Welcome to Alan Thompson's Chemistry Quiz Sheets Links: Matching Items in Printable Format.

Topic Preview Gateway Page.

 This page is a gateway to other pages, as well as a comprehensive listing of the topics covered, the questions and their matched answers.

 By using CTRL-F various terms or words can be found so that the most useful topic can be located amongst the preview sheets.

 Links to each printable topic quiz can be found both near the top of this page, and between the preview sheets.

 Each topic has matching items statements to assist in gaining familiarisation with Chemical science terms.


  

1. Link to all the topic question pages, with answers beside the questions, located further down on this webpage.

   Preview Topic Tests on this webpage.


2. Link to individual topic links for printable, 2 page sheets: questions followed by answers, all on separate web pages.

These links are below on this webpage. Note the links are also between between the preview topics located further down this webpage.

  Question/Answer single topic sheet links below


  

3. Link to the complete set of 149 topic question papers with answers collated onto separate consecutive pages, all on a single webpage.

   Question Sheets collated with Answer Sheets, all 149.


  

4. Link to all the questions-only pages (no answers provided), all on a single webpage.

   Question Sheets only, all 149.


  

5. Link to all the answers-only pages, in topic groups of 3, all on a single webpage.

   Answers only webpage, all 149


  

6. Link to Preview sheets: all the question pages with-answers beside the questions. This is located on a separate webpage.

   Preview: Answers and Questions on the same page, all 149.


 Further instructions for finding a suitable topic to print, or a set of answers, accompanies each of the pages indicated in 3 to 6 above.

 Essentially, once a page has loaded, find a topic with CTRL-F, and print by selecting a suitable area (with mouse) and then right click on the selected area to print.

Warning: using Ctrl-P can result the printing of the entire set of question/answer/question and answer sheets, up to around 145 pages depending on which web page you are viewing. Unfortunately, suitable pagination is not available.

  For suitable pagination it is best to access the separate topics from this webpage either via the topic index links immediately below, or via the links located between the preview pages further below.

 The site is set up like this so that you can navigate to the desired topic without relying on specific topic headings which often don't explain fully the contents of the topic.



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The following links open Printable Single Topic pages.

 These pages are composed of a page of matching items and a page with the answers. Using CTRL-P or right-click-mouse (then select print from pop-up menu), will lead to a 2 page print out. Questions on the first page. Answers on the second page.


    Worksheet   1    Science Method and other Terminology 1

    Worksheet   2    Science Method and other Terminology 2

    Worksheet   3    Science Method and other Terminology 3

    Worksheet   4    Science Method and other Terminology 4

    Worksheet   5    Science Method and other Terminology 5

    Worksheet   6    Science Method and other Terminology 6

    Worksheet   7    Calculation Drills 1

    Worksheet   8    Calculation Drills 2

    Worksheet   9    Basic Reaction Equations 1

    Worksheet  10   Basic Reaction Equations 2

    Worksheet  11   Basic Reaction Equations 3

    Worksheet  12   Chemicals of the Earth 1

    Worksheet  13   Chemicals of the Earth 2

    Worksheet  14   Chemicals of the Earth 3

    Worksheet  15   Chemicals of the Earth 4

    Worksheet  16   Chemicals of the Earth 5

    Worksheet  17   Chemicals of the Earth 6

    Worksheet  18   Chemicals of the Earth 7

    Worksheet  19   Chemicals of the Earth 8

    Worksheet  20   Chemicals of the Earth 9

    Worksheet  21   Chemicals of the Earth 10

    Worksheet  22   Chemicals of the Earth 11

    Worksheet  23   Chemicals of the Earth 12

    Worksheet  24   Chemicals of the Earth 13

    Worksheet  25   Chemicals of the Earth 14

    Worksheet  26   Metals 1

    Worksheet  27   Metals 2

    Worksheet  28   Metals 3

    Worksheet  29   Metals 4

    Worksheet  30   Metals 5

    Worksheet  31   Metals 6

    Worksheet  32   Metals 7

    Worksheet  33   Metals 8

    Worksheet  34   Metals 9

    Worksheet  35   Metals 10

    Worksheet  36   Metals 11

    Worksheet  37   Metals 12

    Worksheet  38   Metals 13

    Worksheet  39   Metals 14

    Worksheet  40   Metals 15

    Worksheet  41   Metals 16

    Worksheet  42   Water 1

    Worksheet  43   Water 2

    Worksheet  44   Water 3

    Worksheet  45   Water 4

    Worksheet  46   Water 5

    Worksheet  47   Water 6

    Worksheet  48   Water 7

    Worksheet  49   Water 8

    Worksheet  50   Water 9

    Worksheet  51   Water 10

    Worksheet  52   Water 11

    Worksheet  53   Water 12

    Worksheet  54   Energy 1

    Worksheet  55   Energy 2

    Worksheet  56   Energy 3

    Worksheet  57   Energy 4

    Worksheet  58   Energy 5

    Worksheet  59   Energy 6

    Worksheet  60   Energy 7

    Worksheet  61   Energy 8

    Worksheet  62   Energy 9

    Worksheet  63   Energy 10

    Worksheet  64   Energy 11

    Worksheet  65   Producing Materials 1

    Worksheet  66   Producing Materials 2

    Worksheet  67   Producing Materials 3

    Worksheet  68   Producing Materials 4

    Worksheet  69   Producing Materials 5

    Worksheet  70   Producing Materials 6

    Worksheet  71   Producing Materials 7

    Worksheet  72   Producing Materials 8

    Worksheet  73   Producing Materials 9

    Worksheet  74   Producing Materials 10

    Worksheet  75   Producing Materials 11

    Worksheet  76   Producing Materials 12

    Worksheet  77   Producing Materials 13

    Worksheet  78   Producing Materials 14

    Worksheet  79   Producing Materials 15

    Worksheet  80   Producing Materials 16

    Worksheet  81   Producing Materials 17

    Worksheet  82   Producing Materials 18

    Worksheet  83   Producing Materials 19

    Worksheet  84   Producing Materials 20

    Worksheet  85   Producing Materials 21

    Worksheet  86   Producing Materials 22

    Worksheet  87   Producing Materials 23

    Worksheet  88   Producing Materials 24

    Worksheet  89   Producing Materials 25

    Worksheet  90   Producing Materials 26

    Worksheet  91   Acid and Bases 1

    Worksheet  92   Acid and Bases 2

    Worksheet  93   Acid and Bases 3

    Worksheet  94   Acid and Bases 4

    Worksheet  95   Acid and Bases 5

    Worksheet  96   Acid and Bases 6

    Worksheet  97   Acid and Bases 7

    Worksheet  98   Acid and Bases 8

    Worksheet  99   Acid and Bases 9

    Worksheet  100 Acid and Bases 10

    Worksheet  101 Acid and Bases 11

    Worksheet  102 Acid and Bases 12

    Worksheet  103 Acid and Bases 13

    Worksheet  104 Acid and Bases 14

    Worksheet  105 Chemical Systems Management 1

    Worksheet  106 Chemical Systems Management 2

    Worksheet  107 Chemical Systems Management 3

    Worksheet  108 Chemical Systems Management 4

    Worksheet  109 Chemical Systems Management 5

    Worksheet  110 Chemical Systems Management 6

    Worksheet  111 Chemical Systems Management 7

    Worksheet  112 Chemical Systems Management 8

    Worksheet  113 Chemical Systems Management 9

    Worksheet  114 Chemical Systems Management 10

    Worksheet  115 Chemical Systems Management 11

    Worksheet  116 Chemical Systems Management 12

    Worksheet  117 Chemical Systems Management 13

    Worksheet  118 Chemical Systems Management 14

    Worksheet  119 Chemical Systems Management 15

    Worksheet  120 Chemical Systems Management 16

    Worksheet  121 Chemical Systems Management 17

    Worksheet  122 Chemical Systems Management 18

    Worksheet  123 Industrial Chemistry 1

    Worksheet  124 Industrial Chemistry 2

    Worksheet  125 Industrial Chemistry 3

    Worksheet  126 Industrial Chemistry 4

    Worksheet  127 Industrial Chemistry 5

    Worksheet  128 Industrial Chemistry 6

    Worksheet  129 Industrial Chemistry 7

    Worksheet  130 Industrial Chemistry 8

    Worksheet  131 Industrial Chemistry 9

    Worksheet  132 Industrial Chemistry 10

    Worksheet  133 Industrial Chemistry 11

    Worksheet  134 Electrochemistry and Salvage 1

    Worksheet  135 Electrochemistry and Salvage 2

    Worksheet  136 Electrochemistry and Salvage 3

    Worksheet  137 Electrochemistry and Salvage 4

    Worksheet  138 Electrochemistry and Salvage 5

    Worksheet  139 Electrochemistry and Salvage 6

    Worksheet  140 Electrochemistry and Salvage 7

    Worksheet  141 Electrochemistry and Salvage 8

    Worksheet  142 Electrochemistry and Salvage 9

    Worksheet  143 Electrochemistry and Salvage 10

    Worksheet  144 Electrochemistry and Salvage 11

    Worksheet  145 Electrochemistry and Salvage 12

    Worksheet  146 Electrochemistry and Salvage 13

    Worksheet  147 Electrochemistry and Salvage 14

    Worksheet  148 Electrochemistry and Salvage 15

    Worksheet  149 Electrochemistry and Salvage 16



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Answers: Sheet   1   Science Method and other Terminology 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   propose to put forward an idea for consideration, acceptance or action
  2   distinguish between show ways in which two alternatives differ, both things need to be mentioned
  3   hot equipment one of the dangers in a laboratory, when using a Bunsen Burner to do things
  4   aim the purpose of an experiment, quite often based on an hypothesis, and indicating only one variable to be studied
  5   explain to make plain or clear; tell how to do a process; to tell the meaning of something; to interpret; to give reasons for a phenomena; account for
  6   describe set forth in written or spoken words, give an account of
  7   produce to yield, furnish or supply an idea or an observation
  8   account for explain a reason for an action or a phenomena, a justification
  9   label to write identifying words or statements on diagrams or the axes of graphs
10   state to describe or set forth formally or in proper form, the condition of a person or thing, physical condition, eg structure or phase of matter
11   what a word used in asking about people or things
12   evaluate to explain the value of something or a procedure, to weigh up both sides of an argument or discussion and draw a conclusion
13   prediction a future possible occurrence that can be logically obtained from a law, theory or an hypothesis
14   risk assessment determination of the danger or the amount of damage to the environment that a procedure will cause
15   tabulate organise information into table form with columns and rows that have identifying headings
16   result the effect of the method or an occurrence or phenomena
17   contradiction the act of denying what has been said; saying the opposite
18   determine to find something previously unknown or uncertain by observation, calculation or logical deduction
19   impacts to have a forceful or dramatic effect on something



   Science Method and other Terminology 1 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   2   Science Method and other Terminology 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   pattern the structure, trend or design in a results table, graph, or other data
  2   process information to analyse data so that conclusions, inferences, predictions and implications can be made
  3   symbol something that stands for or represents something else, eg a couple of letters representing an element
  4   inference a conclusion obtained by deduction or reasoning about an observation or a theory. Not testable by experiment (compared to hypothesis)
  5   gather information collecting details about a phenomenon from a variety of sources
  6   refute to disprove; to show (a claim, opinion, argument or hypothesis) to be incorrect or wrong
  7   hypothesis an idea that is used to explain something that has happened. Used as the basis for an experiment, used to provide an aim to the experiment
  8   subjective belonging to the thinking of a person rather than to the results of an experiment, being biased opinions and feelings
  9   assumption underlying concepts that are taken for granted to be correct without proof, concepts upon which other logical conclusions have been drawn
10   formulate express in a precise form, develop a systematic means of giving information, make up an idea
11   extrapolate to extend a graph beyond the actual data, to calculate or infer from what is known something that is possible but unknown; predict from facts
12   relate describe, recite, or recount, to give an account of; to connect in thought or meaning
13   modify to make partial changes in; change somewhat; change a technique after it has been used
14   contrast to place (two things) side by side to show their differences, both alternatives need to be mentioned in a description, as well as the alternative features
15   give to offer or present information
16   suggest to put forward; propose; to bring to mind; to call up the thought of an idea
17   justify give a good reason for a chosen action
18   model any formula, diagram, physical structure that is used to illustrate a system or scheme in an attempt to understand the system or scheme
19   plan answers during tests and exams this must be done in order to answer questions succinctly, completely and accurately with all relevant information



   Science Method and other Terminology 2Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   3   Science Method and other Terminology 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   technology tools, machines, techniques and processes used to study nature and living things
  2   when at what time
  3   bar graph a chart for comparison of quantities by means of shaded rectangles, used when there is no continuous gradations of values
  4   define to make the meaning of a word, process or phenomenon clear; explain.
  5   difference the condition of being unalike; or not the same
  6   proposal a plan or suggestion put forward for consideration, discussion, acceptance, or trial
  7   specify to mention or name definitely, to state in detail
  8   variable factors that can vary during an experiment. Only one is allowed to vary between treatment and control set ups
  9   chemical these substances can be poisonous and corrosive and so they must be handled with care
10   method the way in which an experiment is done, procedure, explains fully how the aim of an experiment is to be tested
11   control the experimental set up that is used for comparison with the treatment, and which varies only in one way from the treatment experimental set up
12   treatment experimental set up that has the one variable being tested different from the control set up, used to determine if the variable being tested has had an effect
13   objective term describing interpretation of experiments based on real and observable results, free from personal feelings or bias
14   implication an indirect suggestion based on information without saying it outright
15   secondary sources information obtained from the published results of other people who have made observations obtained experimental results
16   phenomenon a fact, event or circumstance that can be observed
17   adjustment a small modification in an experiment, technique or model made necessary because of new information obtained
18   line graph a graph in which points are plotted and then connected by a series of short straight or curved lines (line of best fit where appropriate)
19   recommend to speak in favour of an idea, person or action



   Science Method and other Terminology 3Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   4   Science Method and other Terminology 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   theory an explanation or a thought that is in the process of being tested by experiment or obtaining supporting evidence
  2   controls possible variables that are kept the same between the two experimental set ups, treatment and control
  3   analysis using tables, graphs, diagrams and reasoned discussion to obtain valid conclusions, inferences and hypotheses from gathered information
  4   independent variable a factor that is deliberately changed in an experiment and as a result changes another changeable factor called the dependent variable
  5   relevant connected with the matter in hand; applicable, appropriate, purposeful, meaningful
  6   anticipate to take care of ahead of time; consider in advance, to look for possible problems before they actually occur
  7   best fit term describing a line on a graph drawn amongst points rather than just joining the dots
  8   flow diagrams a chart showing the flow of events or information in a series of processes
  9   hazard that which could cause a chance of loss or harm; risk; danger; peril, injury, damage.
10   why for what reason cause or purpose
11   biological of plant and animal life; connected with the processes of life.
12   establish to set up on a firm basis, to show beyond doubt
13   compare to place (two things) side by side to show their similarities
14   glassware these pieces of equipment are easily broken to form sharp edges and so must be handled with care
15   bias the tendency of a sample to be unrepresentative of all samples in a study or experiment
16   effect something made to happen by a person or thing; a result.
17   sequential in a certain order, connected in a series, the order of events shown in a flow chart
18   suitability being right for the occasion; being fit, proper, or appropriate.
19   demonstrate to establish the truth of for example by argument or deduction, show clearly, prove, attest



