulatory system organs in living things that move fluids around the body for the purpose of transporting nutrients, oxygen and wastes
13   ammonia nitrogenous excretory product of protein metabolism that fish excrete from gills
14   turgidity firmness of plant cells caused by osmotic pressure against the cell wall
15   carnivore animal that eats other animals
16   nucleolus organelle inside the nucleus that has a reserve of nucleic acid
17   cell theory living things are made of cells and cell products and cells are the smallest unit capable of independent existence and reproduction
18   synthesis cell cycle phase after growth 1: new DNA is made so that the chromosomes are duplicated into chromatids ready of the next mitotic division
19   growth increase in size of an organism, due to cell size increase and cell number increase by mitosis



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Answers: Sheet   16   Patterns in Nature 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   stomates tiny pores (holes) on plant leaf surfaces which allow for the exchange of oxygen (out) and carbon dioxide (in) and control of water loss
  2   growth 2 cell cycle phase after synthesis: increase in cell size prior to mitosis
  3   nutrient substance that is needed by cells, usually absorbed by diffusion
  4   differentiation changing of cells to form structures related to their specialised functions
  5   organic chemical substance from living things that contains carbon
  6   vein blood vessel that returns blood to the heart, thin inelastic wall, valves
  7   endoplasmic reticulum organelle made of folded membranes, occurs throughout the cytoplasm of the cell, connecting the nucleus to the cell membrane
  8   tumour uncontrolled cells that do not differentiate correctly after a mutation, not necessarily a disease
  9   metaphase second stage of mitosis, chromosomes line up on the cell equator
10   cytoplasm part of the cell where most of the chemical changes of the cell occur
11   digestion breakdown of complex food materials prior to absorption of simple food molecules
12   excretory system organs in living things that remove waste products of cellular metabolism from the body
13   radioisotopes radioactive substances that can be used to replace normal substances so that metabolism pathways can be traced by taking autoradiographs
14   carbohydrate organic substance including glucose, starch and cellulose
15   flowering plant plant that reproduces with flowers
16   urea nitrogenous excretory product of protein metabolism that mammals excrete via kidneys
17   meristem part of a plant tip (stem apex or root tip) where cells are actively dividing by mitosis to cause increase in plant length, height
18   DNA deoxyribose nucleic acid. Genes



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Answers: Sheet   17   Patterns in Nature 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   heterotroph living thing that requires an outside source of food
  2   uric acid nitrogenous excretory product of protein metabolism that birds, reptiles and insects excrete, helps conserve water
  3   nucleus organelle which is the control centre of the cell containing DNA (genes)
  4   genes messages passed from one generation to another, DNA
  5   cambium layer of cells between xylem and phloem, and between bark and cortex where cells are actively dividing to cause increase in plant girth
  6   organism group of systems that function as a whole living unit
  7   glucose simple carbohydrate that is the sub-unit from which cellulose, starch and glycogen are made
  8   cellulose carbohydrate made from glucose that plant cell walls are composed of
  9   mitosis division of the cell nucleus prior to cytokinesis
10   ribosome organelle composed of protein and RNA which makes proteins from amino acids
11   flaccid softness of plant cells caused by loss of water by osmosis and the resultant lowering of osmotic pressure
12   benign term describing a tumour that has a fixed size, and is enclosed in a capsule, not cancerous
13   cell wall organelle of plant cells that is found outside the cell membrane and provides support for the plant
14   herbivore animal that eats plants
15   temperature factor affecting rate of transpiration, causing it to increase; measured in degrees Celsius
16   diffusion movement of substances from places of high concentration to places of low concentration
17   anaphase third stage of mitosis, chromatids drawn apart and migrate to the poles of the cell
18   transpiration loss of water from plant leaves via stomates that have opened for the purpose of absorption of carbon dioxide



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Answers: Sheet   18   Patterns in Nature 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   humidity factor affecting rate of transpiration, causing a decrease; amount of water vapour in the air
  2   chromosome structure in cell nuclei that carries genes
  3   light microscope instrument for viewing cells by focusing rays of light
  4   nucleic acid DNA, RNA, genes, substance carried on chromosomes
  5   telophase fourth stage of mitosis, single strand chromosomes reach the cell poles and nuclear membranes reform
  6   starch storage carbohydrate of plants made from glucose
  7   absorption uptake of substances by cells
  8   Malpighian tubules thin tubes attached to the gut of insects that excrete nitrogenous wastes into the gut where they change to uric acid
  9   permanent cells cells that do not divide by mitosis once they have differentiated, examples, nerve cells, retina cells, lens cells
10   organelle part from within a cell; a specialised subcellular component
11   semipermeable able to allow some substances through whilst blocking the penetration of other substances
12   chromatography technique that is used to separate pigments by relying on moving solvents carrying them at different rates through an absorbent material
13   pupa stage of insect life cycle in which larval cells are broken down, and adult cells and tissues form
14   chloride ions inorganic ions that are found combined with sodium in salt
15   system group of organs that function together
16   golgi body organelle composed of a series of flattened discs used to store cell products prior to secretion
17   malignant term describing a tumour that is not fixed in size, not enclosed in a capsule, spreading, produces cells that migrate to other parts of the body, cancer
18   glycogen storage carbohydrate of animals made from glucose



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Answers: Sheet   19   Patterns in Nature 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   lignin woody organic substance that strengthens plant xylem cell walls
  2   amino acids chemical sub-unit from which proteins are produced
  3   pigments coloured substances, eg chlorophyll
  4   SA/V ratio this decreases as a cell gets bigger resulting in reduced efficiency in the use of diffusion in obtaining nutrients and excreting wastes
  5   lipid organic substance which includes animal fats and plant oils
  6   mammal vertebrate animals that have hair and produce milk
  7   alveoli structure in the lungs to increase their surface area and provide a thin moist surface to allow exchange of gases
  8   interstitial fluid liquid that is found amongst the cells of the body of vertebrates; drained back to the bloodstream through the lymphatic system
  9   wind factor affecting the rate of transpiration causing it to increase: moving air
10   algae simplest plants, live in water
11   cell plate structure that forms during cytokinesis of plant cells so that the two new cells formed by mitosis can produce a dividing cell wall
12   specialisation having a restricted function that depends on structures present in cells
13   haemolymph blood of insects which bathes the tissues but does not contain red blood cells
14   chlorophyll green photosynthetic substance found in chloroplasts
15   autotroph living thing that produces its own food by photosynthesis (self feeder)
16   secretion process of placing substances produced by cells outside the cells
17   larva stage of insect life cycle in which larval cells grow but do not divide
18   diffusion gradient series of decreasing concentrations of a substance along which it will naturally move



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Answers: Sheet   20   Patterns in Nature 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   lysosome organelle that contains lysozymes (enzymes to digest cell contents if the cell dies)
  2   electron microscope instrument for viewing cells by focusing beams of electrons
  3   xylem tissue in plants that carry water up the stem, often woody
  4   elongation increase in the length of cells of a plant root tip prior to maturation and cell specialisation, helping to push the root tip through the soil
  5   root hairs fine extensions of cells of plant roots that dramatically increase the surface area of the root for the purpose of absorption of water and nutrients
  6   chromatids each chromosome is made of two of these joined at the centromere early in mitosis so that the chromosome can separate into two identical single strand chromosomes at anaphase
  7   osmosis movement of water through a semipermeable membrane in response to differences in solute concentration (from low solute concentration to high solute concentration)
  8   cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm after the nucleus divides in mitosis and meiosis
  9   chloroplast organelle that carries out photosynthesis to trap sunlight energy in the form of stored chemical energy
10   autoradiograph photograph produced when a radioactive tracer exposes a photographic plate
11   surface area space covered by a membrane used for absorption of substances by diffusion
12   light factor affecting rate of transpiration causing an increase: needed for photosynthesis
13   lenticels pores in the bark of plants that allow for gas exchange
14   phloem tissue in plants that translocate substances from plant leaves to other pats of the plant
15   inorganic chemical substance that does not contain carbon
16   nephron structure in the kidneys that provides a semipermeable membrane to filter blood, and a large surface area to reabsorb useful materials
17   open circulation type of circulation of insects, haemolymph is pumped into the body cavity
18   cleavage process by which animal cells carry out cytokinesis; the pinching off of two cells after mitosis



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Answers: Sheet   21   Patterns in Nature 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   mitochondrion organelle that carries out cellular respiration to release energy for the use by the cell
  2   interphase stage between mitotic divisions in which the cell grows: synthesises of DNA and growth occurs in preparation for mitosis
  3   reproduction production of more offspring
  4   translocation movement of substances through the phloem from leaves to other parts of plants
  5   closed circulation type of circulation of vertebrates where the blood is contained in arteries, capillaries and veins
  6   organ group of tissues that function together
  7   vacuole organelle which is a fluid filled part of cells, large in plant cells
  8   active transport uptake mechanism that uses up energy because substances are forced to move against their normal diffusion gradient
  9   root cap protective group of cells on the end of a root so it can be pushed through the soil
10   tissue group of cells of similar structure and function
11   artery blood vessel that takes blood from the heart to tissues, thick elastic wall
12   membrane thin structure that envelopes cells and the organelles of cells
13   growth 1 cell cycle phase in which the first increase in cell size after mitosis occurs
14   gas exchange uptake and release of different gases at the same time, eg carbon dioxide out and oxygen in, in the lungs; or oxygen out and carbon dioxide in through plant leaf stomates
15   repair mending of cells, tissues etc., one of the uses of energy in living things
16   mutation can result in tumour growth because cells undergoing mitosis are no longer controlled by the body to differentiate into an appropriate tissue; a changed gene
17   metastases migration of malignant tumour cells to other parts of the body to produce cancer in those parts
18   meiosis cell division in which 4 cells are produced (gametes) with differences in information (genes) and in preparation for sexual reproduction



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Answers: Sheet   22   Local Ecosystem 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   competition struggle between living things to obtain resources
  2   mutualism close relationship between living things in which both species benefit
  3   mitochondrion cell organelle that breaks down glucose (carries out cellular respiration)
  4   estuary river mouth conditions in which water salinity varies considerably
  5   commensalism loose relationship between living things in which one benefits but the other is unaffected
  6   first order consumer level in a food web that consumes producers
  7   community living things that live in a particular place at a particular time
  8   climate long term (over the years) weather conditions
  9   chloroplast cell organelle that makes glucose (carries out photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight)
10   photosynthesis to make food using light, producers, plants do this
11   population all the members of a species
12   abundance number of individuals per unit area
13   matter cycle diagram showing the use of substances in living things and their eventual return to the environment
14   second order consumer order level in a food web that consumes producer eating consumers
15   total populaton total of the second capture, multiplied by the number marked and released in the first capture, divided by the number of marked individuals recaptured
16   predator animal that captures, kills and consumes other animals
17   prey animal that is captured, killed and eaten
18   transect line used to sample living things



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Answers: Sheet   23   Local Ecosystem 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   aquatic watery environment
  2   abiotic non-living components of the environment
  3   quadrat square that is used to sample living things
  4   trophic related to feeding
  5   nitrogen element needed by living things to make protein, and which has to be fixed chemical form a gas in the air
  6   symbiont a living thing that forms a close relationship with another living thing, usually to the benefit of both organisms, eg Rhizobia bacteria in clover root nodules
  7   adaptation feature of a living thing that enables it to survive in its natural environment
  8   allelopathy production of plant chemicals to improve competitiveness with other plants
  9   third order consumer level in a food web at a higher level, consuming second order consumers
10   ecosystem a group of living things together with their environment, the living things interacting with each other and their environment
11   parasitism close relationship between living things in which one lives at the expense of the other
12   producer living thing that makes food from sunlight energy and simple chemicals (water and carbon dioxide)
13   photosynthesis equation 6H2O + 6CO2 ----> C6H12O6 + 6O2 (water reacted with carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll to form glucose and oxygen in chloroplasts)
14   ecology study of the relationships between living things and their environment
15   food web complex interrelating series showing the flow of energy from one or more producer
16   weather ambient conditions of temperature, moisture, wind, sunshine
17   sampling obtaining representative sets of living things
18   constant ratio this is assumed when using capture-mark-release-recapture to estimate population size: the ratio of total population to marked = same ratio in recapture sample.



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Answers: Sheet   24   Local Ecosystem 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   resources items that the environment provides that living things need to survive
  2   decomposer living thing that breaks down the remains of other living things, eg bacteria and fungi
  3   food chain simple series of living things showing the flow of energy from a producer
  4   environment conditions that affect a living thing
  5   consumer living thing that uses other living things as a source of food
  6   biomass pyramid diagram showing decreasing masses of living things in a series of trophic (feeding) level commencing with producers
  7   bioaccumulation increasing concentrations of poisons from producers to higher consumer orders in a food web
  8   obligate parasite an organism that cannot live outside of a host, often causing disease symptoms in the host
  9   aerobic respiraton uses air (oxygen) for complete breakdown of glucose to water and carbon dioxide
10   anaerobic respiration breakdown of glucose in the absence of air (oxygen) to release organic substances such as alcohol
11   respiration equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 ----> 6H2O + 6CO2 (glucose reacting with oxygen in mitochondria to release water and carbon dioxide and make available energy stored in the glucose during photosynthesis)
12   marine ocean conditions
13   biotic living components of the environment of a living thing
14   capture-marking-recapture sampling technique used to estimate numbers of mobile animals
15   distribution where living things are found
16   respiration breakdown of glucose to release energy in the mitochondrion
17   terrestrial land environment
18   simulation model used to explain how something works and predict the effect of changes



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Answers: Sheet   25   Australian Biota 1 Continental Drift

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   6 cm per year rate at which Australia is drifting north at the present time
  2   55 million years ago when Australia began to separate from Antarctica
  3   Proteaceae family of flowering plants with a southern distribution; includes banksia, grevillea, waratah, protea
  4   plate tectonics theory that earth's crust is made of separate plates that move on a layer of semi-liquid rock in the mantle
  5   Myrtaceae family of flowering plants with a southern distribution; includes eucalypts, bottle brushes, tea trees and paper barks
  6   Harry Hess geologist who developed the theory of plate tectonics in the 1960s
  7   continental drift theory useful in explaining the distribution of fossil species on earth and mountain range locations
  8   collision of crustal plates this process causes the formation of mountain ranges, deep sea trenches, oceans, and earthquakes to occur
  9   Laurasia the northern part of original super continent Pangaea, comprised of North America, Europe and Asia (except India)
10   Indo-Australian plate crustal plate that Australia is on
11   45 million years ago when separation of Australia and Antarctica was completed
12   living fossils relict species; organisms that have survived unchanged since ancient times: due to unchanging environments
13   Alfred Wegener German astronomer who first proposed the theory of continental drift in 1912
14   continental margins evidence of continental drift: these fit together in shape and rock types
15   megafauna large animals such as elephants and whales
16   Pangaea single great land mass that existed on earth up to about 160 million years ago (in the Jurassic period)
17   slow moving reason why megafauna were susceptible to human hunters and possibly hunted to extinction
18   spreading zones places between crustal plates where new rock forms near mid-oceanic ridges as crustal plates move apart



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Answers: Sheet   26   Australian Biota 2 Prehistoric Life