   Science Method and other Terminology 4 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   5   Science Method and other Terminology 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   variables factors that can vary during an experiment. Only one is allowed to vary between treatment and control experimental set ups
  2   name identify a process, structure or phenomenon by a title or a term
  3   care this is always taken in the laboratory so that no one is hurt and equipment is not damaged
  4   hypothesis an idea that is used to explain something that has happened. A statement used as the basis for an experiment
  5   dependent variable a factor that changes as a result of changes deliberately made in another changeable factor called the independent variable
  6   information presentation putting data into a form ready for publication, in prose, point form, tables, graphs, diagrams, flow charts
  7   prove to show as true and right; make certain; demonstrate the truth of by evidence (experiment or observation) or argument
  8   trend to have a general tendency; the general direction
  9   present information putting forward data in forms such as prose, tables, graphs, diagrams, flow charts
10   cooperation this is necessary so that people can work together with the limited equipment available
11   interpolate to find or insert (an unknown term) between two known terms in a series; to determine a value between known values using a graph
12   safety being careful in the laboratory so that equipment is not damaged and people are not hurt
13   destructive test a method used to take samples of materials or living things which destroys the samples, eg, cutting grass and drying it in an oven to find its water content
14   formula an expression showing a rule by algebraic symbols; also an expression showing by symbols and figures the composition of a compound
15   support to be in favour of, to help prove, verify, confirm, or substantiate
16   select pick or choose from a group of alternatives, to list a group of related observations
17   predict to announce or tell beforehand; forecast; prophesy.
18   goggles eye protection that needs to be worn during experiments
19   consequence a result or effect; the relation of a result or effect to its cause; a logical result, deduction of an inference



   Science Method and other Terminology 5Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   6   Science Method and other Terminology 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   effectiveness able to cause some desired result; getting results.
  2   non-destructive test a method used to observe materials or living things which does not destroy them eg, photographing instead of taking samples
  3   reliability trustworthiness or dependability of experimental results or conclusions based on experimental results
  4   identify to recognise as being a particular person or thing, to put forward an observation or reason
  5   collate to arrange in order; put together
  6   observation what has been seen to happen
  7   conclusion summing up at the end of an experiment, related back to the aim, based directly on the results; also a discussion and evaluation can have this
  8   random selection choosing a sample by chance so that bias can be eliminated from an experiment, very important in biological studies due to variations between individuals of a species
  9   law a statement of what always occurs under certain conditions, has plenty of supporting evidence
10   repetition to do something over again. This is done in experiments to eliminate bias and to obtain average results and so make conclusions more reliable
11   assess to estimate the value of a procedure or technique, or the impact of a procedure on the environment, for example
12   reason an explanation, justification or conclusion as to why or how something occurs
13   where in what place; at what place.
14   how in what way or manner; by what means; in what state or condition; to what effect; with what meaning
15   primary sources obtaining information personally by performing experiments or observations
16   similarities resemblances or likenesses between two or more alternative things
17   valid supported by facts or the results of an experiment
18   provide to give or put forward an idea, observation or reason
19   biological variation reason why statistical analysis is essential in analysing the results of biological experiments
20   statistical analysis the application of mathematical statistics to the analysis of numerical results of biological experiments.



   Science Method and other Terminology 6 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 7 Calculation Drills 1

  1   Avogadro's number generally, for elements or compounds, or atoms within molecules of elements or compounds, n = N/NA, moles = number of particles divided by …............
  2   ΔH the change in the amount of heat that is held in a mole of substances undergoing chemical change
  3   simplest to find empirical formula, list percentage compositions, divide by atomic weights, divide by smallest, obtain …............ whole number ratio
  4   heat generally, for calculations involving heat of reaction, n = H/ΔH, moles = …............ actually released or absorbed divided by molar heat of reaction
  5   atomic weight percent composition is obtained by dividing …............ of an element present in a compound by the relative formula mass of the compound and multiplying by 100, % = (y/RFM)x100
  6   molar heat of reaction generally, for calculations involving heat of reaction, n = H/ΔH, moles = heat actually released or absorbed divided by …............
  7   heat to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, …............ = mass of water in grams x specific heat of water x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)
  8   Avogadro's number number of particles in one mole of a substance, 6.02 x 1023
  9   molar volume for gases, n = V/MV, moles = volume of gas in litres divided by …............ of 22.71 (STP) or 24.79 (RTP)
10   moles generally, for calculations involving heat of reaction, n = H/ΔH, …............ = heat actually released or absorbed divided by molar heat of reaction
11   22.71 litres molar volume of a gas at STP (standard temperature and pressure)
12   moles for gases, n = V/MV, …............ = volume in litres divided by molar volume (either 22.71 or 24.79 L)
13   volume in litres for solutions, n = MxV, moles = concentration in moles per litre x …............
14   particles generally, for elements or compounds, or atoms within molecules of elements or compounds, n = N/NA, moles = number of …............ divided by Avogadro's number
15   concentration for solutions, n = MxV, moles = …............ in moles per litre x volume in litres
16   atomic weights to find empirical formula, list percentage composition, divide by …............, divide by smallest, obtain simplest whole number ratio
17   moles for solutions, n = MxV, …............ = concentration in moles per litre x volume in litres
18   moles generally, for elements and compounds, n = m/RFM, …............ = mass in grams divided by relative formula mass



  Calculation Drills 1Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 8 Calculation Drills 2

  1   percent composition obtained by dividing atomic weight of element present in a compound by the relative formula mass of the compound and multiplying by 100, % = (y/RFM)x100
  2   relative formula mass term that may be used instead of atomic weight, molecular mass, or molecular weight in the equation n = m/RFM
  3   atomic weights quantities from the periodic table that are used to determine the relative formula mass of elements or compounds
  4   mass of water to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, heat = …............ in grams x specific heat of water x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)
  5   volume in litres for gases, n = V/MV, moles = …............ / molar volume (22.71 L or 24.79 L)
  6   mass in grams generally, for elements and compounds, n = m/RFM, moles = …........... divided by relative formula mass
  7   relative formula mass the mass in grams that is needed to have one mole of an element or compound
  8   relative formula mass percent composition is obtained by dividing the atomic weight of an element present in a compound by the …............ of the compound and multiplying by 100, % = (y/RFM)x100
  9   dilution equation M1V1 = M2V2, concentration1 x volume1 = concentration2 x volume2
10   empirical formula to find …............, list percentage composition, divide by atomic weights, divide by smallest, obtain simplest whole number ratio
11   relative formula mass generally, for elements and compounds, n = m/RFM, moles = mass in grams divided by …............
12   24.79 L molar volume of a gas at RTP (room temperature and pressure)
13   specific heat of water to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, heat = mass of water in grams x …............ x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)
14   temperature change to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, heat = mass of water in grams x specific heat of water x …............ of water (Celsius degrees)
15   moles generally, for elements or compounds, or atoms within molecules of elements or compounds, n = N/NA, …............ = number of particles divided by Avogadro's number
16   smallest to find empirical formula, list percentage composition, divide by atomic weights, divide by …............, obtain simplest whole number ratio
17   percentage composition to find empirical formula, list …............, divide by atomic weights, divide by smallest, obtain simplest whole number ratio



  Calculation Drills 2Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 9 Basic Reaction Equations 1

  1   balance equation to …............ : write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with valencies, then balance both sides of the equation
  2   non-metal standard equation: burning non-metal: non-metal + oxygen --> …............ oxide
  3   acid standard equation: soluble non-metal oxide + water --> …............
  4   glucose standard equation: fermentation of glucose: …............ --> alcohol + carbon dioxide
  5   alkali substance that contains water soluble hydroxide
  6   non-metal oxide standard equation: burning non-metal: non-metal + oxygen --> …............
  7   balance to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, …............. compound formulae with valencies, …............ both sides of the equation
  8   acid oxide non-metal oxide
  9   respiration standard equation: …............ : glucose + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide
10   covalent compound standard equation: non-metal + non-metal --> …............
11   incomplete combustion standard equation: …............, soot produced: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon + water
12   salt + water + carbon dioxide standard equation: acid + carbonate --> …...........
13   oxygen standard equation: incomplete combustion, poisonous gas: hydrocarbon + …............ --> carbon monoxide + water
14   hydrocarbon + oxygen standard equation: complete combustion: …............ --> water + carbon dioxide
15   burning metal standard equation: …............ : metal + oxygen --> metal oxide
16   acid + carbonate standard equation: …............ --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
17   metal oxide standard equation: soluble …........... + water --> alkali



  Basic Reaction Equations 1Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 10 Basic Reaction Equations 2

  1   water + carbon dioxide standard equation: photosynthesis: ... --> glucose + oxygen
  2   water + carbon dioxide standard equation: respiration: glucose + oxygen --> …............
  3   symbols/formulae to write balanced equations: write element …........... and compound …............, balance compound formulae with valencies, balance both sides of the equation
  4   acid + metal standard equation: …............ --> salt + hydrogen
  5   non-metal oxide standard equation: soluble …............ + water --> acid
  6   salt + water standard equation: acid + base --> …............
  7   alkali standard equation: soluble metal oxide + water --> …............
  8   fermentation standard equation: …............ of glucose: glucose --> alcohol + carbon dioxide
  9   both sides to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with valencies, then balance …............ of the equation
10   oxygen standard equation: burning non-metal: non-metal + …............ --> non-metal oxide
11   photosynthesis standard equation: …............ : water + carbon dioxide --> glucose + oxygen
12   glucose + oxygen standard equation: photosynthesis: water + carbon dioxide --> …............
13   water + carbon dioxide standard equation: complete combustion: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> …............
14   precipitation reactions reactions in which ionic substances swap partners so that an insoluble compound is form from two soluble compounds
15   poisonous gas standard equation: incomplete combustion, …............ : hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon monoxide + water
16   ionic salt standard equation: metal + non-metal --> …............
17   valencies to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with …............, then balance both sides of the equation



  Basic Reaction Equations 2Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 11 Basic Reaction Equations 3

  1   metal + oxygen standard equation: burning metal: …............ --> metal oxide
  2   metal oxide standard equation: burning metal: metal + oxygen --> …............
  3   soot standard equation: incomplete combustion, ……......... produced: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon + water
  4   bases in standard equations, these are metal oxides, soluble and insoluble hydroxides, alkalis (soluble hydroxides)
  5   carbon standard equation: incomplete combustion, soot produced: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> …............ + water
  6   salt + hydrogen standard equation: acid + metal --> …............
  7   metal + non-metal standard equation: …............ --> ionic salt
  8   glucose + oxygen standard equation: respiration: …............ --> water + carbon dioxide
  9   alcohol + carbon dioxide standard equation: fermentation of glucose: glucose --> …............
10   basic oxide metal oxide
11   acid + base standard equation: …............ --> salt + water
12   non-metal + non-metal standard equation: …............ --> covalent compound
13   equilibrium equations reaction equations showing that only some of the reactants change to products, as well as the mole ratios for the reactants that do react to form products
14   ionic reactions equations for these reactions leave out spectator ions or other substances that do not change state
15   complete combustion standard equation: …............ equation: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide
16   carbon monoxide standard equation: incomplete combustion, poisonous gas: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> …............ + water



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  Answers: Sheet 12 Chemicals of the Earth 1

  1   properties features of substances that are used to classify them
  2   compounds substances that are composed of at least two elements chemically combined in fixed proportions by mass, eg sodium chloride
  3   atmosphere a zone of the earth made up of mixtures gaseous elements and compounds, it has no distinct upper boundary
  4   cement product made by heating crushed limestone, clay and water, used to make concrete
  5   oxygen uses burning fuels, rocket propellent, oxy-acetylene welding, steel, sulfuric acid and methanol manufacture
  6   limestone rock containing calcium carbonate
  7   crystallisation technique used to separate soluble substances from saturated solutions by either cooling or evaporating the solvent, eg sugar refining
  8   sodium hydroxide substance that can be used to remove carbon dioxide from air by the formation of sodium carbonate during separation of gases from air
  9   molecular formula compound symbols showing the actual number of each kind of atom in the molecule, eg C2H6
10   radicals ions composed of a group of atoms, also called composite ions, eg, ammonium, hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate ions
11   atmosphere composition mixture composed of: nitrogen 78%, oxygen 21%, argon 1%, small amounts of carbon dioxide, neon, helium; water excluded (that is, when material is analysed)
12   metal properties substances that are good conductors, dense, workable (malleable and ductile), lustrous, and have moderate to high melting and boiling points
13   covalent molecular substance structure in which there is a small number of covalently bonded atoms, eg sulfur and phosphorus: soft solids, low MP and BP as intermolecular bonds are easily broken
14   Lewis diagrams electron dot diagrams of atoms showing the valence (or outer electrons) around the atoms
15   increase generally, this happens to atomic mass as the atomic number increases (except for argon to potassium)
16   combustion reaction, to burn with oxygen eg a metal forms and oxide of the metal, hydrocarbons form water and carbon dioxide when this reaction occurs



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  Answers: Sheet 13 Chemicals of the Earth 2

  1   thermal decomposition chemical change that results when heat converts a compound to two simpler substances, eg mercury (II) oxide --> mercury + oxygen
  2   conductivity ability of a substance to conduct electricity, eg ionic substances dissolved in water, metals
  3   acetic acid common name for ethanoic acid found in vinegar CH3COOH
  4   common salt common name for sodium chloride NaCl
  5   states of matter forms in which matter is found, solid, liquid or gas
  6   mixtures substances composed of two or more chemicals which are not combined in fixed proportions by mass, eg air, sea water
  7   pollutants materials that are poisonous to living things and are put into the lithosphere, hydrosphere and the atmosphere by human activity
  8   mortar a mixture of sand, water, and cement, used to join bricks together
  9   nitrogen uses refrigerant in the liquid form, inert blanketing effect in places where non-oxidising conditions are needed, eg electronic manufacture
10   closed system chemicals on earth are in one of these because there is virtually no input from space and no output into space of the chemicals
11   saturated solution a solution that will not hold any more solute or dissolved substance
12   fractional distillation process that is used to separate Nitrogen (-196oC), Argon (-186oC), and Oxygen (-183oC) from air that has been liquefied by compression and cooling to -200oC
13   constitutional formula a way of representing a compound, also called structural formula, shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule either graphically or symbolically (abridged graphic)
14   acids compounds that contain positive hydrogen ions, eg hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric, carbonic, sulfurous, nitrous, acetic or ethanoic
15   biosphere composition oxygen 51%, silicon 25%,aluminium 7.2%, iron 5% and calcium 3.6%
16   delocalised term describing the ability of valence electrons to move in a metal



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  Answers: Sheet 14 Chemicals of the Earth 3

  1   intermolecular term describing bonds between covalently bonded molecules
  2   liquid elements one metal, mercury, and one non-metal, bromine, are in this state at room temperature and air pressure
  3   decrease generally this happens to atomic size across a period of the periodic table
  4   acid on metal reaction that produces a salt and hydrogen gas
  5   electrolysis chemical change that decomposes substances with electricity, eg water --> hydrogen + oxygen
  6   dispersion forces the forces of attraction between non-polar atoms or molecules arising from temporary dipoles due to oscillation of electrons
  7   alcohol common name for ethanol C2H5OH
  8   caustic soda common name for sodium hydroxide NaOH
  9   solid state of matter in which particles are closely packed in fixed positions, and cannot be compressed or diffuse
10   stability to heat compound property in which it resists being decomposed by heating
11   troposphere lowest layer of the atmosphere, up to about 11 km above the earth's crust, where weather occurs
12   concrete a mixture of cement, sand and gravel (aggregate)
13   biodiversity the wide range of living things that live on earth, and which are important in the cycling of materials between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere
14   open system energy on earth is in one of these because there is input from the sun and output back into space by radiation
15   solvent liquid that dissolves another substance (which is called the solute)
16   fractionating column fractional distillation condenser that has a series of cooler layers allowing condensation of higher boiling point liquids before those with lower boiling points, resulting in separation of miscible liquids (liquids that dissolve in each other)



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  Answers: Sheet 15 Chemicals of the Earth 4