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   climate change theory about the cause of extinction of megafauna after the last Ice Age ended about 50,000 years ago, due to increased temperatures
  2   ratites rhea, ostrich, emu, cassowary, kiwis: flightless birds with a southern distribution on southern land masses that were once joined together
  3   magnetism evidence that the crust rotates 90 degrees on the liquid core in 15 million years locked in ancient rocks formed over this time
  4   ratites flightless birds, have a southern distribution and so indicate that the Gondwana continents were once joined together
  5   160 million years ago when Pangaea began to split into separate continents
  6   mid-oceanic ridges evidence of crustal plate boundaries in the ocean where new crust is continually being formed (by volcanic under the oceans)
  7   Nothofagus southern beech trees, found in Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, South America, fossils in Antarctica, indicating these land masses were joined together
  8   Gondwana the southern part of Pangaea comprised of South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, and Antarctica
  9   Gangamopteris fossil plant leaf found on all Gondwana continents from 240 million years ago indicating they were joined together. Has a distinct midrib
10   extinct megafauna Diprotodon, giant wombat, giant kangaroos, Wonambi (giant snake), Megalania (7m lizard)
11   60 million years ago when South America separated from Australia and Antarctica (which were one piece at the time)
12   human expansion theory about the cause of extinction of megafauna after the last Ice Age ended about 50,000 years ago due to increasing numbers of people
13   centimetres distance moved by crustal plates each year causing continental drift to occur
14   endemic species species that are unique to a region: evolved in the region; many (over 80%) flowering plants, land mammals, reptiles, frogs in Australia
15   Glossopteris fossil plant leaf found on all Gondwana continents from 240 million years ago indicating they were joined together. No distinct midrib
16   Gondwana animals parrots, ratites, marsupials, chelid turtles, geckoes, earthworms, slugs and snails, spiders and insects, scorpions
17   Joseph Kirschvink person who put forward the theory that the crust rotates 90 degrees in 15 million years on earth's molten core, 1997



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Answers: Sheet   27   Australian Biota 3 Environment

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   increasing aridity this happened to the Australian environment as the continent drifted north, creating vast inland deserts
  2   1973 year it was shown that the platypus can regulate its body temperature like other mammals
  3   relict animals velvet worm (peripatus), Queensland lungfish, crocodiles, platypus and echidna: living fossils
  4   cool and dry Australian climate 45 million years ago as it separated from Antarctica, reducing the area of temperate rainforest but allowing other flora to flourish
  5   hot continent aspect of Australian environment, winter temperatures of 20 degrees by day, summer: 40 degrees, no place of intense cold
  6   Thomas Huxley person who supported Darwin's theory of natural selection in a debate with Samuel Wilberforce in 1860 at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford University
  7   variations small differences between organisms of the same species
  8   relict species living fossil plants and animals
  9   platypus species of mammal illustrating development of understanding as new technologies and information becomes available, a monotreme, duck-billed
10   schlerophyll this vegetation form increased in area as Australia drifted north because of the predominance species with adaptations to arid conditions
11   Beagle ship Darwin worked on as a naturalist leaving England in 1831 for 5 years, visiting South America, Galapagos and Australia
12   relict plants cycads, southern beech, plum pine, celery pine, huon pine, kauri pine and wollemi pine: living fossils
13   1884 year Caldwell caught a female platypus with eggs solving the question of how the platypus reproduced
14   natural selection theory put forward by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace in 1858 to explain how evolution occurred
15   Darwin's observations adaptive nature of variety of living things, similarities between fossils and living forms, similarities between adjacent species (clines)
16   adaptive radiation a change in a species from its original form to many different forms each adapted to different environments or ways of life (niches) eg the many different species of eucalypts
17   unpredictable flow in Australian rivers and creeks is often flood and drought
18   Huxley's answer I prefer an ape for a grandfather rather than a bishop, (highly endowed by nature, yet introducing ridicule into a grave scientific discussion)



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Answers: Sheet   28   Australian Biota 4 Natural Selection

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   races populations within a species that have distinct variations, crimson rosella, Adelaide rosella and western rosella, possibly evolving into separate species eventually
  2   Darwin's Australian examples crows like English jackdaws, potoroo like rabbits, ant lions, platypuses like water rats, marsupial and eucalypt diversity
  3   grasslands this vegetation form increased in area as Australia drifted north, narrow leaf herbaceous plants able to withstand arid conditions
  4   monotremes platypus and echidna, primitive mammals that lay eggs
  5   1799 year the platypus was first described
  6   unreliable Australian rainfall is this, erratic, droughts and floods
  7   anticyclones large dry air masses generally situated over central Australia in winter, high air pressure
  8   monsoons summer rain that moves in from the tropical north
  9   Origin of Species Darwin's book published in 1859 which caused controversy with the Church because it said that humans were evolved, not a special creation: meaning religious teachings were lies
10   1798 year a dried platypus skin was sent to England, and considered to be a fake
11   natural selection process which relies on variety amongst offspring, competition for survival, survival of the most suited and reproduction to pass on favourable features
12   Wilberforce's question is it through your grandfather or your grandmother that you (Huxley) descended from a monkey
13   1904 year of report in the Scientific American of many mammals not having teeth as adults (the platypus has a horny beak like the bill of a duck)
14   evolution process of change and development of kinds of organisms from original life forms
15   cool and wet Australian climate 65 million years ago when still joined to Antarctica, allowing widespread temperate rainforest to flourish (southern beech)
16   fire burning of bushland, which has been significant in the past 120 000 years, allowing fire tolerant plants and grassland to flourish
17   rainforests this vegetation form reduced in area as Australia drifted north after separating from Antarctica



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Answers: Sheet   29   Australian Biota 5 Adaptations

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   thick bark adaptation to fire by many trees (eg banksia, iron bark) to protect dormant buds that can sprout after fire
  2   aestivation dormancy of animals in summer
  3   wide shallow roots plant structural adaptation to obtain water near the soil surface
  4   concentrated urine functional adaptation of mammals for excretion of nitrogenous waste and conserving water
  5   western air stream winds that result from winter anticyclones, bringing rain to southern Australia as the anticyclones (high pressure systems) move north in winter
  6   adaptation types structural (part or colour), functional, behavioural (activity)
  7   burrows holes in the ground where animals like hopping mice hide by day time to avoid the heat
  8   soft fibrous trunks water storage organs in the bottle and the boab tree
  9   poor term describing Australian soils: ancient, leached, impoverished of minerals
10   uric acid insoluble nitrogenous waste of birds and insects that conserves water needed for excretion
11   lignotuber swollen woody underground structure of eucalypts such as mallee to sprout new stems after a drought
12   adaptation feature of an organisms that makes it well suited to its environment
13   long tap root plant structural adaptation to obtain water from deep down in the soil
14   metabolism source of water of some desert mammals (kangaroo rat), which eat only dry foods and produce water by chemical change
15   woody fruits adaptation to fire by plants to protect the seeds when fire kills the parent plant
16   shallow holes holes in the ground under porcupine grass where bearded dragon lizards hide to avoid the heat of the day
17   xerophytes plants adapted to arid conditions by having reduced leaf area, wax coated, hairy, fewer sunken stomates compared to other species
18   dormancy a resting period enabling a species to avoid unfavourable environmental conditions of heat, cold, drought



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Answers: Sheet   30   Australian Biota 6 Adaptations

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   genetic basis true specialisations have this because they can be inherited: they do not depend on the environment of the organism
  2   ephemerals plants that survive in arid areas by having tough hard seeds that germinate, grow, flower and produce new seeds in 6-8 weeks after rain
  3   crepuscular active at dawn or dusk to avoid the heat of the day
  4   meiosis cell division that forms cells with half the number of chromosomes normally found in the cells of the species
  5   heat treatment adaptation of seeds of some species: germination is stimulated by the passage of fire due to cracking of the seed coat, eg wattles, mountain ash
  6   reproduction production of offspring during the lifetime of an individual
  7   flat continent topography of Australia that has resulted from its relatively stable geology and lengthy periods of erosion
  8   succulent leaves water storage organ of pigface, saltbush
  9   desert most arid part of Australia, one-third of the continent, rainfall less than 250 mm
10   nocturnal active at night to avoid the heat of the day
11   impervious coverings structural adaptations preventing the loss of water from animals: waterproof skin, hard exoskeleton, shell
12   fertilisation fusion of male and female gametes (sperm and ovum) to form a zygote (first cell of a new individual)
13   semi-arid about a third of Australia receiving between 250 mm and 500 mm rainfall
14   gametes sex cells produced after the occurrence of meiosis
15   fire aspect of Australian environment to which many species are adapted, related to unpredictable rainfall resulting in dry vegetation that burns easily
16   hang vertically many eucalypt species leaves do this to present a thin edge to the sun in the middle of the day to reduce transpiration
17   hibernation dormancy of animals in winter
18   phyllodes flattened photosynthetic leaf stalks of wattles, purpose to reduce leaf area and number of stomates, structural adaptation to arid conditions



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Answers: Sheet   31   Australian Biota 7 Reproduction

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   pollen grain male reproductive particles produced by the anther of flowering plants carrying two haploid nuclei
  2   chromosome replication doubling chromosomes into pairs of chromatids during interphase prior to cell division
  3   self pollination transfer of pollen from anthers to stigmas on the same plant
  4   carpel inside the female reproductive system of flowers, consisting of ovary, style and stigma
  5   sepals part of a flower that protects it in the bud stage
  6   random segregation sorting of members of homologous chromosome pairs into gametes independently of other pairs of homologous chromosomes during the first division of meiosis
  7   aquatic organisms living things that generally use external fertilisation because of the availability of plenty of water
  8   cross pollination transfer of pollen from the anthers of flowers of one plant to the stigmas of flowers on another plant
  9   pollinator attractants coloured petals, scents, nectar, mimicry of pollinating species of wasp
10   zygote first cell of a new individual formed when an ovum and a sperm fuse
11   stamen male reproductive organ of flowering plants, composed of anther and filament
12   pollination transfer of pollen grains from anthers to stigmas of flowering plants
13   hermaphrodite one individual that is able to produce both male and female gametes, most plants, molluscs, worms
14   crossing over exchange of genetic material between homologous pairs of chromosomes during the first division of meiosis resulting in variations of trait combinations
15   internal fertilisation fusion of ovum and sperm inside the body of the female of the species
16   pollen tube structure that grows from a pollen grain and carries haploid nuclei to ovules in the ovary after pollination
17   plant fertilisation fusion of haploid nuclei from pollen grains with haploid nuclei in cells in the ovule to form a zygote and cells that provide food for the new plant (endosperm)
18   stigma part of the carpel of a flowering plant that receives pollen grains and stimulates them to grow tubes down the style to the ovules in the ovary



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Answers: Sheet   32   Australian Biota 8 Reproduction

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   diploid number or chromosomes in normal body cells, 46 for people, two complete sets of chromosomes
  2   sexual reproduction type of reproduction that involves gamete formation after meiosis and fertilisation
  3   anther pollen producing part of a stamen (male reproductive organ of flowering plants)
  4   pollinating agents wind, bees and other insects, honey eater birds, and mammals such as honey possum, fruit bats, bush rats, antechinus
  5   pistil female reproductive organ of flowering plants consisting of one or more carpel in the centre of the flower
  6   haploid number of chromosomes in gametes, 23 for people, one complete set of chromosomes
  7   asexual reproduction type of reproduction that involves mitosis and the formation of cells that have identical genetic material
  8   external fertilisation fusion of ovum and sperm in water outside the body of the female
  9   reproductive behaviours cyclical reproductive behaviours and synchronised timing of gamete production and release, courtship activities to increase chance of fertilisation
10   embryo young plant inside the seed that grows from the zygote
11   chromatid separation breaking of chromosomes composed of two chromatids into single strand chromosomes during the second division of meiosis
12   terrestrial organisms living things that generally use internal fertilisation because of the scarcity of water, the watery medium being provided inside the body of the female
13   petals brightly coloured parts of flowers that attract pollinating insects and birds
14   genetically different the four haploid cells formed during meiosis are this, resulting in variety amongst offspring
15   ovary part of the carpel of a flowering plant in which ovules containing an ovum are produced
16   genetically similar the two diploid cells formed during mitosis are this, resulting in similarity among offspring formed by asexual reproduction
17   flowers reproductive organs of angiosperms
18   homologous chromosomes same shape chromosomes that pair off during meiosis and exchange genetic material increasing variety amongst offspring



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Answers: Sheet   33   Australian Biota 9 Reproduction

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   marsupial pouched mammals, young born at an early stage of development, climbs to the pouch, attaches to a teat and remains there until mature enough to fend for itself
  2   monotremes egglaying mammals, platypus, echidna; have parental care, and milk production
  3   placental mammals that give birth to live young that are well developed, some species can run around a few hours after birth
  4   sperm male haploid gametes
  5   recognition displays rituals that enable members of the opposite sex of the same species to recognise each other and know that the other is ready for mating
  6   germination commencement of growth of seeds, when suitable conditions are available (water, air, warmth)
  7   fruit structure into which the ovary of a flowering plant grows, containing, protecting and aiding dispersal of seeds
  8   mating bringing together sexually mature individuals so that gametes are close enough for male gametes to swim to female gametes for fertilisation
  9   ovum female haploid gametes
10   sharks marine animals that have internal fertilisation
11   amphibians land animals that return to water for external reproduction
12   clone members of a species that are genetically identical
13   dormant resting stage, seeds become this during the dispersal stage and before germination
14   budding asexual reproduction in which the parent forms an outgrowth by mitosis, the outgrowth separating from the parent to form a separate individual eg yeast, coral
15   seed ovule of a plant grows into this once the ovum is fertilised and an embryo formed
16   seed dispersal spreading seeds to new areas, function of fruit
17   stable environment condition under which asexual reproduction is an advantage to the species because variety amongst offspring is not needed
18   regeneration asexual reproduction by the regrowth of missing parts, eg grape cuttings, broken earthworms



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Answers: Sheet   34   Australian Biota 10 Reproduction, Some Australian Fossil Sites

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   spore formation asexual reproduction in fungi by making many single celled structures called spore
  2   endosperm food storage tissue formed in the ovules after fertilisation of two haploid nuclei present by a haploid nucleus from the pollen grain tube
  3   sustainable able to be maintained in the long term. Small isolated pockets of rainforest may not be capable of being this
  4   ovule structure inside the ovary of a flowering plant that contains the ovum ready for fertilisation
  5   crocodile large reptile that displays parental care, increasing the chance of survival of offspring
  6   vegetative propagation asexual reproduction of flowering plants in which new individuals are reproduced from points on stems or roots called nodes eg, strawberry, kikuyu grass
  7   shells structure on the outside of eggs of reptiles and birds to prevent desiccation
  8   isolated pockets small unconnected patches of ecosystems such as rainforests which are not sustainable in the long term
  9   parental care adaptation of animals that increases the chances of survival because one or more parent protects and nourishes the offspring until mature enough to look after itself
10   Bluff Downs fossil site, eastern Queensland, 5 million years ago, giant python, flamingos, marsupial carnivores
11   Naracoorte fossil site, SE South Australia, 40 000 years ago, bats, giant extinct mammals, birds and reptiles (ice-age megafauna) to modern species
12   Riversleigh fossil site, NW Queensland, from 25 million of years ago to 40 000 years ago, evolution of Australian mammals
13   biological catastrophe the extinction of many species at a rapid rate as a result of human activities or other uncontrollable events such as exploding volcanoes that cause worldwide nuclear winter conditions
14   binary fission asexual reproduction in single celled organisms (bacteria, protozoans) in which the individual reproduces by dividing into two identical individuals
15   Inverloch-San Remo fossil site, southern Victoria, 115 million years ago, oldest known mammals, a placental; and the amphibian labyrinthodont
16   Murgon fossil site, SE Queensland, 55 million years ago, oldest marsupial fossil, and a placental fossil
17   Lightning Ridge fossil site, western NSW, 110 million years ago, monotremes
18   Gogo fossil site, northern Western Australia (Kimberleys) 370 million years ago, fish with four legs, ancestors to land vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds)