  1   structural formula also called constitutional formula, shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule either graphic or as significant (abridged graphic) forms
  2   ion charged particle, either positive or negative, formed from atoms by the gain (to be negative), or the loss (to be positive), of an electron
  3   human body composition oxygen 63%, carbon 19.4%, hydrogen 9.3%, nitrogen 5.4%, calcium 1.2%
  4   metal conduction movement of heat and electricity through a metal as a result of the presence of delocalised valence electrons
  5   intramolecular term describing bonding within covalently bonded molecules (between the atoms of the compound)
  6   covalent bonding bonding between atoms in which there is a sharing of the valence electrons to enable the atoms to have a stable electron configuration, each atom contributing one electron
  7   decrease this happens to particle size as a metal loses its valence electrons to form a cation
  8   acid on carbonate a reaction that produces a salt, water and carbon dioxide
  9   light reactions chemical changes that are stimulated by visible light, eg silver chloride --> silver + chlorine
10   dipole-dipole forces the forces of attraction between polar covalent molecules arising from differences in electronegativity between elements in such molecules
11   acetylene common name for ethyne C2H2
12   oil of vitriol common name for sulfuric acid H2SO4
13   glucose common name for glucose C6H12O6
14   sulfur dioxide common name for sulfur dioxide
15   compressibility being able to be forced into a smaller volume, a property of gases
16   unstable compounds substances that breakdown readily when heated to release simpler substances, eg calcium carbonate produces calcium oxide and carbon dioxide when heated



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  Answers: Sheet 16 Chemicals of the Earth 5

  1   photochemical smog substances produced when nitric oxide from car exhausts reacts with oxygen in the presence of sunlight producing an urban haze
  2   glass transparent material made by heating a mixture of white sand (silicon dioxide), sodium carbonate, and limestone
  3   biogeochemical cycles the cycling of substances between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere as a result of the activities of living things, eg photosynthesis
  4   sieving separation technique used to extract substances and sort dry solids from dry solids on the basis of particle size
  5   solute a substance that dissolves in another substance (solvent)
  6   gravimetric analysis the accurate measurement of the mass of one or more substance, and involving the precipitation and filtration of an insoluble substances
  7   abridged graphic structural formula showing the arrangement of atoms in a molecule by showing how they are grouped together eg CH3-CH3
  8   positive 1 valency of silver, hydrogen, and ammonium ions
  9   atoms smallest particles in nature that can exist on their own
10   workability metal property of being malleable and ductile, due to the presence of delocalised valence electrons
11   semi-metals elements whose properties lie between those of metals and non-metals, eg boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium
12   ionic bonding bonding between atoms in which a stable electron configuration is attained by either losing or gaining an electron
13   increase this happens to particle size as a non-metal gains electrons to attain a stable electron configuration during anion formation
14   neutralisation a reaction in which acid and alkali eliminate each others reactivity, producing salt and water
15   electrolysis applications decomposition reactions using electricity: refining copper, aluminium extraction from bauxite, electroplating
16   hydrogen bonding this occurs between molecules (intermolecular) when a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to strongly electronegative atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine



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  Answers: Sheet 17 Chemicals of the Earth 6

  1   diffusibility having particles that are able to move about so that the matter can take the shape of the container, as with gases and liquids
  2   acid strength a way of grouping acids on the basis of being able to donate hydrogen ions
  3   global warming greenhouse effect caused by the increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the burning of fossil fuels
  4   pigment coloured material which can be obtained from the lithosphere and used in making paints and glass, eg iron III oxide in brown bottle glass
  5   photosynthesis process by which plants convert sunlight energy (absorbed by chlorophyll) into chemical energy by building carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water
  6   froth flotation separation technique use to extract sulfide ores from other materials because they are "wetted" by oil and brought to the surface of water by air bubbles
  7   distillation technique used to separate liquids from solutions (the solvent) or mixtures of liquids involving evaporation and condensation
  8   ignition method used to remove filter paper from a residue (precipitate) during gravimetric analysis in which the paper burns
  9   salts ionic substances generally formed from metals and non-metals (exception, ammonium salts are completely non-metals)
10   positive 2 valency of copper, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc ions (unless otherwise specified)
11   element substance that consists of atoms of the same type
12   lustre shininess of metals due to the reflection of light by moving delocalised valence electrons
13   diatomic gases molecules that contain two atoms, and exist in the gaseous phase at room temperature, eg oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine
14   ionic compounds substances consisting of positively charged metal ions and negatively charged non-metal ions, in a crystal lattice held by strong attraction between oppositely charged ions
15   electron affinity the need of an atom to gain electrons to form a stable electron configuration
16   corrosion a reaction in which substances are oxidised in the surroundings, eg iron forms rust



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  Answers: Sheet 18 Chemicals of the Earth 7

  1   respiration decomposition reaction that occurs in the cells of our body to release energy from glucose: glucose + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide
  2   electrostatic attraction force of attraction between ions in ionic compounds such as salt
  3   muriatic acid common name for hydrochloric acid HCl
  4   table sugar common name for sucrose C12H22O11
  5   diffusion the movement of one substance through another or from one place to another
  6   salt and water products formed when acids react with bases
  7   toxic air pollutants pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and acidic substances released by burning fossil fuels
  8   precious stones materials from the lithosphere valued for their colours and rarity, often composed of quartz that has contains impurities
  9   dissolved gases manner in which oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are made available to living things in the ocean
10   magnetic properties ability of substances to attract iron, used as a separation technique of minerals in black sands or scrap iron from other metals
11   condensation conversion of a vapour to a liquid when it has been cooled, one of the physical processes that occurs when substances are separated by distillation
12   limiting reactant substance that is in short supply in a chemical reaction and so determines how much of the other reactant is used up
13   normal salt name salts with only a metal ion and a non-metal ion, having the metal name first and the non-metal name last
14   negative 1 valency of acetate, chlorate, hydrogen carbonate, hydrogen sulfate, hydroxide, nitrate, and nitrite ions
15   molecule a group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds, can be atoms of different elements or atoms of the same element
16   dense degree of heaviness of metals, due to close packing of atoms into a crystal lattice



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  Answers: Sheet 19 Chemicals of the Earth 8

  1   monatomic gases single atom gases of group VIII of the periodic table, eg neon, argon, the noble gases
  2   ionic compound substance formed when complete electron transfer between atoms occurs to form positive and negative ions
  3   decrease this happens to electron affinity down the periodic table
  4   precipitation a reaction in which a solid is produced when two solutions are mixed
  5   synthesis chemical reactions in which more complex substances are made from simpler substances, eg photosynthesis
  6   sulfate of ammonia common name for ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4
  7   Epsom salt common name for magnesium sulfate MgSO4
  8   water common name for water H2O
  9   liquid state of matter in which the particles are closely packed, but able to move slowly, has diffusibility but not compressibility
10   salt, water and carbon dioxide products formed when acids react with carbonates and bicarbonates
11   ozone depletion a problem caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the stratosphere being broken down by high energy UV to chlorine atoms
12   salinity saltiness, a problem in arid and semi-arid regions of Australia
13   big bang huge explosion in which the present universe formed
14   filtration separation technique used to obtain suspended solids or dissolved substances by passing the liquid mixture through porous paper, evaporation needing to be performed to retrieve the dissolved substance
15   immiscible term describing the situation where two liquids do not mix, and can be separated using a separation funnel eg water and oil
16   washing technique used to remove any filtrate (solutes in particular) from the residue in a filter paper



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  Answers: Sheet 20 Chemicals of the Earth 9

  1   acid salts salts with a metal ion, hydrogen ion and a non-metal ion, eg sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4
  2   negative 2 valency of carbonate, sulfate, sulfite ions
  3   gangue unwanted material that is found in an ore
  4   high MP and BP metal property related to metallic bonding strength, and the effect of heat on the ability of the bonds to hold the crystal lattice together
  5   atomic number number of protons in an atom, symbol Z
  6   stability electron configurations of atoms or ions that results when the atom or ion has a full outer electron energy level or shell
  7   increase this happens to electron affinity across the periodic table
  8   decomposition a reaction in which a substance breaks down into two or more simpler substances, eg calcium carbonate --> calcium oxide and carbon dioxide
  9   synthesis reactions making iron sulfide from iron and sulfur, making ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen
10   limestone common name for calcium carbonate CaCO3 related to the way it is found in nature
11   nitric acid common name for nitric acid HNO3
12   slaked lime common name for calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2
13   caustic potash common name for potassium hydroxide KOH
14   gas state of matter in which the particles are not closely packed and so are able to move freely, has both diffusibility and compressibility
15   base substance that is composed of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide
16   stratosphere layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere where the concentration of ozone peaks, 15 to 50 km above the earth



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  Answers: Sheet 21 Chemicals of the Earth 10

  1   soluble salts potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, magnesium chloride, sodium chloride, sea water salts
  2   3 Kelvin current background temperature of the universe, which was predicted by the big bang theory
  3   filtrate liquid that passes through filter paper, and which may wanted contain dissolved substances
  4   fractional distillation evaporation and condensation separation technique used to separate a number of miscible liquids with a range of boiling points eg petroleum
  5   coarse-grains precipitate needs to be composed of these to ensure more rapid filtration, obtained by warming and stirring the mixture
  6   solvated salts salts that have water of crystallisation present, eg copper (II) sulfate-5-water (CuSO4.5H2O), sodium carbonate-10-water (Na2CO3.10H2O)
  7   negative 3 valency of phosphate and phosphite ions
  8   ore mixture of unwanted material and minerals containing wanted materials such as metals
  9   low ionisation energy property of metals related to their ability to lose valence electrons easily
10   mass number sum of the protons and neutrons present in an atom, symbol Z
11   noble gases elements that have stable electron configurations and so are very unreactive
12   valency the combining power of an element, related to the group on the periodic table
13   compound a pure substances that decomposes when heated for example
14   properties characteristic features of substances, which change for elements depending on whether they have been combined into compounds or remain as the element
15   heterogeneous non-uniform matter, eg granite has several visible minerals, also systems containing more than one state of matter, eg suspended mud



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  Answers: Sheet 22 Chemicals of the Earth 11

  1   salt and hydrogen products formed when dilute acids react with metals
  2   mesosphere layer of the atmosphere above the stratosphere, from 50 to 120 km above the earth. The middle layer
  3   limestone rock formed from the remains of corals and sea shells, containing calcium carbonate
  4   background radiation evidence for the big bang theory, very weak radiation permeating the universe
  5   residue solid that collects on filter paper when a mixture of a solution and suspended solid is separated by filtration
  6   miscible term describing the situation where liquids completely mix, eg, petroleum (which contains many liquids mixed), or water and alcohol
  7   safety precautions covered footwear, protective clothing, eye protection, fasten long hair, wash hands after using chemicals, use a fume cupboard if gases are produced
  8   binary compounds substances that are composed to two elements, eg potassium chloride, or sulfur dioxide
  9   writing chemical formulae write symbols, then valencies, bracket radicals, cross multiply valencies for number of atoms or radicals of each type, check if electrically neutral, eg Ca2+OH- calculates to Ca(OH)2
10   uncombined in nature gold, silver, platinum and mercury are unreactive enough to be found in this form in rocks
11   non-metal properties brittle, dull appearance, non-conductors, solids are generally soft, generally low MP and BP
12   A - Z method of determining the number of neutrons in an atom knowing the atomic number (Z) and the mass number (A)
13   octet rule Lewis's rule stating that the number of covalent bonds an atom could form can be calculated by assuming that in the combined form each atom would have 8 electrons in its outer shell
14   element symbols writing chemical formulae: first write the …...., then valencies of atoms or radicals, cross multiply and check electrical neutrality, eg Mg2+PO43- calculates to Mg3(PO4)2
15   endothermic reactions in which heat is absorbed from the surroundings, cooling the surroundings



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  Answers: Sheet 23 Chemicals of the Earth 12

  1   aluminium low density silvery reactive metal, good conductor of electricity, that is produced from bauxite by electrolysis
  2   quick lime common name for calcium oxide CaO
  3   Chile saltpetre common name for potassium nitrate KNO3
  4   homogeneous uniform mixtures, eg a solution of sodium chloride in water, systems with matter in the one state, eg air, where the mixed substances are spread evenly
  5   activity of metal ability of metal to react with other substances such as water, oxygen and acid
  6   thermosphere hottest and highest layer of the atmosphere, above 120 km, above the mesosphere
  7   marble rock containing a lot of calcium carbonate, formed when limestone is changed by heat and pressure in the earth's crust
  8   second generation term describing the concept that the solar system is passing through a second life as indicated by the presence of iron and other heavy atoms on earth, produced in stars
  9   centrifuging technique used to separate small amounts of suspended solid by spinning the mixture
10   petroleum products bitumen, fuel oil, lubricating oil, diesel oil, aviation fuel and kerosene, petrol, refinery gases
11   gravimetric analysis uses mining to assay ore bodies, quality control in factories, paint analysis, foodstuff impurities, making dyes, making drugs
12   oxidation number a number used to distinguish between different compounds formed from an element based on the valency of the element concerned: iron (II) sulfate, iron (III) sulfate
13   periodic table where to locate valencies of elements in groups 1 to 7 (group 8 elements do not react), the valencies being, respectively, 1,2,3,4,-3,-2,-1
14   active metals metals that are the hardest to reduce from their positive ions to the metals, and which require electricity to be extracted, eg sodium, aluminium
15   carbon non-metal element that has high MP and BP due to covalent network structures throughout pieces of the element



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  Answers: Sheet 24 Chemicals of the Earth 13

  1   hydrides compounds that contain hydrogen covalently bonded to another element, water, ammonia, methane, as well as salts such as that have negatively charged hydrogen ions LiH
  2   lithosphere composition oxygen 50%, silicon 26%, aluminium 7.5%, iron 5%, calcium 3.5%
  3   noble gases very unreactive gases that exist as monatomic molecules because they have stable electron configurations: helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon, members of group 8 of the periodic table
  4   sulfur non-metal element that has low MP and BP due to a covalent molecular structure, solid, yellow colour
  5   K L M N the principal energy levels or shells of electron configuration
  6   empirical formula symbol for a covalent compound that shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms present in the compound, eg CH2 could be CH2=CH2 (ethene) or CH3-CH=CH2 (propene)
  7   cross multiply writing chemical formulae: element symbols, valencies, then …..... to get numbers of atoms, check electrical neutrality eg Fe3+O2- calculated to Fe2O3
  8   chemical change indicated when there is one or more of the following present or occurring: precipitate, colour change, temperature change, gas produced, reactivity is neutralised
  9   iron dense silvery moderately reactive metal that is a moderate conductor of electricity, produced from haematite (Fe,2O3) by reduction with carbon monoxide in a blast furnace
10   carbon dioxide common name for carbon dioxide CO2
11   washing soda common name for sodium carbonate Na2CO3
12   bluestone common name for copper sulfate (hydrated) CuSO4.5H2O
13   baking soda common name for sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3
14   elements substances that cannot be separated by ordinary chemical means into simpler substances, eg sodium
15   hydrosphere layer around the earth that includes water in oceans, rivers, lakes, snowfields and ice



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  Answers: Sheet 25 Chemicals of the Earth 14

  1   ceramics bricks and tiles made by heating clay, sand, water, and feldspar mixtures in kilns
  2   ozone allotrope of oxygen consisting of 3 oxygen atoms, which helps to protect living things from the harmful effects of UV from the sun
  3   silica quartz, silicon dioxide
  4   evaporation conversion of a liquid to a vapour, a technique used to separate dissolved solids (salt) from a solution eg, seawater
  5   adsorption the holding of substances in a solution by a medium as the solution passes through the medium, a property used in chromatography
  6   empirical formula compound symbols showing the simplest number ratio of atoms, eg CH3
  7   composite ions ions composed of a group of atoms, also called radicals, eg, ammonium, hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate
  8   hydrosphere composition oxygen 86%, hydrogen 11%, chlorine 2%, sodium 1%
  9   metallic bonding substance structure in which a three-dimensional lattice of positive ions is surrounded by a 'sea' of delocalised mobile valence electrons that hold the lattice together
10   covalent network substance structure in which there is an infinite array of covalently bonded atoms, eg diamond, hard, high MP and BP as these intramolecular covalent bonds are strong
11   s p d f subshells into which electrons are arranged within the principal energy levels
12   molecular formula symbol for a covalent compound that shows the actual number of atoms present in the compound, eg C2H6
13   electrical neutrality writing chemical formulae: element symbols, valencies, cross multiply, check …….., eg Al3+SO42- calculates to Al2(SO4)3
14   chemical change this occurs when new substances have been produced, is difficult to reverse, and is associated with a temperature change
15   solubility ability to be dissolved by a solvent, polar (sugar) and ionic (salt) substances in water, non-polar (petrol) substances in kerosene



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  Answers: Sheet 26 Metals 1

  1   Australia country in which iron ore was discovered by Europeans in 1840, and later in the Pilbara 1890, although the latter wasn't used until 1966 at Mt. Tom Price
  2   activity series K, Na, Ba, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au
  3   reduction half-reaction an ionic equation showing the gain of electrons, eg Cl2 + 2e- --> 2Cl-
  4   atomic radii decreases across a period of the Periodic Table due to the increasing positive electric charge on the nucleus, and no more additional electron shells, size of atoms
  5   moles for solutions, n = cxV, …....... = concentration in moles per litre x volume in litres
  6   interstitial solid solution alloy formed by another metal atom fitting between the main metal atoms, eg steel: carbon fits in the gaps between iron atoms
  7   ionic salt standard equation: metal + non-metal --> ….......
  8   greater second ionisation energy is always this compared to first ionisation energy because the second electron is being removed from a positive ion
  9   copper ores chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), malachite (CuCO3, Cu(OH)2), and chalcocite (Cu2S)
10   particles generally, for elements or compounds, or atoms within molecules of elements or compounds, n = N/NA, moles = number of …......... divided by Avogadro's number
11   fine silver pure silver, too soft for use in jewellery
12   fermentation standard equation: …......... of glucose: glucose --> alcohol + carbon dioxide
13   new shell this is indicated by a sudden increase in the ionisation energy in a series representing successive ionisation energies for an element
14   limestone form of calcium carbonate used in the blast furnace to produce carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, and to remove sand impurities in iron ore as slag or calcium silicate
15   percent composition obtained by dividing atomic weight of element present in a compound by the relative formula mass of the compound and multiplying by 100, % = (y/RFM)x100
16   native metals metals found in the elemental state in the earth's crust, eg, gold, used for decoration in Neolithic times (10,000 BC tp 4,500 BC)



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  Answers: Sheet 27 Metals 2

  1   malachite bluish green copper ore composed of a hydroxycarbonate of copper Cu(OH)2CO3, believed to be the first ore from which copper was extracted about 6000 BC
  2   metal + oxygen standard equation: burning metal: …........... --> metal oxide
  3   actinides a series of elements following on from actinium (89) on the periodic table in which an inner electron shell fills, from thorium (90) to lawrencium (103), all are radioactive
  4   anode positive electrode at which blister copper is placed in copper refining
  5   copper first metal used for simple tools, 6000 BC
  6   stable generally, active metal (sodium and potassium) carbonates, sulfates, chlorides, oxides and hydroxides are this when subjected to heat
  7   metal oxide standard equation: burning metal: metal + oxygen --> ….........
  8   hydrogen element that does not belong to any one group because it can lose it one electron (group 1) to form a cation, or gain one electron (group VII) to form an anion
  9   anode positive electrode at which oxygen is produced in alumina smelting
10   meteoric iron naturally occurring iron with some nickel that protects it from corrosion, a precious natually occurring metal 4000 BC
11   balance equation to ….......: write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with valencies, balance both sides of the equation
12   balance electrons this must be done before adding together an oxidation half-reaction equation and a reduction half-reaction equation
13   natural resources substances that we use from the earth
14   concentration for solutions, n = cxV, moles = .......... in moles per litre x volume in litres
15   metal compounds alloy formed when crystals form by two metals reacting, eg CuAl2 when copper is used to harden aluminium
16   non-metal + non-metal standard equation: …....... --> covalent compound



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  Answers: Sheet 28 Metals 3

  1   decreases the electron affinity of atoms does this down groups of the periodic table
  2   copper mines Mount Isa (Qld), Olympic Dam (SA), North Parkes (NSW)
  3   Avogadro's number generally, for elements or compounds, or atoms within molecules of elements or compounds, n = N/NA, moles = number of particles divided by ….........
  4   sterling silver silver alloy (92.5% silver, with copper) used in jewellery
  5   glucose standard equation: fermentation of glucose: ….......... --> alcohol + carbon dioxide
  6   complete shell the sudden increase in ionisation energy in a series of successive ionisation energies is due to an electron being removed from one of these
  7   calcium oxide substance produced when carbon dioxide is driven off limestone, and which reacts with silica in sand to produce slag
  8   atomic weight percent composition is obtained by dividing the …........... of an element present in a compound by the relative formula mass of the compound and multiplying by 100, % composition = (y/RFM)x100
  9   tarnish a form of corrosion that occurs to silver exposed to sulfide fumes
10   alcohol + carbon dioxide standard equation: fermentation of glucose: glucose --> …..........
11   Lavoisier person who made the first real attempt to classify elements prior to 1790
12   carbon monoxide substance that reduces iron oxide to iron in the blast furnace while it changes to carbon dioxide
13   relative formula mass percent composition is obtained by dividing the atomic weight of an element present in a compound by the …........... of the compound and multiplying by 100, % composition = (y/RFM)x100
14   annealing process used to make copper less brittle through heat treatment and cooling, first done 4000 to 2500 BC
15   metal carbonates, nitrates, sulfates, chlorides, and oxides of low reactivity metals (Au, Ag, Hg) decompose when heated to form ….......... and other products (exception: mercury chloride is stable)
16   non-metal standard equation: burning non-metal: non-metal + oxygen --> …........... oxide



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  Answers: Sheet 29 Metals 4

  1   atomic number the number basis upon which elements are arranged in the periodic table, related to the number of protons in the nucleus and also the number of electrons in the neutral atom
  2   steel making main use of scrap iron that is being used to recycle by mixing it with cast iron in the BOS process
  3   gold yellow, ductile, malleable metal, used from 6000 BC, unreactive, found as native metal
  4   symbols/formulae to write balanced equations: write element ….......... and compound …............, balance compound formulae with valencies, balance both sides of the equation
  5   amphoteric metals having the ability to react with both acids and bases, eg aluminium, zinc, chromium, lead
  6   renewable resources that continue to be produced even though they are being used, eg food, fibres like cotton, wood
  7   moles for gases, n = V/MV, …......... = volume in litres divided by molar volume (which is either 22.71 or 24.79 L at either STP or RTP respectively)
  8   Moh's scale a hardness test that is used to compare the hardness of substances on a scale of 1 (talc) to 10 (diamond)
  9   covalent compound standard equation: non-metal + non-metal --> …...........
10   increases electron affinity of atoms does this across a period of the periodic table
11   extraction processes crushing the ore, concentration of the useful mineral, roasting in air, smelting and refining
12   moles generally, for elements or compounds, or atoms within molecules of elements or compounds, n = N/NA, …........... = number of particles divided by Avogadro's number
13   solder alloy composed of a mixture of lead and tin
14   metal oxide standard equation: soluble ….......... + water --> alkali
15   electron affinity the ability of an atom to attract or hold onto electrons, low for metals, high for non-metals
16   concentration separation of useful minerals from an ore by physical means, eg froth flotation is used for copper ores



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  Answers: Sheet 30 Metals 5

  1   Avogadro's number number of particles in one mole of a substance, 6.02 x 1023
  2   prosthetic term describing the using of materials to replace body parts such as teeth, limbs
  3   complete combustion standard equation: …......... : hydrocarbon + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide
  4   Dobereiner person who suggested a periodicity of elements in 1829, and identified triads of elements with similar properties, eg Cl, Br, I
  5   cast iron product of the blast furnace, which has uses in making engine blocks and man-hole covers, and, with further refinement, to make steel
  6   empirical formula to find ….........., list percentage composition, divide by atomic weights, divide by smallest, obtain simplest whole number ratio
  7   bronze alloy of copper 90% and tin 10%, used to increase the hardness of the copper for weapons 3000 to 2500 BC
  8   metal activity series a list of metals based on their ability to react with oxygen, dilute acids and water
  9   oxygen standard equation: burning non-metal: non-metal + …......... --> non-metal oxide
10   transuranic elements elements beyond uranium on the periodic table that are not naturally occurring on earth, and have been made in nuclear reactors
11   Gay-Lussac's law when gases combine at the same temperature and pressure they do so in volumes that bear a simple whole number ratio to each other
12   copper pink-brown metal, first metal widely used by humans, low reactivity, possibly discovered when malachite was used as a stone near cooking fires (melts 1083oC)
13   valencies to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with …........., then balance both sides of the equation
14   sodium aluminate substance produced when aluminium reacts with sodium hydroxide (indicating aluminium is amphoteric)
15   non-renewable resources that are of limited supply on the earth and are used up when used, eg metals, coal
16   volume in litres for gases, n = V/MV, moles = …........... / molar volume (22.71 at STP or 24.79 at RTP)



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  Answers: Sheet 31 Metals 6

  1   lead silvery grey dense metal, soft, MP 327oC, one of the first smelted due to low reactivity, jewellery 5000 BC
  2   balance to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, …............ compound formulae with valencies, then ….......... both sides of the equation
  3   aluminium chloride substance produced when aluminium reacts with hydrochloric acid
  4   oxides and sulfides most common minerals compounds from which we obtain metals
  5   molar volume for gases, n = V/MV, moles = volume of gas in litres divided by …........... of 22.71 L (at STP) or 24.79 L (at RTP)
  6   steel alloy composed of a mixture of iron and carbon, or a variety of other elements including chromium, vanadium, nickel, tungsten, cobalt
  7   alkali standard equation: soluble metal oxide + water --> …...........
  8   increases atomic radii do this down groups of the periodic table because each element has an extra electron shell
  9   roasting using hot air to oxidise a copper ore concentrate to drive off sulfur as sulfur dioxide or sulfur trioxide, at 1000 oC
10   dilution equation c1V1 = c2V2, concentration 1 x volume 1 = concentration 2 x volume 2
11   dentures removable appliances replacing natural teeth, made of acrylic resin and having stainless steel clasps
12   hydrocarbon + oxygen standard equation: complete combustion: …........... --> water + carbon dioxide
13   Meyer person who produced a periodic table 1869, and showed periodicity by graphing boiling points and atomic volume against atomic weight
14   steel production processes applied to cast iron: removal of impurities eg excess carbon, and the addition of particular elements to form steel alloys
15   percentage composition to find empirical formula: list …..........., divide by atomic weights, divide by smallest, obtain the simplest whole number ratio
16   iron metal used after the bronze age because it is harder and more powerful, 1000 BC



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  Answers: Sheet 32 Metals 7

  1   water substance reacting with an active metal (K, Na, Ba, Ca) to produce metal hydroxide and hydrogen
  2   non-metal oxide standard equation: burning non-metal: non-metal + oxygen --> .............
  3   electrolysis method by which elements can be extracted from their molten compounds (Al) or solutions (Cu) by passing a current, enabling people to discover elements unknown prior to 1800
  4   Avogadro's law equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules
  5   brass alloy used about 100 BC made from copper 70% and zinc 30%
  6   water substance reacting with moderately active metals (Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Ni) to produce metal oxide and hydrogen
  7   acid oxide term describing a non-metal oxide because soluble non-metal oxides form acidic solutions
  8   periodic table advantages provides descriptive classification and ordering so that the properties of elements can be predicted, and trends amongst elements can be shown
  9   mole concept the amount of a substance that contains the same number of chemical units (atoms, molecules or ions) as there are atoms in 12g of carbon-12 or 6.02x1023 of the chemical units
10   tin silvery dense metal with low MP (232oC), alloyed with copper to form bronze
11   both sides to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with valencies, balance …............ of the equation
12   2.8.8.2 electronic configuration of calcium atoms showing the number of electrons in each of the principal energy levels 1 to 4 (K to N)
13   ore a deposit of mineral considered suitable for mining to extract the metal
14   22.71 litres molar volume of a gas at STP (standard temperature and pressure)
15   cupro-nickel alloy composed of 75% copper and 25% nickel used in "silver" coins
16   non-metal oxide standard equation: soluble …........... + water --> acid



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  Answers: Sheet 33 Metals 8

  1   decrease atomic radii do this across a period of the periodic table because each atom has a greater concentration of charge on the nucleus and there is no added electron shell
  2   smelting name of process of fusion of the calcines or products from roasting copper ore at 1400oC to produce blister copper
  3   heat generally, for calculations involving heat of reaction, n = H / ΔH, moles = …........... actually released or absorbed divided by molar heat of reaction
  4   passivating layer having a corrosion preventing coating on the outside of a metal composed of a thin layer of oxide of the metal, eg stainless steel
  5   water + carbon dioxide standard equation: complete combustion: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> …............ …..........
  6   Cannizzaro person who used Avogadro's hypothesis in 1860 to determine the relative weight of atoms (equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure have the same number of particles)
  7   oxygen in the production of mild steel: this substance used to remove carbon impurities from cast iron
  8   atomic weights to find empirical formula, list percentage composition, divide by …..........., divide by smallest, obtain simplest whole number ratio
  9   implants devices placed directly into the jawbone to replace a tooth, composed of commercially pure titanium
10   incomplete combustion standard equation: …............ can result in soot being formed: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon + water
11   Newlands person who arranged elements in order of increasing atomic weight 1865, and noticed elements with similar properties repeated every eighth one (he was actually ridiculed for his Law of Octaves at the time)
12   Bayer process procedure used to extract alumina (pure aluminium oxide) from bauxite: digestion, clarification, precipitation, calcination
13   smallest to find empirical formula, list percentage composition, divide by atomic weights, divide by …..........., obtain simplest whole number ratio
14   low reactivity reason why copper was smelted and used before iron, related to the relatively ................. of the copper
15   water substance unable to react with metals of low reactivity (Sn, Pb, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au)
16   basic oxide metal oxide, an oxide that will react with acids to produce salts



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  Answers: Sheet 34 Metals 9

  1   rare earths the lanthanides, soft malleable metals having magnetic compounds, found in the same minerals, difficult to separate
  2   limiting reagent the chemical that is completely used up when two or more chemicals react, the chemical that is in short supply
  3   iron moderately reactive metal, MP 1540o, tough, silvery, needs a reducing atmosphere (containing CO) in a blast furnace to be extracted
  4   acid + base standard equation: …............ --> salt + water
  5   1s22s22p63s23p64s2 electronic configuration of calcium atoms showing the number of electrons in each of the
  6   mining economics location, richness of ore, processing costs, worker and family safety and health provision, lease validity, environment maintenance, and transport
  7   24.79 litres molar volume of a gas at RTP (room temperature and pressure)
  8   duralumin alloy of aluminium, copper, magnesium and manganese used for construction work
  9   acid standard equation: soluble non-metal oxide + water --> …............
10   increases the ionic nature of bonding in compounds does this with elements down a group of the periodic table
11   Isasmelt process a continuous roasting and smelting process for production of blister copper from chalcocite mixed with coal, silica and lime and oxygen rich air
12   Δheat the change in the amount of heat that is held in a mole of substances undergoing chemical change
13   brasses alloys of copper and zinc used for plumbing fittings
14   glucose + oxygen standard equation: respiration: …............ --> water + carbon dioxide
15   bottom left corner this part of the periodic table has elements with atoms that have a strong tendency to lose electrons to become cations
16   silicate slag reason for adding silica to Isasmelt process in the extraction of copper, to remove iron as iron silicate