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Answers: Sheet   35   Maintaining a balance 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   receptor special cells of the nervous system that respond to a stimulus
  2   solvent substance that dissolves other substances, eg water
  3   capillary blood vessel with a wall that is one cell thick allowing the diffusion of nutrients to body cells from blood and wastes to blood from body cells
  4   diffusion movement of a substance from a place of high concentration to a place of low concentration
  5   substrate substance that an enzyme assists to react. Enzymes have specially shaped active sites to fit them
  6   active transport transport mechanism that uses energy from cellular respiration because it goes against a diffusion gradient
  7   endotherm animal whose body temperature remains constant despite changes in ambient temperature
  8   enzyme protein that speeds up the rate of chemical change in living things, a catalyst
  9   concentration amount of solute (substrate or salt) per unit volume of solution
10   nephron structural unit of the kidney: composed of glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, renal tubules and collecting duct
11   vein thin inelastic walled blood vessel that has valves to carry blood from the body to the heart
12   ambient temperature surrounding temperature
13   metabolism chemical changes that take place in living things
14   passive transport transport mechanism that does not use energy from cellular respiration because substances are diffusing along a normal diffusion gradient
15   nitrogenous waste product of protein metabolism that is no longer useful to the body, urea, uric acid
16   response action of muscles or glands as a result of a receptor receiving a stimulus
17   enzyme specificity ability of an organic catalyst to perform just one chemical reaction
18   filtration separation process where water and small molecules move through a membrane barrier that blocks large molecules, occurs at Bowman's capsule in the kidney



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Answers: Sheet   36   Maintaining a balance 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   haemoglobin red pigment in red blood cells that carries oxygen by loosely combining with it
  2   effector organ that brings about a response, eg muscle or gland
  3   urea water soluble nitrogenous waste that is excreted by our kidneys
  4   aldosterone hormone released by the adrenal gland that regulates mineral and water metabolism by stimulating the reabsorption of sodium in nephron tubules
  5   homeostasis maintaining a constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment
  6   valve structure in a vein that prevents the backflow of blood so the blood can be returned to the heart, which also contains these structures
  7   ectotherm animals whose body temperature is similar to ambient temperature
  8   uric acid water insoluble nitrogenous waste that birds and reptiles excrete to save water
  9   feedback mechanism means by which a process can be activated or inactivated in response to changes in conditions, eg hormone controlled activities
10   interstitial fluid liquid that is found between the cells of a living thing
11   artery thick elastic walled blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body whilst maintaining pressure
12   pH acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Enzymes only work in a certain range of this factor
13   reabsorption return of useful substances from kidney filtrate back into the blood stream in the renal tubules
14   central nervous system main nerve centre of the body, brain, spinal cord
15   pituitary a gland located underneath the hypothalamus and which stores vasopressin (ADH, antidiuretic hormone) until stimulated to release it by increasing blood solute concentration
16   plasma straw coloured sticky material in the blood
17   ammonia nitrogenous waste product of fish, which they diffuse directly into the surrounding water
18   behavioural adaptation a feature of a living thing that is an activity eg migration



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Answers: Sheet   37   Maintaining a balance 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   negative feedback mechanism in which the response to a stimulus reduces the stimulus and so assists in body coordination, eg, water and temperature balance in the body
  2   phloem plant vascular tissue that translocates products of photosynthesis
  3   terrestrial land environment
  4   glomerulus knot of blood vessels in the nephron of the kidney
  5   white blood cells blood cells that fight disease by phagocytosis
  6   denaturation breakdown of enzymes in extreme temperature or pH conditions resulting in them being no longer able to carry out their specific reaction
  7   hibernation behavioural adaptation in which an endotherm sleeps throughout winter with a low body temperature
  8   translocation movement of products of photosynthesis to other parts of a plant in the phloem
  9   enantiostasis maintaining metabolism despite changes in the external conditions like those that occur in an estuary
10   immunoglobulins proteins in the blood that help to fight disease, antibodies
11   peripheral nervous system nerves that go out from the central nervous system to effectors and receptors
12   structural adaptation a feature of a living thing that is a part or a colour, eg large ears
13   transpiration stream movement of water through the xylem as a result of evaporation of water from leaf stomates
14   endocrine system group of glands that release hormones into the blood stream to assist in the coordination and control of the body
15   estuary river mouth, where the environment can change from freshwater to brackish (high salt concentration)
16   perfluorochemicals substances that can absorb a lot of oxygen and may be used in artificial blood
17   antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, ADH, from hypothalamus, retention of water by nephron
18   red blood cells blood cells that carry oxygen
19   aquatic watery environment



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Answers: Sheet   38   Maintaining a balance 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   hormones substances released by endocrine glands into the blood stream and which assist in the control and coordination of the body
  2   xylem plant vascular tissue that carries water up the stem
  3   coenzymes substances that assist enzymes by combining with the enzymes before substrate reaction, can be recycled, include vitamins
  4   platelets fragments of blood cells that assist in blood clotting
  5   vasopressin hormone from hypothalamus stored in the pituitary, stimulates reabsorption of water in nephrons, causes water retention (ADH)
  6   cytoplasmic streaming movement of cells contents, this process may be responsible for phloem sieve tubes translocating sugar
  7   physiological adaptation a feature of a living thing that is a function eg concentrated urine
  8   deamination removal of an amine group (-NH2) from amino acids, the amine group is then converted to ammonia, and urea or uric acid
  9   loop of Henle part of the nephron where reabsorption of useful materials back into the blood stream takes place
10   counter current exchange physiological adaptation that allows body heat to be retained by warm and cold blood moving in close proximity in opposite directions
11   ventilation actively moving air into and out of a respiratory organ to bring about exchange of gases
12   sieve tubes conducting cells in phloem that carry sugar in a process called translocation
13   evaporation conversion of water to water vapour, a process that allows cooling to occur
14   osmoregulation maintaining a constant concentration of dissolved substances in the fluids of an animal
15   plasmodesmata fine extensions of cytoplasm of plant cells that pass through the cells walls and assist in movement of substances between cells
16   halophytes plants that "like" to live in places that have high salt concentrations, eg mangroves, saltbush
17   tracheid xylem vessel, cell that carries water and minerals up a plant stem
18   nocturnal activity behavioural adaptation in which an animal avoids the heat of the day by being active at night
19   symplastic loading movement of substances into sieve tubes via plasmodesmata (which are extensions of cytoplasm through plant cell walls)



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Answers: Sheet   39   Maintaining a balance 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   capillarity movement of water up fine tubes due to the forces of cohesion (sticking to itself) and adhesion (sticking to another substance)
  2   haemodialysis kidney dialysis that takes blood through a tube in a washing medium for the purpose of removing wastes from the blood, the blood being then returned to the body
  3   phagocytes white blood cells that ingest bacteria and so assist in fighting disease
  4   companion cells phloem cells that have dense cytoplasm and which provide energy for the activity of sieve tubes in translocating substances in plants
  5   lymphocytes white blood cells found in lymphatic tissue, and which help fight disease by producing antibodies
  6   peritoneal dialysis kidney dialysis procedute that involves placing a bag of washing medium into the stomach cavity
  7   aplastic loading movement of substances into sieve tubes directly through the cell wall
  8   insulation structural adaptation that prevents the movement of heat eg fur, feathers, blubber
  9   adhesion force of attraction between water and xylem, assists in capillarity
10   Bowman's capsule structure in the kidney that allows filtration of blood to occur at the glomerulus
11   cohesion force of attraction between water molecules, assists in capillarity
12   diffusion gradient a range of substance concentrations from high concentration to low concentration
13   gills gaseous exchange organs that bring water into close proximity of blood in vertebrates (fish)
14   hypothalamus underneath side of the brain involved in temperature control and balance of water and solutes
15   lungs gaseous exchange organs that bring air into close proximity of blood in vertebrates
16   solute substance that dissolves in a solvent
17   stimulus a condition that brings about a response in a living thing
18   temperature hotness or coldness, enzymes work best in a certain range of this
19   tracheal tubes tubes in insects that take air to close proximity of the cells of their body



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Answers: Sheet   40   Blueprint of Life: genetics 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   chromosomal mutation mutation in which chromosomes are broken, or incorrectly divided into daughter cells during meiosis
  2   DNA gene chemical, Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid, acts as a template for the formation of messenger RNA
  3   phenotype appearance of an organism. Depends both on the genes carried and the environment
  4   anatomy study of structural features of living things
  5   dominance feature possessed by a gene that is expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous individual
  6   embryology study of embryos
  7   gamete sex cell, either sperm or ovum
  8   genotype actual genes carried by an organism.
  9   Mendel person who first put forward laws of heredity, after studying inheritance in peas
10   mRNA RNA that moves from the nucleus to the ribosome after being transcipted from DNA
11   natural selection Darwin's proposed theory of evolution in which living things are subjected to environmental pressures, and species change occurs as a result of those pressures, with those having the most suitable features surviving and reproducing to pass on those features
12   polypeptides long strings of amino acids formed in prepartion for protein formation, produced when the message on messenger RNA is translated at cell ribosomes
13   Wallace person who put forward a theory of evolution by natural selection at the same time as Darwin
14   adaptive radiation production of a wide range of species from a widely distributed primitive species as a result of different selection pressures operating on each of the separate sub-populations, eg Galapagos Finches
15   allele alternative gene for a feature
16   biochemistry study of the chemistry of living things
17   Darwin person who put forward the theory of evolution by natural selection, visited Galapagos



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Answers: Sheet   41   Blueprint of Life: genetics 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   monohybrid cross involving one pair of genes, eg tall peas x short peas, results in Mendelian ratio of 3:1 for heterozygous x heterozygous cross
  2   mutagens things that cause changes in DNA eg radiation, chemicals, viruses
  3   palaeontology study of ancient life from fossils
  4   sex-linkage feature that is expressed more frequently in one sex than in the other, usually recessive, and carried on the X chromosome and expressed in males (having only one of the alleles)
  5   co-dominance the expression of two genes at the same time, eg AB blood types, both of which dominate the gene for blood type O
  6   homozygous pure breeding, TT or tt, same allele carried on both chromosomes of a chromosome pair
  7   isolation living in a separate sub-population and not exchanging genes with the whole population, resulting in natural selection pressures causing evolution
  8   mutations changes in DNA, either by substitution, insertion, inversion or deletion of a DNA nucleotide base/s
  9   recessiveness possessed by a gene that is hidden in the phenotype of a heterozygous individual. Trait that skips a generation to be expressed when homozygous
10   tRNA RNA that carries an amino acids and a complementary codon so that the message on messenger RNA can be translated into a polypeptide in preparation for protein formation
11   biogeography study of the distribution of species around the world
12   deletion mutation in which a nucleotide is removed from a gene
13   dihybrid cross involving two pairs genes, eg tall pea round seed x tall pea round seed, results in 9:3:3:1 ratio for a cross between individuals heterozygous for both conditions
14   evolution changing of species over many generations
15   heterozygous not pure breeding. Has two alternative alleles for a feature, Tt or Bb
16   insertion mutation in which an extra nucleotide is added to a gene
17   chromosome thread-like structure that carries genes in the nucleus of cells



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Answers: Sheet   42   Blueprint of Life: genetics 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   convergence evolution of outwardly similar species from unrelated species as a result of natural selection in similar environments (similar selection pressure) eg, shark and dolphin, streamlined shape, cartilaginous fish vs mammal
  2   divergence evolution of outwardly different species which are related by a common ancestor, due to evolution in different environments, eg giraffe, horse, donkey
  3   gene an heredity factor, composed of DNA, causing the production of a protein
  4   Lamarck person who put forward a theory of evolution by inheritance of features acquired during a lifetime
  5   meiosis cell division that produces sex cells, halves the chromosome number in preparation for fertilization
  6   RNA Ribose Nucleic Acid.. single stranded, carries message from the nucleus to ribosomes, or carries amino acids
  7   F1 first filial generation symbol
  8   haploid single set of chromosomes, 23 for us
  9   pure bred homozygous, producing offspring that are the same in features being studied, carrying only one allele
10   seed ferns link species between ferns and gymnosperms
11   Archaeopteryx link species between reptiles and birds
12   artificial pollination transfer of pollen deliberately by a person experimenting with plant inheritance, Mendel did this to ensure the desired crosses were studied
13   Beadle person who worked with Tatum and discovered the one gene one polypeptide theory
14   Drosophila fruit fly species used by Morgan for his experiments in genetics
15   ethics a system of moral principles by which human actions or proposals may be judged good or bad, right or wrong
16   gill slits stripes found in the pharynx area of embryos of vertebrates indicating common ancestry
17   homologous pair two same shaped chromosomes that line up together during metaphase 1 of meiosis and which exchange chromosome material by crossing over



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Answers: Sheet   43   Blueprint of Life: genetics 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   deoxyribose five carbon sugar found in DNA
  2   horse species of mammal for which there is a reasonably complete set of fossils indicating evolution from a 5 toed creature to a 1 toed hoof creature
  3   nucleotide base nitrogen containing substance in DNA and RNA that forms matching pairs and codons; includes Adenine, Thymine, Uracil, Guanine and Cytocine
  4   pedigree tables flow diagrams showing families and the phenotypes that they have, used to find recessive genes (via a trait skipping a generation)
  5   phenotype ratio proportion of individuals in offpring with each of the features
  6   transgenic species a species that contains one or more gene from another species as a result of genetic engineering
  7   Crick person who worked with Watson on DNA structure, its replication, and the pairing of nucleotide bases
  8   crossing over exchange of chromosome material between homologous chromosomes during metaphase 1 of meiosis
  9   F2 second filial generation symbol
10   genotype ratio proportion of individuals in offspring with each of the possible gene combinations
11   Morgan person who studied inheritance in fruit flies (Drosophila)
12   Neurospora crassa mould species used by Beadle and Tatum for their experiments in the link between genes and the production of protein
13   pentadactyl limb five fingered appendage indicating vertebrate evolution from a common ancestor for amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
14   punnet square table device used to assist with finding what genotypes will be produced by a genetic cross
15   random segregation process by which pairs of homologous chromosomes are divided between gametes during meiosis resulting in variey in the offspring
16   ribose five carbon sugar found in RNA
17   artificial insemination injection of semen into a female of the same species, used by animal breeders



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Answers: Sheet   44   Blueprint of Life: genetics 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   biodiversity the range of variety amongst living things
  2   diploid two sets of chromosomes, 46 chromosomes in our case
  3   punctuated equilibrium theory of evolution involving short periods of rapid change followed by long periods of stability of features
  4   Tatum person who worked with Beadle and discovered the one gene one polypeptide theory
  5   cloning producing new individuals from ordinary body cells of an organism resulting in offspring that are identical to the parent
  6   fertilization combining of male and female gametes
  7   Franklin person who used X-ray diffraction to find the double helix structure of DNA
  8   genetic engineering techniques used to modify organisms by altering their genes
  9   hybrid offspring of the cross-breeding of two species
10   polyploid more than two sets of chromosomes as found in the cells of some species of plants
11   Wilkins person who supplied X-ray diffraction patterns of DNA to Watson and Crick, some of which came from the work of Franklin
12   biotechnology deliberately changing living organisms at a molecular level, to produce more useful products
13   common ancestor an organism that lived in the past and which evolved into a wide range of other species. As shown by embryology, anatomy, biochemistry
14   cytocine nucleotide base in DNA and RNA matches up to Guanine
15   DNA fingerprinting using DNA to identify people suspected of committing crimes
16   inversion mutation in which DNA nucleotide bases swap places
17   Proteaceae Warratah and Grevillea family of plants that has a southern distrubution