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  Answers: Sheet 35 Metals 10

  1   molar heat of reaction generally, for calculations involving heat of reaction, n = H /ΔH, moles = heat actually released or absorbed divided by …............
  2   restorative returning a body component to its normal functioning by repairing, eg, using amalgam to fill tooth cavities ir gold to crown teeth
  3   soot standard equation: incomplete combustion, …............. produced : hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon + water
  4   Mendeleev person who developed a periodic table 1871 based on increasing atomic weights by corrections made for properties (eg Te atomic number 52, mass 128 and I, atomic number 53, mass 127) , and left gaps for undiscovered elements
  5   digestion dissolving hydrated aluminium oxide in bauxite with sodium hydroxide to make sodium aluminate (green liquor) NaAlO2
  6   simplest to find empirical formula, list percentage composition, divide by atomic weights, divide by smallest, obtain …............. whole number ratio
  7   tempering a heating and hammering treatment that is used to make carbon-steel alloys less brittle and easier to shape
  8   oxygen substance that reacts with active and moderately active metals to produce metal oxide when the metals burn in air
  9   alkali substance that contains water soluble hydroxide
10   high melting points physical property of elements that peaks in group IV of the periodic table for the first 20 elements due to presence of network covalent bonds, solid to liquid
11   reagent moles technique used to find which substance is the limiting reagent, or which substance is the excess reagent, by calculation
12   zinc silvery moderately reactive metal, alloyed with copper to make brass, melts 419oC, used about 100 BC on
13   salt + water standard equation: acid + base --> …............
14   2.8.7 electronic configuration of chlorine atoms showing the number of electrons in each of the principal energy levels 1 to 3 (K to M)
15   recycle it is economic to do this with aluminium because of the high cost of extraction by electrolysis of bauxite
16   moles generally, for elements and compounds, n = m/RFM, …............ = mass in grams divided by relative formula mass



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  Answers: Sheet 36 Metals 11

  1   aluminium active metal, silvery, low density, melts 660oC, first isolated 1829, commercial production started 1886, needs electrolysis to be extracted from bauxite
  2   acid + carbonate standard equation: …............ --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
  3   1s22s22p63s23p5 electronic configuration of chlorine atoms showing the number of electrons in each of the subshells
  4   mine closure this results if the price obtained for the metal of the mineral falls too low on the world markets eg gold below $US254
  5   mass in grams generally, for elements and compounds, n = m/RFM, moles = …............ divided by relative formula mass
  6   bronzes alloys of copper and tin used for ship propellers and coins and monuments (very corrosion resistant)
  7   water + carbon dioxide standard equation: respiration: glucose + oxygen --> …............
  8   top right corner this part of the periodic table has elements with atoms that have a strong tendency to gain electrons to become anions (except for the noble gases)
  9   refining purification of blister copper by electrolysis processes, made necessary because impurities increase resistance of metal to current
10   moles generally, for calculations involving heat of reaction, n = H / ΔH, …........... = heat actually released or absorbed divided by molar heat of reaction
11   amalgam mixture of mainly silver (65%), tin, copper, zinc and mercury (3%)used to fill cavities in rear teeth before the material hardens
12   carbon standard equation: incomplete combustion, soot produced: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> …........... + water
13   Mosely person, 1914 proposed concept of atomic number (protons in the nucleus)
14   clarification separation of green liquor (sodium aluminate) from red mud (iron oxides) by settling and filtration in the Bayer process to obtain alumina from bauxite
15   Hittites people who about 1300 BC produced steel with 1% carbon and superior weapons
16   oxygen substance that can combine with some fairly unreactive metals (Sn and Pb) when they are heated to a high temperature, forming metal oxides



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  Answers: Sheet 37 Metals 12

  1   precipitation reactions reactions in which ionic substances swap partners so that an insoluble compound is formed from two soluble compounds
  2   boiling points physical property of elements that peaks in group IV of the periodic table for the first 20 elements due to presence of network covalent bonds (temperature of state change from liquid to gas)
  3   excess reagent the chemical that is not completely used up when two or more chemicals react, the chemical that is oversupplied
  4   India place where Wortz steel was made from 1000 BC and traded for gold and silver by the Romans to make short swords
  5   oxygen substance that wont react with unreactive metals (Cu, Hg, Ag, Au) when heated in air
  6   ionic reactions equations for these reactions leave out spectator ions or other substances that do not change state
  7   electronegativity relative power of an atom to attract electrons to itself when bonded with another element, increases across a period of the periodic table
  8   empirical formula a chemical formula showing the ratio in which the elements are present in a compound
  9   sodium very reactive low density silvery metal, first extracted 1805 by electrolysis of molten salt
10   salt + water + carbon dioxide standard equation: acid + carbonate --> …............
11   first ionisation energy the energy needed to remove completely the first electron from an atom in the gaseous state; eg H(g) ---> H(g)+ + e-
12   leading producer in world terms, Australia is this for bauxite and alumina, diamonds, ilmenite, rutile, zircon
13   relative formula mass generally, for elements and compounds, n = m/RFM, moles = mass in grams divided by …............
14   24 carat gold pure gold, too soft to be used in jewellery
15   respiration standard equation: …............ : glucose + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide
16   alkali metals name given to the elements in group 1 of the periodic table, Li, Na, K, which can dissolve in water to produce basic solutions



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  Answers: Sheet 38 Metals 13

  1   froth flotation concentration process used to separate low grade sulfide ores from gangue by blowing air through a slurry of finely ground ore xanthate and water
  2   heat to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, that is, …............ = mass of water in grams x specific heat of water x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)
  3   trituration high speed mixing of mercury with a powdered alloy of silver, tin, copper and zinc to form amalgam for filling cavities in rear teeth
  4   carbon monoxide standard equation: incomplete combustion, poisonous gas being produced: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> …............ + water
  5   Rayleigh and Ramsay persons, 1893 found Argon, which did not fit Mendeleev's table, other group VIII elements He, Ne, Kr, Xe found 1898
  6   precipitation process used to convert green liquor (sodium aluminate) to hydrated aluminium oxide by cooling the green liquor, so the oxide can be filtered off
  7   gold alloy material used to crown broken teeth, fill teeth, or decorate teeth, composed of 75% gold together with copper, silver, platinum, palladium and zinc
  8   poisonous gas standard equation: incomplete combustion, …............ produced: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon monoxide + water
  9   Periodic Law the properties of elements vary periodically with their atomic numbers
10   calcination heating process applied to hydrated aluminium oxide to form alumina (aluminium oxide) and steam
11   Germany place where smelting of iron was carried out with an early blast furnace, 1340 AD
12   dilute acid substance that reacts with active and moderately active metals to produce metal salts and hydrogen gas
13   limiting reagent a reacting substance that is in short supply and so determines how much of other reactants will be used up
14   polar covalent bonds that result from the uneven electronegativities of elements that share electrons when combined as compounds, these are more so, the further apart the elements are on the periodic table
15   molecular formula a chemical formula showing how many of each type of atom is present in the compound
16   pigments use of metal ores by Aboriginal peoples, eg manganese ores dark brown, weathered copper ores blues and greens, iron ores reds and yellows



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  Answers: Sheet 39 Metals 14

  1   acid + metal standard equation: …............ --> salt + hydrogen
  2   increases first ionisation energy does this across a period of the periodic table as electron shells go from near empty to full
  3   230 billion dollars approximate value of mining to the Australian economy, eg coal, alumina, iron ore, gold, aluminium
  4   atomic weights quantities from the periodic table that are used to determine the relative formula mass of elements or compounds
  5   18 carat gold gold alloy of 75%, with silver and copper, used in jewellery
  6   photosynthesis standard equation: …............ : water + carbon dioxide --> glucose + oxygen
  7   alkali earths name given to elements in group 2 of the periodic table Mg, Ca, Ba, lose two electrons when reacting to form ionic compounds
  8   scrubbing process used to remove sulfur dioxide from emissions produced during roasting and smelting of copper by using water or alkaline solution
  9   mass of water to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, ΔH = mcΔT, change in heat = …............ in grams x specific heat of water x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)
10   14 carat gold gold alloy containing 58.5% gold
11   water + carbon dioxide standard equation: photosynthesis: …............ --> glucose + oxygen
12   halogens name given to elements in group 7 of the periodic table F, Cl, Br, I, gain one electron when reacting to form ionic compounds with metals
13   environmental considerations poisonous nature of sulfur dioxide produced during roasting and smelting of copper, revegetation of tailings storage facilities, keeping groundwater clean
14   specific heat of water to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, ΔH = mcΔT, heat = mass of water in grams x …............ x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)
15   stainless steel alloy that can be used for tooth crowns, pins, and posts, also used as clasps on denture, and orthodontic braces used to straighten teeth
16   oxygen standard equation: incomplete combustion, poisonous gas produced: hydrocarbon + …........... --> carbon monoxide + water



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  Answers: Sheet 40 Metals 15

  1   transition metals elements between groups 2 and 3 of the periodic table in which an inner electron shell fills; scandium to zinc, and yttrium to cadmium etc
  2   Hall-Heroult a smelting process used to convert alumina to aluminium by passing a current through a molten solution of alumina and cryolite (sodium aluminium fluorite)
  3   Bessemer converter blast furnace that can be used to change cast iron to steel by removing some of the carbon content, 1856
  4   dilute acid a generally reactive substance dissolved in water that will not react with unreactive metals
  5   excess reagent the amount of a reacting substance that is left over after a limiting reagent has been completely reacted
  6   ionic bond that results when the differences in electronegativies of elements of the periodic table are so great that the cation loses its electron(s)
  7   structural formula a chemical formula showing the actual arrangement of atoms in a molecular compound
  8   alloy a mixture of metal elements, developed for a given purpose, harder than pure metals
  9   salt + hydrogen standard equation: acid + metal --> …............
10   decreases first ionisation energy does this down a group of the periodic table as the outer electrons become further removed from the positive nucleus
11   China country that buys most of our mineral and fuel exports (in 2022)
12   relative formula mass the mass in grams that is needed to have one mole of an element or compound
13   substitution solid solution alloy formed by another metal atom replacing one of the main metal atoms, eg brass: zinc completely replaces copper in the crystal lattice
14   metal + non-metal standard equation: …........... --> ionic salt
15   second ionisation energy the energy needed to remove completely the second electron from an atom in the gaseous state
16   extraction costs these depend on the activity of the metal, industrial processes used, transportation, and protection needed by metal against corrosion



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  Answers: Sheet 41 Metals 16

  1   relative formula mass term that may be used instead of atomic weight, molecular mass, or molecular weight in the equation n = m/RFM
  2   9 carat gold gold alloy containing 37.5% gold
  3   glucose + oxygen standard equation: photosynthesis: water + carbon dioxide --> …............
  4   noble gases name given to elements in group 8 of the periodic table He, Ne, Ar, Kr, unreactive, have full outer electron shell
  5   coke coal product used in iron ore reduction to produce carbon dioxide firstly and then carbon monoxide
  6   temperature change to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, ΔH = mcΔT, change in heat = mass of water in grams x specific heat of water x …............ of water (Celsius degrees)
  7   orthodontia branch of dentistry that deals with the straightening of teeth, often using braces made from stainless steel
  8   burning metal standard equation: …........... : metal + oxygen --> metal oxide
  9   lanthanides a series of elements following on from lanthanum (57) on the periodic table in which an inner electron shell fills, from cerium (58) to lutetium (71), also called rare earths
10   cathode negative terminal at which aluminium is produced in the electrolysis of alumina, and copper is produced in the electrolysis of blister copper
11   China place where the blast furnace was first used long before Europeans to produce a carbon-iron alloy with MP 1150 oC
12   reaction rate this varies with the metal being reacted enabling an activity series of metals to be produced
13   oxidation half-reaction an ionic equation showing the loss of electrons eg Mg --> Mg2+ + 2e-
14   metallic bond that most of the elements of the periodic table (from bottom left corner) have resulting from electrostatic attraction between loose, mobile valence electrons and metallic ions
15   volume in litres for solutions, n = cxV, moles = concentration in moles per litre x ….............



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  Answers: Sheet 42 Water 1

  1   agent of weathering action of water in breaking down rocks of the earth's crust to enable soil formation to occur, releasing nutrients needed by living things, eg phosphates, magnesium
  2   water pipes split this can happen in freezing weather because of the expansion that occurs when water in pipes freezes to form ice
  3   pyramidal covalent molecular shape with 3 bonds , 3 dimensions, a lone pair of electrons placed in the position of the fourth bond of a tetrahedral shape, eg ammonia (NH3)
  4   viscosity resistance of a liquid to flowing, a property of water that depends on the attractive forces between molecules (H-bonds)
  5   Bronsted/Lowry acid a substance which, when in solution, donates a proton (H+)
  6   ionic equation reactions precipitation reactions, neutralisation reactions, acid on carbonate reactions, oxidation/reduction reactions
  7   soluble a substance is said to be this when >0.1 mole dissolves in one litre of water
  8   burette graduated glass tube with a tap for delivering known variable measured volumes of a reactant during titration
  9   accumulation this process occurs with regards to heavy metals along a food chain so that the top order predator has the highest concentration in its tissues
10   aqueous term describing mixtures in which the solvent is water
11   differentially permeable term describing cell membranes, they allow some substances to pass through, and prevent others from passing, enabling cells to control their internal environment
12   Lewis/metals metal atoms represented: .M. while the metal ion is represented by: [M]2+
13   dispersion forces the forces of attraction between non-polar atoms or molecules arising from temporary dipoles due to oscillation of electrons
14   dissolving rule like dissolves like: water is a polar molecule and can dissolve polar substances like ionic compounds and covalent compounds with polar molecules eg sugar
15   strong acid/weak base acids like hydrochloric acid produce a very weak conjugate base (chloride ions in this example)
16   sulfides solubility rule: family of substances that are insoluble except for group I metals and ammonium ion …............



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  Answers: Sheet 43 Water 2

  1   mole quantity that contains the Avogadro number of particles for a substance
  2   ppb a concentration unit for extremely small concentrations, eg of a pollutant, micrograms per litre or parts per billion by volume
  3   temperature decrease this occurs as a result of heat being absorbed during and endothermic reaction
  4   dipole-dipole interactions interactions between polar covalent molecules
  5   limited solubility non-polar substances like iodine, oxygen, nitrogen, having a low rate of attraction with polar water have this property with regards to dissolving in water
  6   strong base/weak acid bases like sodium hydroxide produce a very weak conjugate acid (water in this example)
  7   oxides solubility rule: the substances of this sort are generally insoluble except group 1 metal, barium and calcium (sparingly soluble) …............
  8   molecular mass the mass of 1 mole of molecules
  9   water pollution organic matter, thermal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mining wastes, heavy metals
10   calorimeter apparatus used to determine the heat loss or gain during a reaction by determining the temperature change in a volume of water
11   osmosis process in the use of water in living things allowing plants to absorb water, and cells to maintain shape and structure
12   insulation ice does this when it prevents more heat from leaving a water body because it is floating on the surface, enabling aquatic organisms to remain alive in liquid water
13   bent covalent molecular shape with 2 bonds and two lone pairs of electrons, resulting in an angle or V-shape, eg water, hydrogen sulfide
14   rigidity property of water in frozen state, due to the water molecules being held firmly in a crystal lattice by hydrogen bonds
15   Bronsted/Lowry base a substance which, when in solution, accepts a proton (or H+)
16   soluble solubility rule all of the following are …............, no exceptions: salts of group 1 metals and ammonium, acetates, hydrogen carbonates, and nitrates



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  Answers: Sheet 44 Water 3

  1   insoluble a substance is said to be this when <0.01 mole dissolves in one litre of water
  2   volumetric flask stoppered flask with a single graduation for preparing solutions of known concentration in preparation for titration
  3   food chain a series of organisms showing the flow of energy in an ecosystem, along which toxic substances can accumulate
  4   clear appearance of a solution because the dissolved solid is spread out
  5   metabolism all the chemical changes occurring in a cell (or a living thing), relying on liquid water to act as a medium for transport and reaction
  6   lone pairs non-bonding pairs of valence electrons that may act as a donated pair in the formation of coordinate covalent bonds, both members of the pair can be donated to another atom (element)
  7   attraction force between solvent and solute needed so that a substance will dissolve
  8   important physical properties high surface tension, high heat capacity and heat of vaporisation, high boiling point
  9   coordinate covalent bond bond in which two electrons from one atom are shared with another atom, eg, in ammonium ion, hydronium ion
10   dipole item, or molecule with oppositely charged ends
11   insoluble in water property of network covalent molecules eg silicon dioxide, polymers eg polyethylene, non-polar molecules eg methane, ethene, oxygen
12   amphiprotic term describing substances that can act either as Bronsted Lowry acids or bases, they can donate or accept a proton, eg hydrogen carbonate ions
13   hot water solubility rule: lead halides (chlorides etc.) are soluble in this, but not in cold water
14   volume in litres for solutions, n = cxV, moles = concentration in moles per litre x …............
15   organic matter water pollutant if in high enough concentration, sources include sewage and industry, eg paper pulping processes
16   heat of solution quantity of heat released or absorbed when a mole of a substance dissolves in water eg ZnCl2(s) ---> ZnCl2(aq) ΔH = -73.1 kJ mol-1



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  Answers: Sheet 45 Water 4

  1   osmosis process in which there is the passage of a solvent in dilute solution through a semi-permeable membrane to a more concentrated solution
  2   density mass per unit volume, 1 g per mL for water
  3   non-polar term describing covalent bonds between two atoms of the same electronegativity
  4   solvent the part that does the dissolving in a solution, eg water
  5   hydronium ion conjugate acid of water, formed when a proton is coordinate covalently bonded to water: [H3O]+(aq)
  6   soluble, except all sulfates and halides (chlorides, bromides and iodides)
  7   sparingly soluble a substance is said to be this when between 0.01 and 0.1 mole of it dissolves in one litre of water
  8   distilled water substance used to rinse volumetric flasks and conical flasks prior to being used for titration experiments
  9   specific heat the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one Celsius (or one Kelvin) degree eg water: 4.18 Jg-1K-1
10   solvent liquid that dissolves another substance (solute) eg water
11   conjugate pair an acid and the potential base it forms by donating a proton, or a base and the potential acid it forms by accepting a proton
12   insoluble, except solubilty rule, all carbonates, phosphates, sulfites, hydroxides, sulfides, and oxides
13   solubility equilibrium condition that exists between a solid and its ions in solution, eg AgCl(s) <===> Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
14   reagent substance used to rinse pipettes and burettes prior to using them for titration experiments
15   enthalpy heat content, indicates the stored energy in a chemical system at a given temperature and pressure
16   water importance transport medium, reactant, reaction medium, moderates temperature changes, reproduction medium, agent of weathering, osmosis agent



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  Answers: Sheet 46 Water 5

  1   surface tension water physical property which is important in maintaining cell shape
  2   ionic bond a bond formed when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another, the bond is an electrostatic attraction between an anion and a cation
  3   dipole-dipole forces the forces of attraction between polar covalent molecules arising from differences in electronegativity between elements in such molecules
  4   network covalent a huge array of atoms covalently bound to neighbours forming one giant molecule eg diamond (C), quartz or silicon dioxide (SiO2)
  5   diffusion movement of substances from places of high concentration to places of low concentration, one way in which cells obtain nutrients and lose wastes
  6   react with water soluble metal oxides do this when they dissolve in water to form hydroxides
  7   moles for solutions, n = cxV, …............ = concentration in moles per litre x volume in litres
  8   thermal wastes water pollutant from power generating plants and some chemical industries where water is used as a coolant due to lowering the dissolved oxygen content of the water, killing organisms
  9   heat of neutralisation quantity of heat released per mole of protons reacting with hydroxide ions: H+(aq) + OH-(aq) ---> H2O(l) ΔH = -57kJ mol-1
10   water content human 76%, prawn 76%, apple 84%, strawberry 92%
11   lowered freezing point addition of antifreeze or salt enables water to remain liquid at temperatures below normal freezing temperature
12   polar covalent bonds that result from the unequal electronegativities of elements that share electrons when combined as compounds, these inequalities are greater, the further apart the elements are on the periodic table
13   water locations biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere
14   anti-freeze 1,2-ethane-diol, a substance capable of lowering the freezing point of water
15   polar molecules molecules where the charge is not evenly distributed so that dipoles occur, example water
16   solute a substance that dissolves in another substance called a solvent such as water



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  Answers: Sheet 47 Water 6

  1   conjugate base a potential base formed when an acid donates a proton eg Cl- formed from HCl after it donates H+
  2   sulfates solubility rule: all soluble except the salts of barium, strontium, lead and the sparingly soluble salts of calcium, silver and mercury (I)
  3   shift term describing the direction a reaction moves when an equilibrium is disturbed by a change in concentration of a reactant or product, or temperature (either to the right or left of an equilibrium equation, or, towards products or reactants)
  4   poisonous liquids these must never be pipetted by mouth
  5   exothermic term describing a reaction in which the heat content (enthalpy) of the products is less than the heat content of the reactants, ΔH is -ve, heat is produced
  6   transport medium use of water in living things for obtaining nutrients and removing wastes
  7   high heat capacity water physical property important in maintaining cell temperature, slows both cooling and warming, 4.2 Jg-1 oC-1
  8   polar covalent bond a bond where the electron cloud is not evenly distributed between the two atoms
  9   hydrogen bonding this occurs when a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to strongly electronegative atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine
10   monomer the repeating unit composition molecules of polymers, eg ethene in polyethene, glucose in cellulose
11   isotonic term describing when the concentration of a solution outside a cell is the same as inside the cells resulting in no net movement of water by osmosis
12   precipitate a substance that forms as a solid when two clear solutions are mixed
13   concentration for solutions, n = cxV, moles = …............ in moles per litre x volume in litres
14   agricultural wastes water pollutant in the form of fertilisers, and pesticides from farming activities
15   bond energy energy that is absorbed when a covalent bond is broken and released when a covalent bond is formed
16   surface tension water property: resistance to the increase of the surface area of a liquid, making droplets a spherical shape, due to hydrogen bonds in water



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  Answers: Sheet 48 Water 7

  1   polymers molecules made up of many smaller molecules called monomers bonded together, eg polyethene made from ethene, cellulose from glucose
  2   osmotic pressure force caused by the amount of differences in concentrations of solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane
  3   equilibrium the situation where the forward reaction rate equals the reverse reaction rate, a closed system is needed
  4   end point the stage in a titration in which the indicator just changes colour
  5   mining wastes water pollutant from mineral extraction processes including acids and metal ions
  6   stronger bond this is indicated if more energy absorbed when a covalent bond is broken compared to other covalent bonds being broken
  7   biosphere place on earth where water is found, the system of living things and their environment around the earth
  8   rock weathering this physical process occurs when water undergoes alternate freezing and thawing to expand and contract and so break up rocks
  9   electronegativity a numerical measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons from its partner, fluorine is the most, caesium is the least
10   electrolysis the chemical change resulting from application of a potential difference across an electrolyte (solution of a salt in water, or a molten salt)
11   conjugate acid a potential acid formed when a base accepts a proton eg [H3O]+ is the potential acid of water when water accepts a proton
12   halides solubility rule: all soluble except the salts of silver, lead and mercury (I)
13   shift to right direction a system at equilibrium moves if reactants are added (increased in concentration)
14   concentration units moles per litre, percent weight/weight or percent composition (g/100g), percent weight/volume (g/100mL water), percent volume/volume (mL/100mL water), mg/L (ppm), microgram/litre (ppb)
15   ΔH change in heat content (enthalpy or H) of substances during a reaction: = H(products) - H(reactants)
16   reactant use of water in living things for chemical changes such as photosynthesis, hydrolysis during digestion



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  Answers: Sheet 49 Water 8

  1   high heat of vaporisation water physical property important in cooling cells by evaporation: about 2,260 Jg-1
  2   covalent molecular substances consist of discrete molecules with strong intramolecular bonding, but with weak intermolecular forces between molecules (with low MP and BP)
  3   hydrolysis chemical change in which water reacts to break up large molecules into smaller units, eg, starch to glucose during digestion
  4   high boiling point water physical property important to living things by ensuring it remains in liquid form at naturally occurring temperatures at the surface of the earth
  5   covalent network solids formed when atoms of a few non-metals are linked by single covalent bonds at fixed bond angles forming an infinite array, diamond, quartz, silicon carbide
  6   meniscus curved upper surface of a liquid such as water in a container, a result of adhesive forces of attraction between the liquid and the container
  7   Arrhenius person, 1887: proposed an acid is a substance that dissolves in water to produce hydrogen ions as the only positive ions, and bases dissolve to release only hydroxide ions
  8   water substance that moves freely through a cell membrane in response to differences in solute concentration: moves from low to high solute concentration
  9   Le Chatelier's principle if the conditions in a system at equilibrium are changed, the system will adjust to oppose that change and a new equilibrium position will result
10   equivalence point the point during a titration when the quantities of the two reacting species are just sufficient to allow complete reaction
11   heavy metals water pollutant due to toxic metals such as arsenic, chromium, copper, nickel, silver, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury
12   stable compounds these compounds have strong chemical bonds
13   hydrosphere place on earth where water is found, 97% in liquid form in the oceans, rest in ice caps and glaciers, groundwater, rivers, lakes
14   limestone weathering this chemical process occurs when water dissolves carbon dioxide forming carbonic acid that reacts to dissolve calcium carbonate as calcium hydrogen carbonate
15   ionic type of bond formed between atoms that have a large electronegativity difference, eg Na and Cl
16   electrolyte any solution or molten mass that conducts electricity, due to the presence of ions which are free to move in aqueous or liquid states eg sodium chloride: Faraday



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  Answers: Sheet 50 Water 9

  1   strong acid proton donor that highly dissociated in aqueous solution, eg HCl (H+ concentration is the same as the solute concentration)
  2   carbonates solubility rule: form insoluble salts except for group I metal salts and ammonium ion salts
  3   shift to left direction a system at equilibrium moves if products are added (increased in concentration)
  4   percentage composition a concentration unit used for composition of foods, and mixtures based on the mass (in grams) of a substance in 100 grams
  5   exothermic reactions combustion, dilution of sulfuric acid, neutralisation of acids and alkalis, electrochemical cell reactions, energy is released
  6   electrolytic dissociation the spontaneous separation of electrolytes into ions of opposite charge when they dissolve in water: Arrhenius
  7   weak acid proton donor that is only partially dissociated in aqueous solution eg ethanoic acid (H+ concentration is less than solute concentration)
  8   phosphates solubility rule: these salts are insoluble except for the group I metal and ammonium ion salts
  9   equilibrium equations reaction equations showing that only some of the reactants change to products, as well as the mole ratios for the reactants that do react to form products
10   percent weight/volume a concentration unit used for soluble substances, eg NaCl, grams dissolved in 100 mL of solution
11   endothermic term describing a reaction in which the heat content (enthalpy) of the products is greater than the heat content of the reactants, ΔH is +ve, and heat is absorbed
12   reaction medium use of water in living things allowing reacting substances to come into contact
13   moderate temperature importance of having such a large amount of water in the oceans of the earth, as ocean temperature is more stable than land temperatures
14   linear covalent molecular shape which is a straight line, bond angle 180o, eg HF, BeF2, CO2
15   cohesion forces of attraction between molecules of the same substances, hydrogen bonds in the case of water, results in surface tension
16   Arrhenius acid definition: a substance that produces hydrogen ions as the only positive ions when it dissolves in water



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  Answers: Sheet 51 Water 10

  1   ionic equations descriptions of chemical reactions showing only the species that have changed state
  2   saturated solutions a solution where the solute is in dynamic equilibrium with excess undissolved solute at a particular temperature
  3   indicator a coloured dye that shows the pH of a solution or the end point of a titration through a colour change
  4   mercury heavy metal, a water pollutant, converted to extremely toxic methyl mercury by bacteria in river sediments, causes mental disorder and death through eating fish from polluted waterways
  5   exothermic reactions in these reactions the products are more stable (stronger bond energies) than the reactants (weaker bond energies)
  6   atmosphere place on earth where water is found as water vapour, liquid droplets or ice crystals in clouds in the troposphere, falls as rain hail or snow
  7   human water uses in industry, generating electricity, farming, irrigation, fish production, recreation
  8   polar covalent type of bond formed between atoms that have moderate electronegativity differences, eg H and O in water
  9   lithosphere place on earth where water is found as liquid that has percolated through the rocks
10   Lewis diagrams electron dot diagrams of atoms showing the valence (or outer electrons) around the atoms
11   non-polar covalent type of bond formed between atoms that have no difference in electronegativity, eg bonds between fluorine atoms in a fluorine molecule
12   electrostatic attraction force holding together the ionic particles in an ionic crystal lattice
13   strong base proton acceptor that bonds tightly to the proton it receives, eg hydroxide
14   sulfites solubility rule: forms insoluble substances except with group I metals and ammonium ion salts
15   Le Chatelier's principle if any chemical system at equilibrium is subjected to a change in concentration or temperature, the system will react in the direction that will oppose and minimise that change



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  Answers: Sheet 52 Water 11

    1   percent volume/volume a concentration unit used for a liquid miscible in another, eg medicines, alcohol: volume in mL per 100 mL of solvent
    2   endothermic reactions dissolving salt in water, photosynthesis, electrolysis, electroplating
    3   moderate temperature use of water in living things because it requires a lot of heat to raise its temperature, and it cools as it evaporates (perspiration)
    4   expansion this increase in size occurs as water freezes because hydrogen bonding orients the molecules causing them to occupy more space
    5   trigonal planer covalent molecular shape which is flat with 3 bonds each at 120o, eg BF3
    6   adhesion forces of attraction between different substances, eg water is attracted to glass undergoes capillary rise and forms a meniscus
    7   Arrhenius base a substance that produces hydroxide ions as the only negative ions when it dissolves in water
    8   balance charges in ionic equations, as well as balancing the number of atoms present, this must also be done so that the charge is the same on both sides
    9   solubility constant an equilibrium constant that tells to what extent a salt dissolves
10   titration a technique in volumetric analysis in which one reactant is added to another from a burette until an end point is reached
11   cadmium heavy metal, a water pollutant, weakens bone structure by replacing calcium ions, also replaces zinc in fat metabolism reactions
12   endothermic reactions in these reactions the products are less stable (weaker bond energies) than the reactants (stronger bond energies)
13   capillarity rise of water up a narrow tube due to adhesive forces between the water and the tube, and cohesive forces (H-bonds) between water molecules
14   Bronsted and Lowry persons, 1923, independently proposed: an acid is a substance that donates a proton (hydrogen ion) when in solution, a base accepts a proton
15   ionic reactions equations for these reactions leave out spectator ions or other substances that do not change state