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Answers: Sheet   45   Blueprint of Life: genetics 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Watson person who worked with Crick on DNA structure, replication, and pairing of nucleotide bases
  2   bacteriophage virus capable of injecting genetically engineered DNA into bacteria
  3   coal tar chemical mutagen formed by destructive distillation of coal
  4   gene pool all the genes possessed by a species
  5   guanine nucleotide base in DNA and RNA matches up to Cytocine
  6   ribosomes organelles in cell cytoplasm where RNA acts as a template for the formation of polypeptides which become proteins, thus translating genetic code
  7   Sutton person who linked the behaviour of chromosomes during grasshopper meiosis to Mendel's heredity factors
  8   therapsids link species of fossil mammals that have reptilian features
  9   translation RNA information being used to make a polypeptide to form a protein
10   viruses disease causing agents that can also cause mutations
11   adenine nucleotide base in DNA and RNA matches up to Thymine and Uracil respectively
12   crossopterygian fish earliest species that possessed lobed fins with the pentadactyl bone arrangement
13   DNA ligase enzyme that joins pieces of DNA together
14   in vitro fertilization combining ovum and sperm in laboratory glassware
15   radiation mutagens such as X-rays, Gamma rays
16   resistance ability of disease organisms to survive antibiotics, or insects to survive in the presence of insecticides
17   transcription DNA information being copied as RNA in preparation for polypeptide producton



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Answers: Sheet   46   Blueprint of Life: genetics 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   XX chromosomes resulting in human female offspring: 44 + ....
  2   complementary strand the other matching side of a strand of DNA
  3   plasmid ring shaped DNA found in bacteria
  4   recombinant DNA pieces of DNA formed by joining DNA obtained from other species
  5   substitution mutation in which a nucleotide exchanges places with the existing nucleotide
  6   thymine nucleotide base in DNA matches up to Adenine
  7   XY chromosomes resulting in human male offspring: 44 + ....
  8   codon group of 3 nucleotide bases that represents an amino acid in a polypeptide (which can be converted to a protein)
  9   fossil trace of past life
10   link species plants and animals that appear to join together two groups of living things because they have features possessed by both groups
11   nucleotide building unit of DNA and RNA: consists of a base (cytocine, guanine, adenine, thymine and uracil), 5 carbon sugar and phosphate
12   restriction enzyme enzyme that cuts DNA at particular places
13   Agent Orange chemical mutagen herbicide used in Vietnam
14   peppered moths example of natural selection observed in industrial England birch forests, related to camouflage on tree bark
15   template acting as a pattern for the formation of mRNA in the case of DNA or polypeptide in the case of RNA
16   uracil nucleotide base in RNA matches up to Adenine



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Answers: Sheet   47   Health and Disease 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   resistance ability of a host to withstand an infectious disease
  2   psychological health condition of being happy and thinking clearly
  3   immunity condition of not being susceptible to a pathogen
  4   subjective having different meanings for different people
  5   oncogenes mutated proto oncogenes, which cause uncontrolled cell replication and cancer
  6   procaryotic primitive cell structure in which there is no membrane surrounding the genetic material and no internal membranes
  7   non-infectious a cause of disease that is unable to be passed from one host to another, eg, skin cancer, obesity, alcoholism, diabetes
  8   health a state of normal functioning
  9   eucaryotic cell structure in which there are membrane bound organelles such as a true nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, chloroplasts golgi bodies
10   fever effect of a pathogen on the host causing an increase in host temperature when the host responds to the pathogen
11   tumour suppressor genes genes that produce proteins to slow down or stop cell growth and cell division
12   cell specialisation process in which cells normally differentiate to have structure associated with their particular function
13   infectious a cause of disease that is able to be passed from one host to another, eg, virus, Covid
14   disease a state of impaired functioning
15   infective dose amounts of pathogen needed to bring about an infection
16   differentiation changing of newly formed cells to mature cells that are specialised in structure and function
17   fungi filamentous living thing that has cell walls but cannot carry out photosynthesis
18   DNA repair genes genes that produce proteins that can repair damaged DNA



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Answers: Sheet   48   Health and Disease 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   proto oncogenes genes that produce proteins to stimulate cell growth and division
  2   protozoan single cell animals
  3   biological health condition of being active and free from pain
  4   bacteria living thing that is unicellular, reproduces by binary fision, and is either spherical, possess a cell wall, procaryotic
  5   virus smallest living thing, invades host cells and stimulates the cells to produce more of them
  6   specificity ability of pathogens to infect only one host species, and only one tissue within that host species
  7   social well-being condition of being able to get on with others and to work and relax
  8   parasite living thing that lives at the expense of another living thing
  9   host living thing that parasites and pathogens infect
10   pathogen living thing that causes disease in other living things
11   Koch's postulates a series of steps used in the determination of the microorganism cause of a disease
12   vector carrier of disease organisms, eg mosquito carrier of malaria
13   prion infectious abnormally shaped protein agents of brain disease in mammals, eg Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mad cow disease
14   cleanliness use of general hygiene to prevent the spread of infectious diseases
15   ectoparasite infectious organism that lives on the outside surface of the host
16   endemic of a disease, its distribution over a region
17   primary host host in which a parasitic cause of disease carries out sexual reproduction
18   symptoms indications of illness



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Answers: Sheet   49   Health and Disease 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Francesco Redi Italian scientist, 1680 who disproved spontaneous generation in flies
  2   plague sweeping temporary occurence such as increases in the numbers of locusts or mice
  3   epidemic a large scale temporary increase in the numbers of organisms suffering from an infectious disease
  4   pandemic term used to describe a disease that is widely distributed within a country or in many countries at once
  5   airborne being carried in the air as a means of transmission of disease
  6   quarantine control measure used to prevent the spread of pathogens by isolating disease free areas from regions where diseases are endemic
  7   faeces excreta from animals' intestines which can be a source of pathogens and disease transmission
  8   Louis Pasteur French scientist, 1850's disproved spontaneous generation of microorganisms using soup broth and discovered anthrax vaccine
  9   microorganism living things that are so small that a microscope is needed to observe them
10   inoculate putting disease causing micoorganisms into potential hosts deliberately
11   asexual type of reproduction carried out by parasites in their secondary host
12   macroparasite visible infectious organism, eg lice, tapeworms
13   spontaneous generation a theory claiming that living things came into existence directly from non-living matter
14   chlorination adding chlorine to water supplies for the purpose of preventing the transmission of pathogens
15   Robert Koch German scientist, 1850's put forward a series of steps to be used in determining the microorganism cause of a disease
16   culture growing microorganisms in the laboratory
17   contamination pathogen that has entered food in which it can be transmitted to new hosts
18   contact touching, a means of transmission of disease in which the host touches an infected host or blood and other products from a diseased host



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Answers: Sheet   50   Health and Disease 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   endoparasite infectious organism that lives on the inside of the host
  2   germ theory of disease theory put forward because Pasteur discovered most infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms or germs
  3   sexual type of reproduction carried out by parasites in their primary host
  4   phagocytosis ingestion of pathogens by white blood cells
  5   first line of defence non-specific mechanisms that prevent a wide range of microorganisms from entering the body, eg skin, mucous membrane, cilia, chemicals (stomach acid), microflora
  6   mucous membrane skin layer of internal parts of the body often lined with a thick slimy mucus, eg. digestive, respiratory, reproductive, urinary tract linings
  7   histamine substance that is released in damaged tissue to stimulate the development of inflammation, also released in allergic responses
  8   urine a sterile, acidic fluid that flushes ureters, bladder and urethra, preventing growth of pathogens; contains urea
  9   Fleming discoverer of penicillin, an antibiotic, 1928
10   lysozyme enzyme in fluids that wash over mucous membranes that breaks down the wall of some bacteria
11   saliva, tears, nasal secretions fluids that wash over mucous membranes and assist in preventing invasion by microorganisms
12   chemical barriers substances that prevent the growth of microorganisms, eg, acid in the stomach, alkali in the small intestine
13   neutrophil type of white blood cell that carries out phagocytosis in acute inflammations
14   granuloma a cluster of cells containing a central core of dead tissue, surrounded by layers of macrophages, lymphocytes and fibroblasts, to confine pathogens away from healthy tissue, eg tuberculosis, leprosy
15   sebum fats from sebaceous glands in the skin, broken down to acids by microflora to inhibit the growth of some bacteria and fungi
16   penicillin first antibiotic discovered, Fleming, 1928
17   acute of an infection, lasting a short time, hours to days
18   broad spectrum antibiotics chemicals that act on a wide range of microorganisms



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Answers: Sheet   51   Health and Disease 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   narrow spectrum antibiotics chemicals that only act on a few microorganisms
  2   secondary host host in which a parasitic cause of disease carries out asexual reproduction
  3   chronic of an illness, when it lasts for a long time, months, or years
  4   antibiotic substance capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms
  5   antigen substance carried on a pathogen that is recognised by the immune system as being foreign to the body, stimulates the immune response
  6   inflammation this occurs when the site of invasion by a pathogen becomes hot, red, swollen, and painful because of the accumulation of blood in the tissues
  7   dilation increase in size of blood vessels that occurs when the body is responding at a site of infection. This process allows more white blood cells to be present, and also helps to confine the infection
  8   second line of defence non-specific mechanisms that prevent a wide range of microorganisms from surviving in a host even though they have actually entered body tissues
  9   third line of defence mechanisms that prevent specific microorganisms from surviving once they have formed a chronic infection by the production of antibodies or cell mediated immunity
10   cilia minute hair like structures that project from the cells lining respiratory surfaces. They beat to move mucus carrying trapped microorganisms towards the pharynx to be coughed up and swallowed
11   fibroblasts cells that together with macrophages and lymphocytes assist in forming granulomas to prevent the spread of pathogens to healthy tissue in tuberculosis and leprosy
12   Florey person who developed the use of penicillin as an antibiotic, together with Fleming, after 1928
13   macrophage type of white blood cells that carry out phagocytosis in chronic infection. Also carry antigens to lymph nodes to stimulate the immune response
14   interferon protein produced by cells infected with viruses, binding onto neighboring cells and preventing further infection. Non-specific in action
15   suppressor T cells T cells that reduce the output of antibodies and cytotoxic T cell chemicals
16   plasma cells B cells that have differentiated after contact with antigens, produce antibodies
17   memory B cells B cells that recognise an antigen from a previous infection and then rapidly produce large amounts of antibodies
18   immunisation making people resistant to infection caused by a pathogen by stimulating an immune response with antigens in a vaccine



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Answers: Sheet   52   Health and Disease 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   collostrum mother's first milk, contains antibodies which the baby can absorb and become immune to disease by passive immunity
  2   hypersensitivity reactions process in which the body's immune reaction attacks the body tissues instead of foreign material, eg allergic response
  3   virulent strongly able to infect and cause disease
  4   attenuated pathogen mild form of living pathogens that cause mild disease symptoms and stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and memory cells
  5   cytokines substances produced by T cells and macrophages to signal other lymphocyte cells to initiate the immune response
  6   hypersensitivity T cells T cells that increase the activity of other white cells (phagocytes and cells involved in allergy responses)
  7   memory T cells T cells that recognise an antigen and then have helper T cells rapidly producing large amounts of antibodies
  8   amplifier T cells T cells that stimulate other T and B cells
  9   rejection the immune response against a transplanted organ resulting in the tissues of the organ dying
10   active immunity using vaccines to stimulate the immune response to bring about immunity by providing the ability to produce antibodies, resulting in long term immunity
11   rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune disease in which T cells attack the tissues in the joints
12   antibody disease preventing protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to the presence of an antigen, specific to that antigen
13   auto-immune diseases disease that occurs when the T cells mistake the body's own proteins for antigens, destroying healthy tissue, eg rheumatoid arthritis
14   vaccination injecting live, dead, or attenuated pathogens or mRNA to bring about active immunity
15   T cells lymphocytes that mature and develop in the thymus gland to provide cell mediated immunity
16   natural killer cells T cells that destroy infected host cells and cancer cells
17   B cells lymphocytes that mature and develop in bone marrow
18   suppression preventing the immune system from mounting an attack on a transplanted organ, using antilymphocyte globulin (ALG)



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Answers: Sheet   53   Health and Disease 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   cytotoxic T cells T cells that produce chemicals that destroy antigens and attract phagocytes
  2   helper T cells T cells that secrete interleukins to regulate both cytotoxic T cells and B cells
  3   passive immunity injecting antibodies produced by another species or individual to bring about immediate short term immunity
  4   transplant organ or tissue from another person used to replace a diseased organ or tissue. Carries antigens which stimulate an immune response which must be suppressed
  5   vaccine substance containing either live, dead or attenuated pathogens ready for injection into a susceptible host so that an immune response can be produced when exposed to the virulent pathogen
  6   cell mediated response type of immune response carried out by T cells in which antigens stick to T cells
  7   inherited disease disease transmitted genetically in reproduction, eg Down's syndrome
  8   nausea feeling of discomfort in the stomach, stomach muscles slow or stop
  9   anorexia nervosa psychiatric disease caused by deliberate undereating
10   genetic resistance ability of a pest or pathogen species to survive in the presence of a pesticide or antibiotic
11   drug any chemical substance that affects the functioning of the body
12   MacFarlane Burnet Australian scientist who worked on understanding how the immune system works
13   nutritional deficiencies diseases that result from the lack of food or particular food substances in the diet
14   genetic counselling means of preventing inherited disease where potential parents are given the facts about their chances of passing on a disorder
15   cardiovascular related to the heart and blood vessels
16   delirium disorder in which awareness of surroundings is lost, easily distracted
17   chorionic villus foetal membrane samples used to determine the presence of Down's syndrome
18   epidemiology study of the diseases that affect many people eg lung cancer



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Answers: Sheet   54   Health and Disease 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   bioinsecticides using bacteria, fungi, parasitic roundworms or viruses to control insect pests
  2   medicines drugs (chemicals affecting body functioning) used to prevent and treat diseases
  3   heavy metal elements with a density more than 5 times the density of water, poisonous, accumulate in the body
  4   kwashiorka pot belly condition caused by a lack of protein in the diet
  5   haemophilia sex-linked genetic disease that results in severe bleeding due to lack of blood clotting agents, affecting boys mainly
  6   biological magnification accumulation of pesticides along a food chain. Higher order consumers have a much higher concentration of the pesticide than lower oder consumers
  7   coma deep and complete loss of consciousness
  8   atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries, preventing blood flow
  9   immune deficiency lack of immunity due to inadequacy in the immune system, eg AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
10   diarrhoea loose frequent bowel movements
11   paralysis loss of the ability to move
12   environmental diseases diseases caused by surrounding conditions and chemicals, eg stress, heavy metal poisoning, asthma, heart disease, drug abuse
13   p53 gene DNA sequence that delays mitosis until any damage to genes in a cell are repaired. This gene sequence is damaged by tobacco smoke carcinogens
14   vomiting expelling the contents of the stomach through the mouth
15   amniocentesis tests on cells shed from a foetus in its amniotic fluid to determine if the baby has Down's syndrome
16   biological control using natural predators or parasites to control an organism causing disease or to control the vector of a disease
17   scurvy vitamin C deficiency disease in which gums swell and become rotten and teeth fall out
18   epidemiology the study of diseases that affect many people in order to describe the patterns and causes of the diseases in populations, including infectious diseases, lifestyle diseases and environmental diseases



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Answers: Sheet   55   Health and Disease 9

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   epidemiology study links diet and heart disease, smoking and lung cancer, spread of AIDS
  2   making epidemiology reliable groups of people, large quantities of information, statistical analysis
  3   cause and effect relationships the actual factors that result in disease and which are found by statistical analysis of large quantities of information about the lifestyle of groups of people
  4   chance associations factors that may appear to be the cause of a disease, but are merely coincidental, eg all people who have a heart attack own a TV
  5   pathogens cause and effect relationships for disease are easier to establish for these diseases compared to lifestyle and environmental factors of non-infectious diseases
  6   descriptive studies epidemiological studies which show patterns in the ways diseases happen to be distributed in populations, eg where a disease occurs geographically or the occupational groups who suffer certain diseases
  7   analytic studies planned investigations to test specific hypotheses, often long term, comparing lifestyles
  8   control group sample of people in an analytic epidemiology study who are exposed to the same risk factors as the treatment group, but do not suffer from the disease being analysed
  9   treatment group sample of people in an analytic epidemiology study who are exposed to the same risk factors as the control group, but do suffer from the disease being analysed
10   statistical analysis using mathematic models to test hypotheses to determine whether or not we can be 99%, 95%, 90% etc certain that a particular cause is related to a particular effect (disease)
11   lifestyle the way in which people live, eg smoking, diet, sunbaking, studied in epidemiology to determine what factors cause diseases
12   intervention studies epidemiology studies that measure the effectiveness and safety of certain interventions, eg clinical trials of a new drug for disease treatment
13   non-infectious disease malfunctioning of an organism caused by genes, nutritional deficiencies or excesses, environmental factors such as heavy metals, drugs, sunshine, can't be passed from one organism to another
14   inherited diseases non-infectious diseases that result from gene or chromosome abnormality, eg Down syndrome, haemophilia, phenyl ketonuria
15   haemophilia inability for blood to clot due to a recessive gene carried on the X chromosome (sex-linked), genetic disease
16   Down syndrome genetic disorder caused by an extra chromosome inherited as a result of non-disjunction occurring during meiosis in older parents, 47 chromosomes (3 copies of 21st)
17   Down symptoms mental retardation, small flat nose, skin folds at corner of eyes, protruding tongue, small ears, short arms, neck, fingers, heart defect (in 40%)



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Answers: Sheet   56   Health and Disease 10

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   amniocentesis sampling technique used to obtain foetal tissues by taking amniotic fluid to test for the presence of genetic disorders so parents can make choices about abortion
  2   chorionic villus sampling sampling technique used to obtain foetal tissues by taking placental tissues to test for the presence of genetic disorders so parents can make choices about abortion
  3   genetic counselling advice given to prospective parents about the chances of their children inheriting genetic abnormalities so that decisions can be made about having children, adoption, IVF, abortion
  4   non-disjunction the failure of chromosomes to segregate properly into gametes during meiosis resulting in an extra chromosome being passed to offspring (21st for Down syndrome)
  5   nutritional disease non-infectious diseases caused by inadequate diet or excessive diet, eg anaemia, scurvy, kwashiorka, anorexia nervosa, obesity
  6   anaemia lack of red blood cells, due to a lack of iron in the diet, a nutritional disease, non-infectious
  7   scurvy nutritional disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in the diet causing bleeding gums, ulcers, death, non-infectious
  8   environmental diseases illnesses caused by radiation, heavy metals, pollution, loud noise, drug abuse, non-infectious
  9   drug any chemical substance that affects the functioning of the body, includes medicines, caffeine, ethanol, nicotine, heroine, cocaine, solvents,
10   lung cancer a non-infectious disease caused by the environmental factor of tobacco smoke
11   alcoholism a non-infectious disease that damages the liver and brain in particular, due to excessive consumption of ethanol
12   medicines drugs that are deliberately taken to prevent and treat diseases
13   brain and nervous system parts of the body affected by drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, solvents, heroine, cocaine
14   pain the result of frequent use of narcotics such as heroine and cocaine, especially upon withdrawal from the drug
15   public health programs disease prevention through education about lifestyle risks, screening tests, advertising, laws about notification and behaviours, vaccinations
16   public health targets the pathogen, the host, the environment, with emphasis on preventing disease rather than hoping to cure it when it occurs
17   lifestyle risks public health programs educate about these to prevent diseases such as lung cancer



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Answers: Sheet   57   Health and Disease 11

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   advertising a technique used in public health programs to increase the awareness of people about risk factors such as the slip, slop and slap campaign to prevent skin cancer
  2   screening public health programs to determine if a disease has developed in particular individuals in an at risk group in the population, eg cervical Pap smear test for over 50s women
  3   education technique used in public health programs to assist people at risk to avoid disease causing factors or use recommended medication, eg asthma awareness campaigns
  4   laws rules and regulations passed by government to reduce disease incidence, eg cigarette packet warning labelling, drink driving laws
  5   vaccination a tool used in public health programs to stimulate immunity in individuals so that there are fewer susceptible hosts present in the population
  6   pesticides chemicals used to destroy organisms, used in preventing disease by eliminating disease vectors such as flies, mosquitoes and aphids
  7   resistance the response of species to the use of pesticides reducing their effectiveness because many individuals inherit the ability to survive in the presence of the pesticide (natural selection process)
  8   pesticide problems biological magnification, and resistance
  9   biological magnification increasing concentration of pesticide in higher order consumers resulting in problems in reproduction, eg fragile egg shells of predatory birds like peregrine falcons
10   biological control use of natural agents such as predators or parasites to control an organism that is a vector of disease eg dung beetles to control flies
11   crop rotation technique used to control crop diseases because species like canola produce a fungicidal substance that prevents root rot of wheat
12   bioinsecticides bacteria, fungi, parasitic roundworms, or viruses used to control insect pests of crops
13   integrated pest management using a combination of pesticide, biological control and cultural and cultivation techniques to control crop pests
14   genetic engineering a technique used to reduce disease incidence in crops and livestock by the production of disease resistant plant and animal varieties by altering their genes
15   insulin a hormone now produced by genetically engineered bacteria, to prevent diabetes
16   eradication the complete removal of a pathogen such as smallpox from earth, one of the aims of public health programs such as vaccination
17   effectiveness decline even though some controls work well for a time, this can then occur because of development of resistance (eg TB), people becoming complacent (eg road traffic laws)



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Answers: Sheet   58   Human Species 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   species group of organisms that are anatomically and behaviourally very similar, can interbreed to produce fertile offspring, and share a common gene pool
  2   classification levels kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus species
  3   mammal class of chordates, hair, milk-producing glands, 3 middle ear bones, specialised teeth, 4 chambered heart, endothermic. Humans belong to this class
  4   primate mammal order: brain and eyes well developed, eyes face forward (binocular vision), reduced smell, opposable thumb, flattened nails, single (usually) offspring, Human belong to this order
  5   Hylobatidae primate family which contains the gibbons
  6   hominid primate family: great apes, relative large brain case, bipedal, arched foot; and pelvis, spine shape and foramen magnum location suited to upright stance, Humans belong to this family
  7   Hominoidea ape super family containing Hominidae (humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, gorillas and bonobos) and Hylobatidae (gibbons)
  8   bipedal walking upright
  9   foramen magnum opening through which the spinal cord leaves the brain case, located under the skull in upright species
10   arched foot hominid adaptation that gives spring-action when moving, and shock absorber ability to the foot for upright stance
11   kingdom Animalia heterotrophic organisms, no cell walls
12   phylum Chordata have hollow dorsal nerve cord, and notochord and pharyngeal gill slits during development at least
13   notochord a stiffening rod that is present in all members of phylum chordata for at least some of the life cycle
14   class Mammalia have hair, mammary glands, specialised teeth, 4 chambered heart, endothermic, Humans belong to this class
15   order Primate have opposable thumb, nails instead of claws, binocular vision, Humans belong to this order
16   binocular vision adaptation of primates for life in the trees enabling them to accurately judge the distance to the next branch



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Answers: Sheet   59   Human Species 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Homo sapiens the only living member of family hominidae
  2   family Hominidae have forelimbs shorter than hindlimbs, upright stance, great apes
  3   genus Homo have erect posture, bipedal gait, offspring cared for over a very long time, flattened face
  4   species Sapiens have largest braincase, capacity for speech and abstract thought, complex social structure
  5   opposable thumb adaptation of primates enabling them to grasp branches, mothers' fur, tools
  6   nails Primates have these instead of claws, supporting sensitive finger pads
  7   large brain case Primate adaptation to accommodate relatively larger brains
  8   shortened nose Primate adaptation due to reduced sense of smell and use of eyesight for locating food, prey, predators
  9   incisor teeth Primate adaptation related to omnivorous diet, 2 pairs in each jaw
10   cerebral cortex well developed part of the brain in primates associated with abstract thought, memory, sensations, speech
11   s-shaped human spine curvature allowing for upright stance
12   arched spine curvature allowing for strength but reducing the ability to stand upright
13   stereoscopic vision 3 dimensional image producing capability of primates due to their possession of binocular vision resulting in good depth perception
14   reproductive features primates have pendulous penis, two teats on chest, usually single offspring births, long gestation periods
15   parental care primate adaptation increasing the chance of survival of the offspring because they live with their adult relatives
16   group bonding primate adaptation increasing the chance of survival of members of family group by using grooming behaviours
17   Linnaeus person, 1758, created classification groups: order Primates, and genus Homo



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Answers: Sheet   60   Human Species 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   fossil primates classifying these was difficult at first because originally primate classification was based on behaviour and soft tissue, not skeletal criteria
  2   70 mya time when the first primates existed, early prosimians
  3   45 mya time when the first monkey-like primates (anthropoids) existed
  4   tree shrews animals that have claws (no nails), large eyes and brains, live in trees, possibly related to insectivores (moles and shrews), but could be descended from the species that became primates
  5   flying foxes animals that could be related to primates, type of bat, eats fruit
  6   prosimians primitive primates, many rely on sense of smell (have a snout), lemurs, loris, tarsier
  7   anthropoids human-like primates, including monkeys, apes, humans, reduced sense of smell, face flattened
  8   monkeys anthropoid primates with tails, reduced sense of smell
  9   new world monkeys monkeys from South America, arboreal, some have prehensile (grasping) tail, nostrils open to the side: spider monkey, howlers
10   old world monkeys monkeys from Africa and Asia, some arboreal, some terrestrial, tails not prehensile, nostrils close together and open downward: macaques, rhesus, baboon
11   arboreal live in trees: prosimians, new world monkeys, some old world monkeys
12   terrestrial live on land, on the ground, some old world monkeys, apes
13   pongids great apes, chimpanzee, orang-utans, gorilla, no tail, terrestrial, forelimbs longer than hind limbs, knuckle walk, all fours
14   apes anthropoids without a tail other than hominids, gibbon, chimpanzee, orang-utans, gorilla (hylobatids and pongids), forelimbs longer than hind limbs
15   gibbon arboreal ape, South East Asia, moves around by brachiating, smallest ape, hylobatidae
16   brachiating swinging from tree to tree, gibbons do this



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Answers: Sheet   61   Human Species 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   quick burial condition under which fossils form, covering and protecting the remains from decomposition and scavengers
  2   sediments materials such as sand, mud, volcanic ash in which fossils are quickly buried
  3   minimum disturbance condition under which fossils form, the remains are not shifted and damaged, still lakes and ocean beds offer this stability
  4   hard parts structures in living things such as bones, exoskeleton, teeth and shells which resist decomposition
  5   4500 million years age of the earth
  6   590 million years time since living things have developed hard parts
  7   3500 million years oldest evidence of life on earth, primitive procaryotic organisms such as archaeobacter and cyanobacter (blue green algae)
  8   Precambrian period of time before the development of hard parts in living things before 590 million years ago
  9   relative dating finding the age of fossils by comparing fossil sequences in strata of sedimentary rocks.
10   same fossil sets rocks of the same age have these because the organisms from which they are derived all lived at the same time as the sediment was being made
11   absolute dating finding the age of a rock using the proportions of radioactive elements and their products of radioactive decay. Uranium, rubidium, potassium, argon
12   sedimentary rock sandstone, shale, conglomerate. These rocks are not dated with radioactive decay techniques because they contain fragments igneous rocks of different ages
13   igneous rocks rocks from volcanoes (basalt) or molten magma (granite), used for dating with radioactive techniques. The adjacent sedimentary rocks can then be dated using relative dating
14   carbon 14 radioactive isotope of carbon used to date charcoal up to about 50 000 to 70 000 years ago because of its 5 730 year half life
15   half life time taken for half of the original amount of a radioactive substance to decay. The proportion of radio isotope and product substances can be used to calculate geological time
16   stratigraphy study of the succession of layers of sedimentary deposits



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Answers: Sheet   62   Human Species 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   radiometric dating using radioactive decay data and half life data to determine the age of materials
  2   constant proportions assumption underlying the use of carbon 14 for radiometric dating of fossils: unchanging amounts of carbon 14 for the past 70 000 years
  3   conflicting dates a factor causing difficulty in interpreting the past from fossils because of use of different technologies to date fossils
  4   scarcity a factor causing difficulty in interpreting the past from fossils because of the small number, paucity, scarcity of primate fossils
  5   different interpretations a factor causing difficulty in interpreting the past from fossils because different people consider different aspects to be more important
  6   karyotype characteristics of the set of chromosomes of a body cell
  7   banding pattern this develops on chromosomes when a dye is added enabling them to be compared with other species in karyotype analysis
  8   1 percentage difference for every 1 Celsius degree temperature reduction in separation of hybridised DNA
  9   0.7 percentage difference between human and chimpanzee DNA as found using DNA-DNA hybridisation techniques, indicating a close relationship
10   13 number of homologous chromosome pairs common to both humans (out of 23) and chimpanzees (24), an indication of very close relationship
11   6 number of homologous chromosome pairs common to humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orang-utan, an indication of relationship
12   24 number of pairs of chromosomes in apes
13   23 number of homologous pairs of chromosomes in humans
14   DNA-DNA hybridisation genetic engineering technique involving splicing together DNA from different individuals (or species) before heating to show relationships: smaller temperature reduction = closer relative
15   4 to 11 temperature change needed to separate hybridised DNA strands if DNA from species in genera in the same family is used, up to 11% difference
16   1 to 4 temperature change needed to separate hybridised DNA strands if DNA from species in the same genus is used, up to 4% difference
17   11 to 20 temperature change needed to separate hybridised DNA strands if DNA from species in families in the same order is used, up to 20% difference