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  Answers: Sheet 53 Water 12

  1   miscible term describing the situation where liquids completely mix, eg, petroleum, water and alcohol
  2   pipette bulbous glass tube with one gradation for obtaining accurately measured aliquot’s of solutions for titration in volumetric analysis
  3   enzymes these are blocked by the presence of lead, mercury and cadmium preventing chemical changes occurring in living things
  4   cells basic units of life, smallest units capable of independent existence and reproduction, separated from the environment by a differentially permeable membrane
  5   octet rule Lewis's rule stating that the number of covalent bonds an atom forms could be calculated by assuming that in the combined form each atom would have 8 electrons in its outer shell
  6   dispersion force the net electrical force of attraction that exists between all molecular substances
  7   edge part of a crystal lattice where the ions are not as strongly held, and so are able to be removed by the polar covalent solvent, water
  8   weak base proton acceptor that bonds loosely to the proton it receives eg chloride ions
  9   hydroxides solubility rule: all insoluble except for group I metal and ammonium ion salts, as well as barium, strontium, and the sparingly soluble calcium: …............
10   molarity the number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre of solution
11   ppm a concentration unit for very small concentrations, eg CO2 in the atmosphere, 400 mg/L , or 400 parts per million by volume of air
12   temperature increase this occurs as a result of heat being released during an exothermic reaction
13   reproduction use of water in living things because sex cells (gametes) need it as a medium for moving, and to remain viable, not dehydrated
14   floats ice does this because it has a lower density than surrounding water, as a result of hydrogen bonding orienting water molecules into an open structure and taking up more space (volume)
15   tetrahedral covalent molecular shape with 4 bonds equally spaced at 109o, 3 dimensional, eg methane, CCl4



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  Answers: Sheet 54 Energy 1

  1   energy that which causes change, includes: kinetic: movement; potential: stored; electromagnetic: radiant, the capacity to do work
  2   decomposition normal fate of plant and animal remains, enabling the nutrients they contain to be recycled, carried out by aerobic bacteria
  3   isomers compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae
  4   exothermic reactions in these reactions the products are more stable (stronger bond energies) than the reactants (weaker bond energies)
  5   concentration reaction rate factor: the more reactants present the faster the rate of reaction, the less products present the faster the rate of reaction
  6   car energy chemical potential energy in fuel ---> kinetic energy in gases ---> kinetic energy to the car
  7   octane rating the ability of a fuel to resist early ignition which leads to knocking that reduces efficiency in motors
  8   non- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 9 carbons
  9   endothermic term describing a reaction in which the heat content (enthalpy) of the products is greater than the heat content of the reactants, ΔH is +ve, heat is absorbed
10   UV light reaction rate factor for some organic reactions, part of sunlight spectrum; breaks covalent bonds and forms free radicals as reaction intermediaries
11   solar energy heat and light from the sun, main source of energy on earth, stored by plant photosynthesis, sea waves, wind, most of it is used in the water cycle
12   graphite allotrope of carbon, atoms arranged in thin sheets with a network of 6C rings, sheets held together by weak van der Waal forces, slip easily; lubricant, lead pencils, conducts electricity
13   alkane properties colourless compounds, insoluble in water, soluble in non-polar solvents (eg cyclohexane), fuels, short chains more volatile
14   heat of combustion enthalpy change that occurs when one mole of a fuel is burnt, ΔH for hydrogen is -242 kJ mol-1, ΔH for propane is -2043 kJ mol-1
15   flash point of a fuel, the temperature at which enough vapour is given off to form an explosive mixture when a spark or flame is applied to it
16   fuel plants tropical grasses, eg sugar cane, water plants eg water hyacinth, rapid growing softwood eg pines, highly photoactive algae have the potential to be these



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  Answers: Sheet 55 Energy 2

  1   aliphatic hydrocarbons that are based on chains of carbon atoms such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and cyclic alkanes and alkenes
  2   petroleum refining steps separation by distillation, conversion with catalysts, purification (sulfur removal), blending before distribution, results in fuels being produced
  3   petrol pollutants carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, soot, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur compounds, solid particles containing lead
  4   photochemical smog pollution material produced when sunlight and oxygen act on a mixture of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen from motor vehicle exhausts
  5   ethanol problems large amount of energy needed in distillation, 5% water left can corrode fuel lines and cause carburettor problems, too expensive to make absolute (99.9% ethanol)
  6   alkene names 1-iodo-hex-3-ene, 3-bromo-1-chloroprop-1-ene, 1-bromo-2,4-dimethylpent-2-ene
  7   vacuum distillation low pressure distillation process enabling separation to occur at a lower temperature
  8   efficiency this is reduced by incomplete or partial combustion of fuels, reducing the amount of energy available initially in the fuels
  9   sulfur dioxide acid rain causing pollutant produced by coal power stations
10   kinetic energy energy possessed by a moving body
11   plankton tiny plants and animals that live in the ocean, and which form the starting point for oil and gas formation
12   alkyl functional group based on carbon and hydrogen, alkane chains minus a hydrogen attached to another alkane chain
13   exothermic reactions in which heat is given out to the surroundings, warming the surroundings
14   concentration reaction rate factor: the more reactants present means more collisions occurring resulting in a faster rate of reaction
15   photosynthesis an endothermic chemical change that enables plants to trap solar energy in the form of chemical potential energy
16   tetra-ethyl lead substance that used to be added to petrol to increase its octane rating, found to cause serious pollution and its use has been phased out



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  Answers: Sheet 56 Energy 3

  1   dec- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 10 carbons
  2   atomisation the conversion of atoms of substances to monatomic gaseous phase, an endothermic reaction: CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) ---> C(g) + 4H(g) + 4O(g) ΔH +ve
  3   intermediate compound substance produced as a step in an overall reaction, eg free radicals produced by organic compounds in UV of sunlight
  4   photosynthesis stores solar energy for use by ecosystems in food webs and food chain, source of energy in coal, oil, gas, ethanol, biomass fuels
  5   diamond allotrope of carbon, hard, brittle, high thermal conductivity, used in jewellery and cutting tools
  6   volatility the ability of a substance to form a vapour, this ability decreases as boiling point increases
  7   acetylene/propane comparison acetylene has a hotter flame than propane because it has a smaller mass of products of combustion to heat up
  8   fuel safety cars: petrol tank at opposite end to engine, coloured kerosene, no naked flames, mower petrol not stored in plastic containers
  9   alternative energy sources energy from mantle heat (geothermal), gravity (tides due to the moon), original minerals in the earth (nuclear fuel)
10   bucky balls allotrope of carbon, formed from soot, hollow ball of 60 carbons, possible to dope by placing atom at centre, called buckminsterfullerene
11   decrease alkane volatility does this as chain length and boiling point increase
12   partial combustion burning of fuel with an inadequate supply of oxygen resulting in the production of carbon monoxide or soot instead of carbon dioxide
13   placards signs indicating the presence of flammable liquid or gas storage, above and below ground tanks, and trucks
14   methane fuel gas produced by anaerobic bacteria in sewage plants and from farm wastes
15   unsaturated alkenes and alkynes can be given this term because they do not contain the maximum possible number of hydrogens due to the presence of double or triple bonds
16   conversion petroleum process in which long chain molecules are broken up by catalytic cracking, or catalytic reforming, making isomers to increase octane rating



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  Answers: Sheet 57 Energy 4

  1   molecular energy distribution reaction rate factor: only a small proportion of atoms in a mixture are moving fast enough to break bonds when they collide
  2   global warming greenhouse effect caused by the increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the burning of fossil fuels
  3   potential energy energy that has been stored in a body because of its position, chemical composition or shape
  4   petroleum uses fuels: petrol, diesel, kerosene, synthetic fibres, plastics, pharmaceutical’s, solvents, paints, detergents, bitumen
  5   ane suffix to chemical names of carbon compounds in which all the bonds linking carbon atoms are single
  6   intermolecular forces forces between molecules absorbing energy during reactions because they have to be broken, eg H2O(l) ---> H2O(g) ΔH +ve
  7   rate determining step reaction rate factor: a reaction in a series of reactions that is slow will slow down the rate of the overall reaction
  8   respiration exothermic chemical change that enables plants and animals to release stored potential energy from substances made during photosynthesis
  9   propane three carbon hydrocarbon, found in petroleum and natural gas, used for cooking and lighting in caravans, C3H8
10   di- prefix to carbon alkyl groups when a carbon compound contains 2 of them
11   calorimeter apparatus used to determine the heat loss or gain during a reaction by determining the temperature change in a volume of water
12   reaction rate factors molecular energy distribution, activation energy, charged particles, covalent bonds, surface area, reactant concentration, product concentration, rate determining step, temperature, catalyst, current, unstable intermediate compounds, UV light
13   photosynthesis equation 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) ---chlorophyll and sunlight energy--> C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g)
14   ethyne commonly called acetylene, C2H2, used in oxyacetylene cutting and welding of steel, stored in cylinders dissolved in acetone
15   tri- prefix to carbon alkyl groups when a carbon compound contains 3 of them
16   heat to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mc ΔT, …............ = mass of water in grams x specific heat of water x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)



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  Answers: Sheet 58 Energy 5

  1   explosions reactions in which the rate of reaction rapidly increases with temperature which is produced during the reaction
  2   solar based power renewables: biomass fuels, wind, waves, hydro-electricity, solar hot water, solar electricity from solar cell panels; and non-renewables: coal, oil, gas,
  3   alkanes hydrocarbons with the general molecular formula CnH2n+2, possess carbon bonds single covalent
  4   catalytic cracking decomposing large/long chain molecules into smaller chains using a heated catalyst
  5   incomplete combustion standard equation: …............, soot produced: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon + water
  6   oil spill cleanup natural dispersion, contain pollutant with booms and skim it off the water, add dispersants to break it up and speed biodegradation, add biological agents
  7   coal remains of plants that lived millions of years ago, changed by heat and pressure to 50 to 90% carbon, with 3 to 13% oxygen + N and S
  8   ethene alkene with 2 carbon and 4 hydrogen atoms, gas, used to make plastic (polyethylene) alcohol and antifreeze
  9   LPG alternative fuel that produces up to 50% less pollutants compared to diesel, made from petroleum, liquefied petroleum gas, propane, propene, butane, butene
10   activation energy energy content of reactants that must be present before existing bonds can be broken when they collide
11   carbon dioxide greenhouse gas that has increased in concentration since the industrial revolution and contributing to increased world temperatures
12   electromagnetic energy radiant energy, light, heat, radiowaves, ultra violet, gamma rays
13   oil trap a natural geological formation that allows oil which is percolating towards the surface to be trapped in economical amounts under a layer of non-porous rock
14   ene suffix to chemical names of carbon compounds in which at least one of the bonds linking carbon atoms is a double bond
15   intramolecular term describing bonding within covalently bonded molecules, absorbing energy during reactions because they have to be broken, eg H2(g) ---> 2H(g) ΔH+ve
16   temperature reaction rate factor: affects the average kinetic energy of particles, increased reaction rate occurs if this factor is increased because more particles have sufficient activation energy to react when they collide



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  Answers: Sheet 59 Energy 6

  1   sound energy a physical phenomenon that stimulates hearing, consisting of waves transmitted through fluid media from a disturbance
  2   purified natural gas a mixture of methane (90%), ethane, propane and butane, hydrogen sulfide (which is removed to prevent corrosion or iron pipes and sulfur dioxide formation when burnt)
  3   yne suffix to chemical names of carbon compounds in which at least one of the bonds linking carbon atoms is a triple bond
  4   release energy both intermolecular and intramolecular bonds do this as they are forming in products during a chemical reaction
  5   catalysts reaction rate factor: speeds up reaction rates by providing alternative reaction pathways that have lower activation energy in order to occur
  6   respiration equation C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) ---enzymes in mitochondria--> 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)
  7   wood mainly cellulose, smoke pollution problem, domestic fires or stoves, used to make charcoal (almost pure carbon) by burning in absence of air
  8   tetra- prefix to carbon alkyl groups when a carbon compound contains 4 of them
  9   mass of water to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, heat = …............ in grams x specific heat of water x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)
10   gas expansion explosives like TNT produce a lot of gas rapidly as well as heat resulting in this occurring
11   fermentation standard equation: …............ of glucose: glucose --> alcohol + carbon dioxide
12   cyclic alkanes hydrocarbon alkanes with the same general formula as linear alkenes because the carbon atoms link up into a complete ring of atoms
13   catalytic cracking high temperature process in the presence of zeolite used to produce the more useful lighter fractions from petroleum
14   soot standard equation: incomplete combustion, production of ….......... : hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon + water
15   natural dispersion oil spill clean up used if there is no chance of coastal pollution: wind, sun, sea currents left to allow dispersal and evaporation
16   coal use black coal: pulverised and burnt to produce steam to turn electricity turbines, coke made for use in blast furnaces, tars, plastics, gas



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  Answers: Sheet 60 Energy 7

  1   alkynes unsaturated hydrocarbons containing a triple bond: CnH2n-2
  2   mercaptans pungent odoured substances added to LPG, which is itself colourless and odourless, for safety reasons
  3   charged particles reaction rate factor: in ionic reactions these can rapidly form new bonds, eg acid on metal, precipitation, neutralisation
  4   black coal mined in Sydney-Gunnedah Basin, NSW and the Bowen Basin, Queensland
  5   hydrocarbons organic compounds containing the elements carbon and hydrogen only, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cyclic alkanes, aromatics
  6   fuel energy stored chemical energy that is released during combustion when bonds are made with oxygen
  7   covalent bonds reaction rate factor: the breaking and reforming of these results in slow reactions at room temperature, eg chlorine reacting with methane
  8   electrical energy energy related to positive and negative charges and carried by the movement of these charges through a conducting medium such as a wire or an electrolyte which is either melted or in solution
  9   zinc metal attached to iron pipes to prevent corrosion by acting as a sacrificial anode to protect the iron
10   pent- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 5 carbons
11   absorb energy both intermolecular and intramolecular bonds do this as they are being broken in reactants during a chemical reaction
12   non-specific condition in which a catalyst can be used for more than one reaction eg platinum can be used in many organic reactions and fuel cells
13   carbohydrates glucose, starch and glycogen: stored chemical energy, cellulose: support plant structure, ribose: genes, empirical formula in many: Cn(H2O)n
14   oil shale mined material that contains up to 20% bitumen like substances, extracted by heating it to produce oils to form kerosene, diesel and fuel oil
15   methane hydrocarbon containing only 1 carbon atom, gas, found in natural gas
16   specific heat of water to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, heat = mass of water in grams x …............ x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)



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  Answers: Sheet 61 Energy 8

  1   nitrogen element present in many explosives, converted to gas which occupies more space and expands due to heat released
  2   glucose standard equation: fermentation of glucose: …............ --> alcohol + carbon dioxide
  3   saturated alkanes can be given this term because they contain the maximum possible number of hydrogens due to presence of single bonds only
  4   zeolites naturally occurring group of substances containing a mixture of aluminium and silicon oxides which have catalytic effects, eg in catalytic cracking of petroleum
  5   carbon standard equation: incomplete combustion, soot produced: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> …............ + water
  6   booms and skimmers oil spill clean up used early when the slick is a few mm thick, or to block oil from coast or fish farms, the oil is then scooped up by skimmers
  7   alcohol + carbon dioxide standard equation: fermentation of glucose: glucose --> …..........
  8   cyclic alkanes hydrocarbon alkanes with the same general formula as alkenes because the carbon atoms link up into a complete ring of atoms
  9   ethanol 2-carbon alkanol produced from ethene using concentrated sulfuric acid, and then dilution, or solid phosphoric acid catalytic addition of water
10   carbon monoxide standard equation: incomplete combustion, poisonous gas produced: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> …............ + water
11   dispersants oil spill clean up using substances to reduce surface tension and allow oil and water to mix, best used within hours of the original spillage, not suited to all oil types
12   coke material obtained by heating coal in the absence of air, to be used in blast furnaces to reduce iron ore, also produced is coal gas, and tar
13   aromatics hydrocarbons that are based on the benzene ring
14   endothermic reaction heat is taken in, so there is a gain in energy by the system, ΔH is positive, eg solid to liquid, liquid to gas, breaking covalent bonds
15   surface area reaction rate factor: relevant to solids, the more exposed …............ available the faster the reaction, eg powdered limestone reacts faster than chunks
16   transformed changing from one form to another, energy can do this, but it cannot be created or destroyed