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Answers: Sheet   63   Human Species 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   fluorescent markers substances from genetic engineering used in karyotype analysis to determine crossing over and translocations
  2   karyotype analysis using chromosome analysis to study the past relationships between living primates
  3   new technologies DNA-DNA hybridisation, karyotype analysis, polymerase chain reaction techniques, mitochondrial DNA as a molecular clock being used to show relationships between humans and other species
  4   haemoglobin red blood pigment of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas that has been compared to determine relationships
  5   DNA sequencing order in which the nucleotide bases are arranged on DNA, found by using polymerase chain reaction techniques to amplify minute amounts of DNA in fossils (neanderthal)
  6   polymerase chain reaction technique used to amplify DNA samples by splitting it and using both strands to act as a template to form complete DNA. Repeating this process doubles the amount each time
  7   mitochondrial DNA DNA found in mitochondria enabling them to reproduce within cells, a double stranded loop that codes for 13 proteins
  8   mother person providing the mitochondrial DNA to offspring because mitochondria are present in eggs, not in sperm
  9   molecular clock mitochondrial DNA can be used as this because it mutates at a predictable rate and so can be used to estimate how long groups of people have inhabited their part of the world
10   father person who provides Y chromosome DNA enabling it to be used to show relationships between people from different parts of the world
11   mother and father persons providing X chromosome DNA making it difficult to use to determine relationships between people from different parts of the world
12   200 000 number of years (approximately) it would take for the largest differences in mitochondrial DNA to accumulate (molecular clock) indicating people of world can be traced back to a single female in Africa (debatable)
13   Proconsul possible ancestor of apes and humans, found by Leakey in 1948, Tanzania, 20 million years old
14   5 to 7 number of million of years ago that the human evolutionary line is believed to have separated from the great apes
15   new fossil finds one of the things that results in more debate and controversy about the story of human evolution because there is a paucity of fossil evidence
16   new technologies one of the things that results in more debate and controversy about the story of human evolution because these result in new ways of looking at the existing evidence



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Answers: Sheet   64   Human Species 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Australopithecus ramidus 4.4-4.2 mya fossil, chimpanzee like, but head and backbone shape, canine teeth, elbows were hominid; also called Aridopithecus ramidus, Ethiopia
  2   Ramapithecus 14-8 mya fossil, possibly ancestor to apes and humans, 1 m, herbivorous, quadruped mainly, possibly stone tools
  3   australopithecines small brain 450 mL to 500 mL bipedal hominids, ape-like humans, possibly immediate ancestors, possibly evolved from a common ancestor
  4   Australopithecus afarensis 3.7-2.8 mya, eg 'Lucy' small brain, short legs indicating upright stance, 1.2-1.5 m, omnivorous, S-shaped spine, foramen magnum downwards, human foot, made and used tools, Ethiopia
  5   Australopithecus africanus 3.2-2.4 mya fossil, upright, possibly with language facility, omnivorous, fairly slender 1.2-1.4 m height, possible Homo ancestor 2.3 mya, southern Africa
  6   gracile australopithecines light weight (34 kg) australopithecines of about 1.3 m height, Australopithecus ramidus, A. afarensis and A. africanus
  7   robust australopithecines heavy weight (60 kg) australopithecines about 1.7 m height, bony crest on skull, large molars, plant diet, Australopithecus aethiopicus, A. rubustus, A. boisei, died out 1 mya
  8   Paranthropus alternative genus name for robust australopithecines eg Paranthropus boisei instead of Australopithecus boisei
  9   Homo habilis 2.3-1.5 mya 'handy man' fossils, 1.3-1.4 m, 700 mL brain case, pebble stone tools, long upper limbs, face flatter than australopithecines, Olduvai Gorge Tanzania
10   Homo ergaster 1.6-1.8 mya 'Turkana boy', possibly early form of H. erectus, spinal cord narrower than modern humans, 880 mL braincase, Nariokotome, Lake Turkana in Kenya
11   Homo erectus 2-1.5 mya to possibly 27 000 years ago, upright man, 1.5-1.7 m tall, 850-1000 mL braincase, first to use fire, advanced stone tools, thick skulls, heavy brow ridges, muscular, Asia and Africa
12   Homo heidelbergensis 800 000 to 100 000 years ago, archaic H. sapiens, 1300 mL braincase, skull not as strong, body powerful, Europe and Africa
13   Homo heidelbergensis species believed to be possibly the common ancestor of Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens, although it could be archaic Homo sapiens
14   Homo neanderthalensis 230 000 to 30 000 years ago, ice age people, 1250-1750 mL braincase, small forehead, large nose, muscular, 1.6 m (stocky), tool shapes stable, isolated family groups in caves in Europe
15   Homo sapiens 100 000 years to present, humans, 1350-1500 mL braincase, lighter build, no brow ridge, prominent chin and nasal bridge, nomadic at first, evolving tools, art, sculpture, Europe to worldwide
16   Cro-Magnon Homo sapiens that lived about 40 000 years ago in Europe, identical to humans today, cave art, hunter gatherers, blade tools, jewellery, decorative tools



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Answers: Sheet   65   Human Species 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Mary Leakey Wife of Louis Leakey, discoverer of many hominid fossils in Eastern Africa
  2   1961 year Louis and Mary Leakey discovered Homo habilis fossils in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
  3   1959 year Mary Leakey discovered Australopithecus robustus and A. boisei in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
  4   1948 year Mary Leakey discovered Proconsul in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
  5   1976 year Mary Leakey discovered Australopithecus afarensis footprints in volcanic ash in Laetoli
  6   1974 year Don Johanson discovered 'Lucy', Australopithecus afarensis, in Ethiopia
  7   1935 year Robert Broom discovered skull of Australopithecus africanus
  8   1924 year Raymond Dart discovered Australopithecus africanus in South Africa
  9   Leakey family Louis, Mary and Richard, found several fossils in East Africa, Olduvai Gorge, Proconsul, Australopithecus, Homo habilis
10   Don Johanson person who discovered 'Lucy', Australopithecus afarensis, in Ethiopia, 1974
11   Robert Broom person who found an australopithecine skull in South Africa, 1935, pelvic bones, spinal column, indicating upright stance
12   Phillip Tobias person credited with finding Homo habilis fossils in Olduvai Gorge 1961 together with Mary and Louis Leakey
13   Raymond Dart person who found Australopithecus africanus in South Africa in 1924
14   Jane Goodall person who studied chimpanzees in the wild in the 1960's finding that they made tools in regular pattern resulting in an earlier definition of human being abandoned
15   early human definition the stage of primate evolution when the creature begins to make tools to a regular pattern. This definition was abandoned after Jane Goodall's work with Chimpanzees in the 1960's
16   1971 year Jane Goodall published her book about chimpanzee behaviour causing anthropologists to redefine the stage of primate evolution when a creature is a human
17   freeing hands for tools advantage of upright stance enabling manipulation of materials and fashioning useful tool shapes



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Answers: Sheet   66   Human Species 9

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   habilines group name for Homo habilis and later related fossils which could be more than one species undergoing parallel evolution, one evolving to Homo erectus
  2   neanderthal DNA substance extracted from bones of neanderthals that indicates that they have not contributed to the human gene pool and so were a distinct separate closely related species
  3   gene markers highly variable genes that have been used to provide evidence of the pattern of human migration. Short repeated pieces of DNA on every chromosome
  4   out of Africa model idea that explains human migration, using mitochondrial DNA from neanderthal arm bone as evidence of a second wave of Homo from H. erectus (H. sapiens) leaving Africa 130 000 years ago to replace all archaic forms all over the world
  5   regional continuity theory idea that explains human evolution from Homo erectus to modern regional forms of H. sapiens, the H. erectus having left Africa 1 million years ago, evidence based on fossils, no second wave of migration 130 000 years ago
  6   Thorne and Wolpoff persons who put forward the regional continuity model of human evolution from regional forms of Homo erectus
  7   Christopher Stringer person who put forward the out of Africa model of human evolution and migration based on DNA studies
  8   Johanson's theory Australopithecus afarensis common ancestor to australopithecine and homo lines, 1974
  9   Leakey's theory common ancestor of australopithecines and homo lines not yet discovered, 1974
10   slow change rate of change that occurs with biological evolution, over millions of years
11   rapid change rate of change that can occur with cultural evolution, within a single generation
12   natural selection means by which biological evolution occurs
13   learning means by which cultural evolution occurs
14   genes means by which information is transmitted in biological evolution
15   symbols means by which information is transmitted in cultural evolution, including speech, written words, songs, dances, paintings, radio, TV, fax, film, internet
16   physical and chemical types of changes in living things that are associated with biological evolution, structures and reactions
17   behavioural type of change in living things that is associated with cultural evolution, activities



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Answers: Sheet   67   Human Species 10

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   not directed by us biological evolution is caused by factors outside the control of the living organism that is undergoing evolution
  2   directed by us cultural evolution is controlled by people involved in thinking of new ways of using the resources in the environment
  3   external environmental factors similarity between biological and cultural evolution, both are influenced by surrounding conditions
  4   change over time similarity between biological and cultural evolution, both result in evolution!
  5   transmission of information similarity between biological and cultural evolution, enabling the addition of new information or elimination of unnecessary information
  6   palaeology study of the remains from the distant past
  7   archaeology study of past human cultures by excavation and description of the remains found
  8   pre-history the time and events before the period covered by written historical records
  9   history the written records of important human events and actions from the past
10   artefacts stone tools, carvings on bone or rock, bones of animals killed for food, charred remains of campfires: things left as a result of human activity
11   polymorphism term describing a species that has several different forms, such as humans
12   polymorph characteristics physical differences, language, customs, religious beliefs, skills and relationships with the environment
13   cultural source of most of the differences between people; learnt characteristics such as customs and beliefs
14   clinal gradations continuous geographic variations (grades of variation) that occur within a species
15   skin pigmentation physical characteristic showing clinal gradation related to the amount of UV in the environment
16   heavy skin pigmentation having a lot of melanin in the skin to protect from cancer causing UV in tropical regions
17   light skin pigmentation having little melanin in the skin to allow for absorption of UV needed to produce vitamin D in high latitudes



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Answers: Sheet   68   Human Species 11

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   body shape physical characteristic showing clinal gradation; related to SA/V ratio adaptation to environmental temperatures
  2   stocky body shape adaptation lowering the SA/V ratio of Eskimos to assist in survival in their cold environment
  3   slim lean body shape adaptation increasing the SA/V ratio of African tribesmen to assist in survival in their tropical environment
  4   epicanthic eye-fold adaptation composed of fat to protect eyes from snow conditions
  5   thick fibrous pads adaptation on soles of feet of central Africans to protect from the heat
  6   sickle-cell anaemia blood cell shape adaptation that assists in survival in regions where malaria is prevalent for heterozygous individuals
  7   social structure cultural development over past 40 000 years related to the development of status ranking and dominance behaviour
  8   greater dietary flexibility cultural development over past 40 000 years related to settling in new regions and development of agriculture
  9   need to learn more cultural development over past 40 000 years related to the increasing complexity of culture
10   domesticated livestock cultural development over past 40 000 years related to animals kept for human use
11   permanent settlement cultural development over past 40 000 years related to living in the one area because food can be imported and stored
12   specialisation of activity cultural development over past 40 000 years related to agricultural, industrial and technological revolutions requiring special knowledge and allowing people time to increase knowledge in particular ways
13   increased tool complexity cultural development over past 40 000 years related to change from use of stone for tools to pottery to metals, to complex electronics and machinery of today
14   genetic engineering changing genetic composition of organisms to provide treatments for illnesses such as diabetes, may result in a greater number of people in the population with deleterious genes as they are more likely to survive and reproduce
15   human genome project exploration and mapping the full set of genetic instruction on the human genome
16   genome the full set of genes on an organism's chromosomes
17   health care benefit of the human genome project, allowing risk assessment and prevention of diseases, eg schizophrenia, heart disease, leukaemia



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Answers: Sheet   69   Human Species 12

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   6 000 years ago time of horse domestication in Ukraine
  2   8 500 years ago time of first cities in Middle East; importing food, trading, land ownership, writing, laws
  3   3 500 years ago time of iron ploughs around the Black Sea
  4   200 years ago time of industrial revolution resulting in relatively fewer people involved in farming and a higher standard of living in cities
  5   11 000 years ago time of first farms (agricultural revolution) and villages in Middle East; wheat, corn, copper tools
  6   5 000 years ago time of first evidence of writing, cattle-drawn ploughs
  7   10 000 years ago time of domestication of sheep, pigs, cattle in Iran
  8   7 000 years ago time of first farming plants and animals in Central America
  9   culture development advantage of people living in villages, towns and cities because they have more time for activities other than food gathering
10   present time time of technological revolution resulting in increasing complexity of machines, global transportation, communication networks, space exploration, medical knowledge and rapid population expansion
11   chimpanzee primate, young on back 6 months, weaned 3 years, with mother 7 years, mate 9 years, live in groups, use sticks, stones, communicate with grunts and barks and facial expression
12   orang-utan primate, young on back 2.5 years, mature 10 years, solitary except for sexual encounters, no tool use, vocal calls
13   gorilla primate, young on back or belly, weaned 3 years, mature 8 years, breed 10 years (female), 15 years (male), no natural tool use, numerous vocalisations, facial and body communication
14   human primate, infants dependent for many years, mature 10-15 years, live in tribes, urban societies, family unit, highly complex use of tools, complex vocal and body language
15   lemur primate, young carried 2 months, weaned 6 months, mature 2 years, social groups to 10 adults with young, no tools, use territorial calls and scent glands to mark each other and territories
16   population mobility ability of people to move to other regions, increasingly, should reduce clinal gradations and polymorphism due to more interbreeding
17   modern medicine vaccines and chemicals like antibiotics that are reducing the natural selection pressures of pathogens on the human populations, also understanding risk factors reduce non-infectious disease incidence



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Answers: Sheet   70   Communication 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   receptors cells in the nervous system that have the role of detecting changes in the environment
  2   stimulus change in the environment that is detected by receptors and to which a living thing responds
  3   receptor types smell, taste, sound, light, cold, heat, chemicals, pressure
  4   messenger impulse in a nerve cell which carries information from a receptor to another part of the nervous system
  5   nerve impulse a messenger that travels along a nerve so that information can be transmitted within the nervous system
  6   effector organ that receives a message and carries out a response to a stimulus, eg muscle moving a limb
  7   nervous system the neurones (nerve cells) that act together to assist in rapid coordination, memory, thinking, balance, vision, hearing etc
  8   CNS composed of the brain, medulla oblongata, spinal cord, the central nervous system
  9   PNS sensory and motor neurone cell fibres involved in transmitting information from receptors to the CNS and then from the CNS to the effectors (muscles): peripheral nervous sytem
10   ANS a network of nerve cells that controls unconscious responses such as blood flow to the skin and breathing rate: autonomic nervous system
11   brain main coordinating part of the nervous system, found in the cranium
12   coordination the working together of the parts of the body, a process assisted by the endocrine system and the nervous system
13   neurone nerve cell composed of a dendrite, a nerve cell body and an axon
14   reflex arc a set of neurones that bring about a rapid protective response before we become aware of the stimulus, coordinated by the spinal cord
15   sensory neurone a neurone that transmits messages from the receptors to the CNS for processing
16   connecting neurone a neurone that transmits messages from the sensory neurone to the motor neurone
17   motor neurone a neurone the transmits messages from the CNS to the muscles that act as effector organs



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Answers: Sheet   71   Communication 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   impulse the message being transmitted by a neurone
  2   synapse a gap between two neurones across which messages are transmitted by chemical means
  3   dendrite part of a neurone that transmits messages towards the nerve cell body
  4   axon part of a neurone that transmits messages from the nerve cell body towards a synapse
  5   nerve cell body part of a neurone that contains the nucleus
  6   memory one of the functions of the cerebrum of the brain, enabling us to remember past events
  7   balance one of the functions of the cerebellum of the brain enabling us to stand upright
  8   breathing rate one of the things controlled by the medulla oblongata enabling us to get enough oxygen in our blood stream and to remove enough carbon dioxide
  9   medulla oblongata stem of the brain, controls many of the subconscious things that need to be coordinated such as breathing and pulse rates
10   eyes receptors of light, organs of sight
11   retina tissue at the back of the eye that receives light and transmits messages to the brain to convert them to sight
12   sight sense that enables us to see things
13   lens a clear structure inside the eye that focuses the rays of light to an image on the retina
14   iris coloured part at the front of the eye that controls the amount of light reaching the retina by altering the size of the pupil
15   ears receptors of sound, organs of hearing
16   sclera tough outer coating of the eyeball
17   optic nerve nerve that carries messages from the retina to the brain



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Answers: Sheet   72   Communication 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   blind spot part of the retina that has no nerve endings. We cannot see light falling on this part
  2   cornea window of the eye, the clear part at the front of the eyeball that allows light to enter the eye
  3   light form of radiant energy to which the retina responds by sending messages to the brain
  4   ossicles small bones in the middle ear that transmit vibrations from the ear drum to the inner ear cochlea
  5   ear drum membrane that receives the vibrations of sound waves and transmits them to the ear ossicles
  6   cochlea inner ear structure that receives the vibrations caused by sound waves and converts them to impulses to be transmitted to the brain in the auditory nerve
  7   Eustachian tube a tube that connects the middle ear to the pharynx to equalise air pressure on both sides of the ear drum
  8   pinna outer fleshy part of the ear, receives the sound waves and channels them into the ear drum
  9   sound waves vibrations in the air that are received by the ear
10   rods shape of the end on receptor neurones in the retina that respond to intensity of light rather than colour
11   cones shape of the end of receptor neurones in the retina that respond to the colour of light
12   peripheral vision being able to see out of the corner of the eye
13   tongue receptor organ for taste, in the mouth
14   taste sensation that results from various chemicals that come into contact with the tongue (sweet, sour, salty, bitter)
15   sweet taste sensation caused by sugar, at the front of the tongue
16   sour taste sensation caused by acid (lemon), at the middle of the sides of the tongue
17   salty taste sensation caused by sodium chloride, at the front and middle sides of the tongue



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Answers: Sheet   73   Communication 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   bitter a sharp, harsh, unpleasant taste, at the back of the tongue
  2   nose receptor organ for smell
  3   smell sensation that results from chemicals that are in the air and dissolve in moisture in the nose
  4   chemicals these things are what stimulate the receptors in the nose and on the tongue
  5   tip part of the tongue that perceives sweet chemicals
  6   middle sides part of the tongue that perceives sour chemicals
  7   back part of the tongue that perceives bitter chemicals
  8   front and back sides part of the tongue that perceives salty chemicals
  9   skin organ of sensation of touch, temperature perception, and pain, covers our body
10   touch sensation of the skin when we feel things with the skin
11   temperature sensation of the skin when we feel the hotness or coldness of the skin
12   pain an unpleasant sensation that results from actual or potential tissue damage or emotions
13   balance sense that the semicircular canals are responsible for
14   semicircular canal organs that perceive the orientation of the body and enable the cerebellum to balance the position of the body
15   fluid movement of this material in the semicircular canals stimulate hair like receptors so that body orientation can be determined
16   visual communication sight; colour, pattern of plumage, posture, body movement, facial expression; used in courtship, defence, threatening
17   olfactory communication smell; chemical signals, odours, scent marking of boundaries of territories, seek food and water, species and sex recognition, detect and avoid harmful substances



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Answers: Sheet   74   Communication 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   auditory communication hearing: sound, defend territories, distress calls, alert others to danger, breeding, bird songs to locate members of same species
  2   tactile communication touch; grooming, friendship behaviour, copulation, fighting, avoiding obstacles, defence mechanisms,
  3   sight visual communication sense; colour, pattern of plumage, posture, body movement, facial expression; used in courtship, defence, threatening
  4   smell olfactory communication sense; chemical signals, odours, scent marking of boundaries of territories, seek food and water, species and sex recognition, detect and avoid harmful substances
  5   hearing auditory communication sense: sound, defend territories, distress calls, alert others to danger, breeding, bird songs locate members of same species
  6   touch tactile communication sense; grooming, friendship behaviour, copulation, fighting, avoiding obstacles, defence mechanisms
  7   communication senses visual (sight), olfactory (smell), auditory (hearing), tactile (touch)
  8   moths males of these insects locate the females by means of air-borne substances (pheromones), using their sense of smell (olfactory)
  9   ants members of these insects leave chemicals on the ground to serve as trail markers (pheromones), other individuals use their sense of smell (olfactory) to follow the chemical trail to food sources
10   blue-green colour human eyes are most sensitive to light of this colour, about 500 nm wavelength
11   red colour longest wavelength to which human eyes are sensitive resulting in detection of this colour, 700 nm wavelength
12   violet colour shortest wavelength to which human eyes are sensitive, resulting in the detection of this colour, 400 nm wavelength
13   spectrum the range of wavelengths of light that human eyes detect as red (longest 700 nm), orange, yellow, green (most effective 500 nm), blue, and violet (shortest 400nm): rainbow
14   conjunctiva a fine transparent membrane, a membrane that covers the eyelids and part of the eyeball
15   conjunctiva function covers and protects the cornea and other exposed parts of the eye
16   cornea transparent front window through which light enters the eyeball
17   cornea function allow light to enter the eyeball, provide initial focusing of the image



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Answers: Sheet   75   Communication 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   sclera the white of the eyeball, a tough outer layer
  2   sclera function protection of the eyeball
  3   choroid a layer underneath the sclera which is a sheet of blood vessels
  4   choroid function carrying oxygen and nutrients to the eye, removing carbon dioxide and wastes, preventing light in the eye from scattering
  5   retina a complex structure of photoreceptors (rods and cones) on the back of the eye
  6   retina function conversion of incoming light into nerve impulses so that we can see shape, movement, and colour
  7   photoreceptors rods and cones in the retina of the eye that convert light to nerve impulses so we can see shape, movement and colour
  8   iris the coloured part of the eye, a ring of muscles with a hole in the middle (pupil)
  9   pupil the hole in the middle of the iris which is a ring of muscles (the coloured part of the eye)
10   iris function controlling the amount of light entering the eye by dilating the pupil (muscles relax) in dim light, and contracting the pupil (muscles tighten) in bright light
11   lens structure behind the iris which assists in focusing light onto the retina, and which can alter shape to allow close and distant objects to be seen in sharp focus (accommodation)
12   lens function focusing light onto light-sensitive (photoreceptor) cells, focus being brought about by a circular muscular ring called the ciliary body
13   ciliary body a ring of muscles in the eyes that surrounds the lens and contracts to enable a sharp focus of close objects to be obtained by altering the shape of the lens
14   aqueous humour clear, watery material pressurised, found in the eye chamber between the lens and the cornea
15   aqueous humour function assist with focusing and maintaining the spherical shape of the eyeball (similar to vitreous humour function)
16   vitreous humour clear jelly, pressurised, found in the eye chamber between the lens and the retina



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Answers: Sheet   76   Communication 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   vitreous humour function to assist with focusing and maintaining the spherical shape of the eyeball (similar to aqueous humour function)
  2   optic nerve structure that contains millions of nerve fibres, and connects the eye to the brain
  3   optic nerve function conduction of nerve impulses to the vision centres in the brain
  4   refraction the bending of light waves as they enter a new medium at an angle other than 90o
  5   speed this changes and results in refraction when a light passes into a new medium eg from air to water
  6   medium density term describing the ability of a transparent substance to affect the speed of light passing through, resulting in refraction
  7   refractive media transparent substances that cause rays of light to bend because they affect the speed of light
  8   focal length distance between the lens and the focus (the point where parallel rays passing through a lens intersect)
  9   focus point where parallel rays passing through a lens intersect
10   short focal length property of fat lenses (lenses with strong curvature)
11   long focal length property of thin, flat lenses (lenses with weak curvature)
12   convex lens shape of lenses that form real images by focusing rays of light from objects onto a screen (or the retina in the eye)
13   real image a copy or likeness of an object that is composed of the actual rays of light reflected off the object and focused by a convex lens, rays converging
14   image likeness or copy of an object, can be formed by lenses and mirrors, can be real or virtual
15   virtual image a copy or likeness of an object that cannot be cast onto a screen because the rays are diverging
16   real image type of image that the refractive media of the eye forms on the retina, rays converging



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Answers: Sheet   77   Communication 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   converging coming together, term describing what happens to rays passing through a convex lens to form a real image
  2   diverging spreading out, term describing what happens to rays forming a virtual image
  3   birds and mammals species in which the lens is focused with the ciliary body
  4   close objects to focus these objects on the retina the lens is squeezed into a fatter shape by the ciliary body
  5   distant objects to focus these objects on the retina the lens is pulled into a thinner shape by the ciliary body
  6   refractive media cornea, aqueous humour, lens, vitreous humour: enable bending of light rays for focusing on the retina
  7   longer focus distance this happens to the distance between a fixed focal length lens and the image for close objects
  8   short focus distance this happens to the distance between a fixed focla length lens and the image for distant objects
  9   strong lens fat lens, short focal length
10   weak lens thin lens, long focal length
11   myopia a condition in which the lens of the eye is too fat, causing the image of distant objects to be focused in front of the retina, resulting in blurred vision (short-sightedness)
12   concave lens type of lens that is used to correct myopia because it disperses the rays of light passing through
13   retina place where a sharp image has to be focused so that vision is not blurred
14   short-sightedness a condition in which the lens of the eye is too fat, causing the image of distant objects to be focused in front of the retina, resulting in blurred vision (myopia)
15   hyperopia a condition in which the lens of the eye is too thin, causing the image of close objects to be focused behind the retina, resulting in blurred vision (long-sightedness)
16   long-sightedness a condition in which the lens of the eye is too thin, causing the image of close objects to be focused behind the retina, resulting in blurred vision (hyperopia)



   Communication 8 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   78   Communication 9

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   convex lens type of lens that is used to correct hyperopia because it converges the rays of light passing through it
  2   accommodation changing of the shape of the lens of the eye, fat for close objects and thin for distant objects, so that a sharp image forms on the retina
  3   eyeglasses devices used to correct myopia (concave lens) or hyperopia (convex lens), worn in front of the eyes
  4   contact lenses devices used to correct myopia or hyperopia which are worn between the eyelids and cornea
  5   laser treatment process used to reshape the cornea so that myopia and hyperopia can be corrected
  6   laser beam an intense light that is used to reshape the cornea so that it can assist in bringing light to a sharp focus on the retina
  7   cataracts a condition where the lens grows cloudy and eventually becomes opaque (blocks light transmission)
  8   opaque term describing materials that do not allow any light to pass through, the lens eventually become this with cataract blindness
  9   intraocular lens a plastic lens used to replace eye lenses that have become opaque in cataract blindness
10   independence an advantage of having a cataract lens replaced by an intraocular plastic lens through eye surgery
11   older people portion of the population that is most likely to be affected by cataract blindness
12   over 40's portion of the population that is most likely to be affected by hyperopia
13   Fred Hollows person who provided sight saving surgery to people in remote Australian communities, and other parts of the world such as Nepal, Eritrea, Vietnam and Africa
14   4 years usual time it takes for people to die from cataract blindness, whilst not being independent and able to look after themselves in the meantime
15   20 minutes time it takes for an operation on a cataract blind person to have an opaque lens replaced with an intraocular lens (plastic)
16   translucent passing light in a diffuse manner so that a clear image cannot be formed, eg, the cloudy lens condition of early cataract blindness



   Communication 9Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   79   Communication 10

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Vietnam country where the Fred Hollows Foundation has trained surgeons in advanced cataract sutureless (no stitches) surgery
  2   Africa country where the Fred Hollows Foundation has helped to build a world-class intraocular lens manufacturing laboratory
  3   3.5 million number of people with cataract blindness in sub-Sahara Africa
  4   cataract causes aging, disease (diabetes), drugs, radiation (UV), congenital (babies can have cataracts)
  5   central fovea part of the retina that contains only cones, a small depression in the centre of the macula lutea
  6   macula lutea a yellow pigmented spot in the retina immediately behind the lens and pupil containing cone shaped photoreceptor cells
  7   retina edges site of the concentration of rod shaped photoreceptor cells in the human eye
  8   rods function stimulated by dim light, detection of shape and movement and discrimination between shades of light and dark
  9   cones functions stimulated by bright light, colour vision and visual acuity (sharpness of vision)
10   visual acuity sharpness of vision, a function of the cones found in the macula lutea and its central part, the central fovea (bright light, colour perception)
11   visual acuity test reading lines at 6 metres, expressed as 20/20 vision if correctly read at 20 feet ( 6 m) or 20/40 if the last line read can be read by a person with normal vision at 40 feet (12 m)
12   compound eyes type of eye of insects composed of thousands of lenses each focusing light onto a few photoreceptors, can form images
13   thousands number of lenses that the compound eyes of insects may have, each one focusing light onto a few photoreceptors, can form images
14   flatworms example of organisms that have eyespots: patches of light sensitive cells called photoreceptors, to distinguish light and dark, cannot form images
15   insects example of organisms that have compound eyes composed of thousands of lenses each focusing light onto a few photoreceptor cells, can form images
16   eye spots small areas on the surfaces of organisms such as flatworms that have light sensitive photoreceptor cells to distinguish light and dark, cannot form images



   Communication 10Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   80   Communication 11

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   simple eyes small single lens eyes found on insects (may have 3 between their compound eyes) and crustaceans which cannot form images, but detect movement
  2   spiders organisms with 8 simple eyes used to distinguish movement when a light source moves from one simple eye to another
  3   birds of prey organisms with the highest development of the central fovea to increase visual acuity (a million cones per mm2 compared to our 0.14 million per mm2)
  4   great distances hawks sight prey over these, making it necessary for their visual acuity to be very high (8 times that of humans)
  5   hawks birds of prey with high visual acuity (8 times that of humans) because they must sight prey over great distances, they have a highly developed fovea
  6   bats example of mammals with low visual acuity, but have increased sensitivity to low light intensity
  7   less sharp term describing the visual acuity of insect compound eyes
  8   ultra violet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum which is visible to insects such as bees because flowers can be identified by their ability to reflect this "light"
  9   rhodopsin photosensitive pigment found in rods which is very light sensitive making it specialised for night vision
10   night vision low intensity light receptors rods make this possible because they contain rhodopsin, a pigment that is very light sensitive
11   broken down this happens to rhodopsin to produce two substances in the presence of light, the reaction producing activity in the nerve cell of which the rod is the photoreceptor
12   dim light amount of light that allows rhodopsin production to keep up with the rate of breakdown that occurs to stimulate the nerve cell
13   bright light amount of light that causes the breakdown of rhodopsin in rods to exceed the rate of manufacture
14   macula lutea this region does not contain the very sensitive rods containing rhodopsin pigment, which is the reason for not being able to detect dim light sources at night by looking straight at them
15   cone types blue, red or green light sensitive photoreceptors found in the macula lutea, and central fovea
16   10 to 30 minutes time it takes for rhodopsin to be renewed in rods, which means that it takes a long time for eyes to become accustomed to dim light after being exposed to a bright light at night



   Communication 11Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   81   Communication 12

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   vitamin A substance that is necessary for the formation of rhodopsin, a lack of this substance results in night-blindness because the rods cannot produce rhodopsin
  2   night blindness condition that results if vitamin A is lacking because it is necessary for the production of the very light sensitive pigment rhodopsin found in rods
  3   bright light type of light needed by the pigments in retina cone cells to detect blue, red or green light
  4   quickly speed at which the red, green and blue pigments of the cone photoreceptors reforms even in bright light
  5   slowly speed at which rhodopsin pigment found in rod photoreceptors reforms, even in the dim light needed for it to stimulate nerve cells
  6   blue-green colour of light that rods are most sensitive to, due to the presence of rhodopsin pigment which has maximum absorbency ( and relative sensitivity) for this colour, 500 nm wavelength
  7   red-green type of colourblindness in which cones best receptive to red light and to green light are missing from the macula lutea (a condition inherited on the X chromosome)
  8   colour vision that is present in bony fish, frogs, turtles and birds, and primates
  9   sex-linked inheritance of colourblindness (lack of cones for red and green light detection) in humans occurs most frequently in males because there is no chance to have a masking dominant normal colour sightedness gene on a second X chromosome (as is the case with females)
10   nocturnal active at night, these animals have increased numbers of rods because rods are more sensitive and require only small amounts of light to be stimulated
11   diurnal active at day, or both day and night, these animals have increased numbers of cones because cones require good light intensity and so are only stimulated by daylight
12   colour uses in communication: birds, signal breeding times, courtship behaviours, threat signals, camouflage, mimicry
13   camouflage a use of colour in which animals hide amongst surrounding objects or plants by being similar in colour to avoid detection by predators
14   mimicry a use of colour in which animals have similar markings or behaviours of poisonous or dangerous species so that predators will not capture them eg flies with stripes like bees
15   depth perception being able to determine the distance to objects, food, predators, prey
16   binocular vision having two eyes to form two separate images that have overlapping fields, and so enable improved depth perception through processing by the brain



   Communication 12Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   82   Communication 13

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   predators animals with eyes placed towards the front enabling them to have greater distance or depth perception
  2   prey species animals that have eyes placed on the sides of their head reducing their ability to have depth perception but enabling them to have a wider field of view around their body to detect approaching predators
  3   lens accommodation technique used in species like the chameleon to determine the distance to prey so they can have mobile eyes looking in more than one direction
  4   sound a form of energy that requires a medium for propagation and which is composed of particles vibrating to and fro, and can be reflected and bent around corners as well as cover large distances
  5   sound a form of energy that animals can produce as well as detect, making it very suitable for communication when they cannot see, smell or touch each other
  6   vibrating objects these are needed to produce sound, eg vocal cords (larynx in mammals, syrinx in birds), fish fins or gills, hind legs and wing veins (insects)
  7   frequency waves per second, the rate of vibration of a sound or its source
  8   short wavelength sound waves with this have a high frequency or rate of vibration or high note
  9   low frequency sound waves with this has a long wave length, and are a low note
10   amplitude the loudness of sound, a measure of the size of vibration of the particles of medium carrying a sound wave
11   energy this is carried by waves like sound, and if the amplitude is large (the sound is loud) then there is a lot of it being carried
12   thyroid cartilage Adam's apple, part of the larynx that may protrude in front of the neck under the chin, especially in males
13   vocal cords part of the larynx that produces sounds because it is made of two flexible folds of muscle and ligament that can be caused to vibrate
14   speech sounds these are produced by movement of the tongue, lips and jaws, uh, a, ph, t, g etc
15   nasal cavity hollow inside the nose, which together with the sinuses assist in the production of the unique voice of each person
16   sinuses air filled cavities in the head and cheekbone that drain into the nasal cavity, assist in the production of the unique voice of each person



   Communication 13Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   83   Communication 14

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   soft palate a flap of mucous membrane that can be raised during swallowing to prevent food from entering the nasal cavity, marks the end of the mouth cavity and the beginning of the pharynx
  2   epiglottis a flap of cartilage, attached to the back of the tongue, that folds down over the opening to the vocal cords when food is swallowed to prevent it from entering the trachea
  3   glottis the opening to the vocal cords at the back of the mouth
  4   terrestrial vertebrates these animals produce sounds for communication by using their breathing system, and vocal cords
  5   bats mammals that emit ultrasonic signals in their search for insects and other prey and to avoid obstacles in the dark
  6   ultrasonic term describing sound that is of a frequency above 20 000 Hz, above our hearing range, produced by bats for locating prey and obstacles in the dark
  7   fish animals that can produce sound by rubbing their fins or gills, or vibrating their swim bladder
  8   grasshopper/crickets insects that produce wounds by rubbing veins on the bases of their fore wings together or the inner surfaces of their hind legs
  9   detect vibrations sound producing organisms also have organs for doing this, so that communication is possible
10   hearing the ability to detect sound waves by changing the vibrations of sound to electrical energy in nerves, only possessed by vertebrates and arthropods
11   male sex of grasshoppers that produce sounds
12   few insects crickets, grasshoppers, cicadas, butterflies, moths and flies... these animals are capable of hearing, which generally extends into the ultrasonic region
13   legs site of the ears of crickets
14   abdomen site of the ears of grasshoppers and cicadas
15   fish these animals have two main systems for underwater detection of sound: labyrinth tunnels in the inner ear, or a lateral line along the side of the body
16   labyrinth a series of tunnels in the inner ear that contain sound receptors in the case of fish



   Communication 14Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   84   Communication 15

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   lateral line a visible line that runs along the body of fish and contains receptors sensitive to disturbances in the surrounding water
  2   middle ear/ossicles/cochlea structures that fish lack from their ears, so that sounds have to be conducted to the inner ear by other means, eg pressure on the air-filled swim bladder
  3   echolocation technique used by bats, toothed whales and dolphins to navigate and hunt prey by sending out a sound impulse and listening for the echo as it bounces off objects
  4   twenty percent proportion of mammals that use sound as their main way of 'seeing' their environment
  5   stomach part of our body that can detect low frequency sound waves, an effect used in cinemas called sensurround
  6   pinna external flap of the ear of mammals
  7   tympanic membrane ear drum, a membrane that is stretched across the auditory canal and separates the outer ear from the middle ear of mammals
  8   ear ossicles three intrically shaped bones, the hammer, anvil and stirrup
  9   oval window a thin membrane at the beginning of the tympanic canal where the stirrup (auditory ossicle) transmits vibrations to the inner ear (cochlea) fluids
10   round window a thin membrane at the end of the tympanic canal of the inner ear (cochlea)
11   tympanic canal fluid filled tube of the inner ear containing vibration receptor endings of nerve cells
12   cochlea snail-shell-like, three spirally coiled tubes, contains fluid in the tympanic canal, the basilar membrane and the organ of Corti: the inner ear
13   organ of Corti a spiral membrane lining the tympanic canal and having thousands of hairlike projections that receive sound vibrations
14   auditory nerve bundle of neurones that joins the inner ear (cochlea, organ of Corti) to the brain
15   pinna function collection of sound waves from a wide area to funnel them into the external ear passage (auditory canal)
16   tympanic membrane function eardrum, vibrates in response to sound waves so the vibrations can be transmitted to the organ of Corti by the ear ossicles



   Communication 15Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   85   Communication 16

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   ear ossicles function transmission of sound vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the cochlea
  2   oval window function allow pressure variations to be transmitted from the stirrup to the fluid content of the tympanic canal of the cochlea (which contains the organ of Corti)
  3   round window function allow for the transmission of vibrations by the fluid of the tympanic canal so that the fine hairlike projections of nerve endings of the organ of Corti can be stimulated
  4   tympanic canal function allow vibration of its fluid content so that the hairlike projections of nerve endings of the organ of Corti can be stimulated through the basilar membrane
  5   cochlea function reception of sound by organ of Corti
  6   organ of Corti function reception of sound and converting it to nerve impulses in the hair cells, to be passed onto nerve cells in the auditory nerve
  7   auditory nerve function transmit nerve impulses from the organ of Corti to the brain so that vibrations can be interpreted as sound
  8   Eustachian tube a connection between the middle ear and the pharynx
  9   Eustachian tube function equalising air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum (tympanic membrane): outside air in auditory canal and air in the middle ear
10   closed this is the state of the Eustachian tube except during yawning and swallowing
11   yawning one of the actions that allows the Eustachian tube to open so air pressure on both sides of the eardrum can be equalised (the other is swallowing)
12   tympanum oval structure visible on the sides of the head of animals like frogs and reptiles for reception of sound waves in air
13   sound path external ear (ear canal and eardrum) --> middle ear ossicles (hammer-anvil-stirrup) --> oval window --> cochlea (tympanic canal) fluids --> nerve impulse (from organ of Corti) --> auditory nerve --> auditory area of the cerebrum
14   basilar membrane layer between the tympanic canal and another tube that contains the organ of Corti
15   basilar membrane function transmission of vibrations from the tympanic canal of the cochlea to the organ of Corti
16   20 to 20 000 Hz range of hearing of sounds by humans



   Communication 16Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   86   Communication 17

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   1 000 Hz sound for which human ears have greatest sensitivity
  2   100 000 to 120 000 Hz sounds that bats produce and hear because very high frequency sound allows for precise echolocation (higher frequency, straighter paths)
  3   low sounds these sounds travel a long way under water allowing whales to communicate over large distances
  4   150 000 Hz frequency that dolphins are capable of hearing, needed for precise echolocation
  5   sonic shadow region between a sound source and the furthest ear because the head is in the way of the waves, resulting in one ear receiving less sound than the other
  6   locating sound source function of the sonic shadow created by the head preventing full volume of sound waves reaching the ear furthest from the sound source
  7   sound uses communication of distress signals, warning signals, threat signals, signals to maintain or re-establish contact, signals to inhibit aggression and help with learning
  8   humans species with the greatest complexity of vocalisations, related to the development of language
  9   macaques monkeys that live in Japan which have 25 vocalisations, each with a different function in communication
10   herd animals horses, cattle, etc, that use noises continuously to keep track of each other and maintain the group
11   dolphins marine animals that use two types of vocalisation: clicks (echolocation) and whistles (recognition and bonding between group members)
12   killer whales species where each group (pod) has a different repertoire of calls which each member of the group produces
13   high frequency pitch of sounds of this type have a destructive effect on the working of the delicate hair cells in the cochlea basilar membrane
14   loud noises over-amplified music, planes, loud machines all produce these, which damage the organ of Corti causing delicate hair cells to stiffen and die (not to be replaced)
15   chronic noise exposure to sounds of 90 decibels or more in many workplaces can cause long-term hearing loss
16   single exposure explosions producing loud sound this often can result in long-term hearing loss due to damage in the organ of Corti



   Communication 17Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   87   Communication 18

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   not replaced reason why hearing loss is not repaired: the delicate hair cells of the organ of Corti stiffen and die and are ....
  2   hearing aids electronic devices that amplify incoming sound waves and channel them into the ear to assist with damaged hearing
  3   hearing aid parts microphone to capture sounds, an amplifier to magnify them and an earphone to channel them into the ear
  4   conduction deafness type of hearing damage that is assisted by hearing aids: the passage of sound across the outer or middle ear
  5   limitations of hearing aids amplification without causing pain (not suited to everyone), don't assist with nerve deafness caused by damage to the inner ear (cochlea, organ of Corti, auditory nerve, auditory centre of the brain)
  6   bionic ear a cochlea implant, placed inside the cochlea to bypass dead organ of Corti hair cells and electrically stimulate the auditory nerve directly
  7   cochlea implant parts bionic ear: implant package and receiver stimulator (magnet and coil), speech processor, headset
  8   microphone part of a cochlea implant placed behind the ear to pick up sounds and pass them onto a sound processor
  9   sound processor part of a cochlea implant that is worn elsewhere on the body (pocket, belt), and which highlights important words from the microphone making them easier to understand before transmitting to the receiver
10   receiver part of a cochlea implant that is implanted in the patient's skull, having a fine wire to the cochlea
11   magnet and coil receiver stimulator, implanted and held against skull by a magnet on the outside of the skull, takes information from the sound processor to the receiver
12   profoundly deaf people that are helped best by cochlea implants, especially if they have lost hearing after learning to speak
13   limitations of cochlea implants costs of surgery and follow-up, post-operative side-effects (droopy face, tongue numbness), variable sound quality, adjustments needed: eg each person's hearing pathway is different
14   programming this is needed for the recipient of a cochlea implant because each person's hearing pathway is different, and different situations (music, TV, speech) require different adjustments
15   future research this is needed for cochlea transplants to produce better sound, make them invisible, prevention of nerve die back after deafness, drugs to regenerate hair cells, auditory nerve implants for people with damaged auditory nerves, cure for hereditary hearing loss (human genetic code study)
16   nerve a bundle of neuronal fibres



   Communication 18Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   88   Communication 19

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   neurones nerve cells that transmit signals by electrochemical changes in their membranes
  2   nervous system the neurones (nerve cells) that act together to assist in rapid coordination, memory, thinking, balance, vision, hearing etc
  3   CNS composed of the brain, medulla oblongata, spinal cord, the central nervous system
  4   PNS sensory and motor neurone cell fibres involved in transmitting information from receptors to the CNS for processing, and then from the CNS to the effectors (muscles) for responses
  5   ANS a network of nerve cells that controls unconscious responses such as blood flow to the skin and breathing rate: autonomic nervous system
  6   brain main coordinating part of the nervous system, found in the cranium, of the head
  7   coordination the working together of the parts of the body, a process assisted by the endocrine system and the nervous system
  8   neurone nerve cell composed of dendrite, nerve cell body and axon
  9   reflex arc a set of neurones that bring about a rapid protective response coordinated by the spinal cord
10   sensory neurone a neurone that transmits messages from the receptors to the CNS for processing
11   connecting neurone a neurone that transmits messages from the sensory neurone to the motor neurone
12   motor neurone a neurone the transmits messages from the CNS to the muscles that act as effector organs
13   impulse the message being transmitted by a neurone
14   synapse a gap between two neurones across which messages are transmitted by chemical means
15   dendrite part of a neurone that transmits messages towards the nerve cell body
16   axon part of a neurone that transmits messages from the nerve cell body towards a synapse



   Communication 19Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   89   Communication 20

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   nerve cell body part of a neurone that contains the nucleus
  2   memory one of the functions of the cerebrum of the brain, enabling us to remember past events
  3   balance one of the functions of the cerebellum of the brain enabling us to stand upright
  4   breathing rate one of the things controlled by the medulla oblongata enabling us to get enough oxygen in our blood stream
  5   medulla oblongata stem of the brain, controls many of the subconscious things that need to be coordinated such as breathing and pulse rates
  6   cerebral cortex outer layer of the cerebrum, composed of grey matter, processes information including signals from optic and auditory nerves
  7   folded a feature of the cerebral cortex which increases the surface area available for information processing parts of the brain, eg motor area, visual areas, and auditory areas
  8   cerebellum part of the brain that finely coordinates voluntary movements in response to stimuli such as light and sound
  9   primary visual area part of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain that is responsible for conscious processing of visual input
10   associative visual area part of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain that is responsible for associating or integrating visual input
11   midbrain part of the brain that is responsible for immediate or reflex responses associated with vision
12   visual memories these are stored in the parietal and frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex
13   primary auditory area part of the cerebral cortex at the side of the brain that is responsible for conscious processing of auditory input
14   associative auditory area part of the cerebral cortex at the side of the brain that is responsible for associating or integrating auditory input
15   corpus callosum large bundle of nerve fibres that internally connects the two hemispheres of the brain
16   hemisphere one of the halves of the cerebrum, which have on the surface primary and associative visual areas (at the back), visual memories (frontal lobe), and primary and associative auditory areas (at the sides)



   Communication 20Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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