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  Answers: Sheet 62 Energy 9

  1   sacrificial anode a more active metal used to protect a less active structural metal from corrosion by being corroded to produced the necessary protecting electrons eg Zn protects Fe
  2   hex- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 6 carbons
  3   enthalpy heat content, indicates the stored energy in a chemical system at a given temperature and pressure
  4   unstable term describing the type of intermediate compounds produced by some catalysts enabling the catalyst to be released and used again
  5   monosaccharides simple sugars, eg glucose, one sugar unit, C6H12O6
  6   allotropes forms of an element that have distinctly different physical properties
  7   ethane hydrocarbon containing 2 carbon atoms joined with a single covalent bond, gaseous, found in natural gas
  8   temperature change to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, heat = mass of water in grams x specific heat of water x …............ of water (Celsius degrees)
  9   spontaneous reactions chemical changes that occur without the addition of extra energy, the reactants already having sufficient activation energy, eg precipitation, neutralisation, electrochemical reactions, acid on metal, melting ice
10   disaccharides double sugars, eg sucrose (cane sugar: glucose and fructose) lactose (milk sugar: galactose and glucose); two sugar units: C12H22O11
11   carbon allotropes diamond, buckyballs, graphite, amorphous
12   propane hydrocarbon containing 3 carbon atoms joined with a single covalent bonds, gas, found LPG
13   specific heat the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one Celsius (or one Kelvin) degree eg water: 4.18 Jg-1K-1
14   slow reactions many organic reactions, photosynthesis, respiration, digestion, ester formation, rusting, usually involve breaking and making covalent bonds resulting in a low rate
15   fuel ethanol fermentation product used widely in Brazil to replace petrol, also used in Queensland in petronal
16   longest chain this is located first in the naming of alkanes taking care to allow for bends in the molecule as drawn



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  Answers: Sheet 63 Energy 10

  1   catalytic hydration method way of making ethanol from ethene in the presence of solid phosphoric acid catalyst and high pressure by the addition of water (steam)
  2   poisonous gas standard equation: incomplete combustion, …............ produced: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon monoxide + water
  3   bioremediation oil spill clean up using bacteria to convert it to fatty acids and CO2, biodegradation, faster with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisers
  4   petroleum formed from the remains of animals and plants that lived millions of years ago, changed by anaerobic bacteria and geological processes
  5   functional group an atom or a group of atoms which gives a homologous series its characteristic chemical properties
  6   endothermic reactions in these reactions the products are less stable (weaker bond energies) than the reactants (stronger bond energies)
  7   Maxwell person who put forward the idea that the particles of a gas may have an average kinetic energy, but some are moving very rapidly, while others are stopped at any given time
  8   electricity generation chemical potential energy in coal ---> radiant heat energy ---> kinetic energy in steam ---> rotational kinetic energy in steam turbine ---> electrical energy in wires
  9   fractional distillation method used to separate petroleum into various useful fractions, involves boiling and then condensation at a range of particular temperatures
10   hept- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 7 carbons
11   exothermic term describing a reaction in which the heat content (enthalpy) of the products is less than the heat content of the reactants, ΔH is -ve, heat is produced
12   catalyst a substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy without being used up
13   battery energy chemical potential energy in battery ---> electrical energy and heat energy
14   knocking term describing the effect of a fuel burning too rapidly in an internal combustion engine, reducing its efficiency. Engine makes a rattling noise
15   oct- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 8 carbons
16   ΔH change in heat content (enthalpy) of substances during a reaction: = H(products) - H(reactants)



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  Answers: Sheet 64 Energy 11

  1   current reaction rate factor in electrolysis, reactions can be speeded up by increasing this
  2   polysaccharides polymers of glucose eg starch (plant energy storage), cellulose (plant structure) and glycogen (animal energy storage)
  3   amorphous allotrope of carbon found in soot formed by the incomplete combustion of fuel, shapeless particles, used as carbon black
  4   increase physical properties like melting point and boiling point do this with increasing length of carbon chain of an alkane
  5   enthalpy change ΔH equals final enthalpy (product enthalpy) - initial enthalpy (reactant enthalpy) = ΔH(products) - ΔH(reactants)
  6   ignition temperature of a substance, the temperature above which spontaneous combustion will start
  7   rapid photosynthesis a necessity for any plants being harvested to produce fuel as only 2% of incident solar radiation is converted to plant material
  8   unsaturated hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon containing less than the maximum number of hydrocarbons per molecule (eg alkenes and alkynes)
  9   catalytic reforming making isomers of petro-chemicals with branched chains to increase octane rating of fuels
10   oxygen standard equation: incomplete combustion, poisonous gas production: hydrocarbon + …............ --> carbon monoxide + water
11   petrol pollutant photochemical smog produced by the action of sunlight on car exhaust gases
12   preservation this must occur in order for plants remains to become coal, and plant and animal remains to become oil
13   homologous series a set of carbon based compounds that have similar properties because they contain the same functional group
14   exothermic reaction heat is given out, so there is a decrease in the total energy of the system, ΔH is negative
15   temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter



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  Answers: Sheet 65 Producing Materials 1

  1   transuranic elements elements with an atomic number above uranium on the periodic table, some can be produced in nuclear reactors
  2   glucose + oxygen standard equation: photosynthesis: water + carbon dioxide --> ...............
  3   addition type of organic reaction in which one element joins on across a double or triple bond, eg when chlorine reacts with an alkene, polymerisation of alkenes
  4   free radical reactive structure formed when a covalent bond is broken and a bonding electron is left on each part of the broken molecule, used to initiate chain growth polymerisation
  5   bases in standard equations, these are metal oxides, soluble and insoluble hydroxides, alkalis (soluble hydroxides)
  6   hex- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 6 carbons
  7   CnH2n+2 general formula for alkanes
  8   slowly rate at which alkanes decolourise brown bromine water solution in the presence of UV due to substitution reaction
  9   acid + metal standard equation: ............... --> salt + hydrogen
10   U-235 isotope of uranium that is used to enrich nuclear reactor fuels because it can capture neutrons and decay to release more neutrons causing a chain reaction
11   tracer a radioisotope used to follow a reaction or process
12   pH meter reference electrode used to determine the pH of unknown solutions because it contains a glass electrode whose potential changes as the hydrogen ion concentration varies
13   Ni-Cad battery cadmium anode, forms cadmium hydroxide (solid), nickel III cathode producing nickel II hydroxide (solid), KOH electrolyte, 1.3 V, rechargeable
14   cold drawing liquid polymer being stretched into a long thin filament allowing polymer chains to form more crystals (strengthens the substance) to make fibre eg nylon
15   a usage conflict starch biopolymer problems: enhanced moisture stability versus biodegradability
16   fermentation breakdown of simple sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide by zymase enzyme in yeast



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  Answers: Sheet 66 Producing Materials 2

  1   sulfur dioxide gas produced when concentrated sulfuric acid oxidises less active metals
  2   oxidation loss of electrons from a substance, as designated in the half equation: M <==> M+ + e-
  3   alumina anhydrous oxide of aluminium obtained from bauxite, electrolysed when molten (1000oC) to produce aluminium (at the cathode) and carbon dioxide (at the carbon anode)
  4   polymer a long chain macromolecule composed of repeating subunits called monomers
  5   tracing dispersal use of radioisotopes to determine where sewage released into the ocean goes
  6   addition polymerisation polymerisation of monomers by the process of adding monomers across double bonds
  7   dimer two linked monomers
  8   technetium-99m radioisotope that evolves from molybdenum-99 which has been produced by neutron activation in a nuclear reactor
  9   half life the time for the decay of half the atoms of a radioactive element
10   10 mSv/year maximum dosage allowed by law for workers in underground uranium mines like Olympic Dam in South Australia
11   balance electrons step to be taken before adding together two half equations to represent an overall redox reaction
12   brine a solution the produces hydrogen at the cathode and chlorine at the anode during electrolysis because sodium is too reactive
13   radical a reactive atom or group of atoms with unpaired electrons, eg sulfate
14   extrusion forcing melted granules of polymer through nozzle to produce a continuous length of fibre, eg terylene
15   unsaturated hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon containing less than the maximum number of hydrocarbons per molecule (eg alkenes and alkynes)
16   electrochemical series a list of ions/metals arranged in order of their strengths as oxidants or reductants



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  Answers: Sheet 67 Producing Materials 3

  1   halohydrocarbon an organic compound derived from a hydrocarbon containing or halogen functional group eg F, Cl, Br, I
  2   66 hours and 6 hours half lives of Mo-99 allowing transportation time, and Tc-99-m allowing for diagnostic use and rapid change to harmless products
  3   archeometry radioisotope dating and other nuclear techniques being used to resolve problems posed by archaeologists
  4   addition reaction chemical change in which a small molecule adds across a double or triple bond of a hydrocarbon molecule
  5   LDPE properties more flexible, lower strength, good transparency, light density, chains with short branches, packing irregular, non-crystalline, use cling wrap
  6   elimination type of organic reaction in which a small molecule breaks off when a double bond is formed, the opposite of addition reaction eg ethanol to ethene and water
  7   plutonium-241 isotope produced from U-238 and a combination of neutron capture followed by two beta decays and a further two neutron captures
  8   fermentation standard equation: ............... of glucose: glucose --> alcohol + carbon dioxide
  9   meth- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 1 carbon
10   hept- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 7 carbons
11   longest chain this is located first in the naming of alkanes taking care to allow for bends in the molecule as drawn
12   instantly rate at which alkenes decolourise brown bromine water solution due to addition reaction
13   salt + hydrogen standard equation: acid + metal --> ...............
14   Ba-144, Kr-89, 3n products of nuclear decay after a U235 atom has been excited by absorbing a neutron
15   affect emf of a cell in redox reactions, what do the following do? temperature of the cell, concentration of reactants and products (Le Chatelier's principle)
16   possible ethanol sources acid hydrolysis of rice stalks and genetically engineered bacteria to hydrolyse sugar cane stalks converting sugar to ethanol, and garbage and raw sewage biogas to ethanol



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  Answers: Sheet 68 Producing Materials 4

  1   reduction the gain of electrons by a substance, as designated in the half equation: M + e- <=> M-
  2   vanadium redox battery possible electricity source for electric vehicles: two solutions circulated in cell stack: anode cell: vanadium II to vanadium III salts, cathode cell: vanadium V to vanadium IV salts, recharged outside the vehicle
  3   cryolite sodium fluoride that is used as a flux to dissolve alumina during electrolysis to reduce the temperature needed to melt alumina
  4   potassium nitrate ionic substance normally used in a salt bridge connecting two half cells in a Daniell electrochemical cell
  5   rayon industrially produced biopolymer made from cellulose (wood or cotton) from which lignin has been extracted
  6   oxygen substance that has an oxidation number of -2 in oxide compounds (except for peroxides where it is -1)
  7   mutations deletion of a base pair in the DNA code, or substituting a different base in a DNA sequence result in a different amino acid in a protein
  8   fluid reason why plastics can be moulded is because they are in this state at some time during manufacture
  9   biogas gases produced from garbage and sewage that could be used to replace natural gas
10   hydrogen substance that has an oxidation number of +1 in compounds (except for ionic hydrides where it is -1)
11   electrowinning term describing electrolysis processes that are used to obtain metals from ores (eg aluminium)
12   oxidising agent an acceptor of electrons, becomes reduced at the same time, the oxidant
13   Le Chatelier's Principle if an equilibrium system is subject to change, the system will react in a way to oppose the change
14   lithium ion battery a cell that involves only lithium ions in discharge and recharge, and also involves manganese dioxide and carbon electrodes
15   rayon manufacture process in which wood is pulped, treated with NaOH, shredded and aged, made into a viscous solution by reaction with NaOH and CS2 (carbon disulfide), forced into an acid solution through spinneret holes
16   redox short for reduction-oxidation



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  Answers: Sheet 69 Producing Materials 5

  1   corroding metal in copper refining by electrolysis, this is used as both the anode and cathode (for both half redox reactions) and as the electron conductor of the external circuit
  2   radiocarbon dating determining the age of organic matter up to 50 000 years ago using the C-14:C-12 ratio, which is assumed to be constant only while an organism is alive
  3   diagnosis use of radioisotopes to determine the cause of an illness, eg iodine-131 for thyroid gland cancer
  4   electrode the conducting terminals of a galvanic or electrolytic cell
  5   homologous series a family of compounds with similar chemical properties and a gradation in their physical properties with increasing molar weight and chain length. They have a general alkane formula in common and the same functional groups
  6   die extrusion forcing melted granules of a polymer through a shape to produce sheets, tubes and pipes
  7   glucose standard equation: fermentation of glucose: ............... --> alcohol + carbon dioxide
  8   alkanol an organic compound derived from alkanes with an -OH functional group
  9   HDPE properties compared to LDPE properties: more rigid, strong, withstand 100oC, less transparent, higher density, chains in long linear crystalline regions, closer packing, use water pipes
10   smoke detectors use of Americium 241, element number 95, produced by beta decay of plutonium 241
11   eth- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 2 carbons
12   mass separation of U-235 from U-238 depends on this difference between the isotopes, which allows the application of gaseous diffusion or centrifuging
13   oct- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 8 carbons
14   biogas fuel gas produced from decaying organic matter or biomass
15   condensation type of organic reaction in which two molecules react to produce a new compound and a small molecule, usually water, eg ester formation, nylon formation
16   exothermic term describing reactions that release heat, eg combustion of ethane and combustion of ethene



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  Answers: Sheet 70 Producing Materials 6

  1   particles generally, for elements or compounds, or atoms within molecules of elements or compounds, n = N/NA, moles = number of ................ divided by Avogadro's number
  2   metal + non-metal standard equation: ............... --> ionic salt
  3   unsaturated alkenes and alkynes can be given this term because they do not contain the maximum possible number of hydrogens due to the presence of double or triple bonds
  4   protein a condensation polymer of amino acids, essential to cell function as structural components and enzymes, mutations result in different or no protein being produced by a gene (DNA)
  5   mutation a change in the structure of DNA leading to the production of a useless protein or no protein
  6   Avogadro's number generally, for elements or compounds, or atoms within molecules of elements or compounds, n = N/NA, moles = number of particles divided by …….........
  7   prop- prefix to carbon chemical compound and atom group names meaning 3 carbons
  8   saturated alkanes can be given this term because they contain the maximum possible number of hydrogens due to presence of single bonds only
  9   endothermic term describing reaction that absorb heat, eg thermal cracking of ethane and propane to produce ethene
10   ionic salt standard equation: metal + non-metal --> ...............
11   CNG petrol alternative: compressed natural gas, burns cleaner than petrol, used in trucks and buses
12   non- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 9 carbons
13   fast breeder reactor type of nuclear reactor that could use the left over U-238 by converting it to plutonium
14   hydrolysis type of organic reaction in which water combines with a substance to release two new products, eg ester breakdown
15   distillation method used to separate ethanol from fermentation products so that it can be used as a fuel (yeast is killed by solutions containing >15% ethanol)
16   particle charge the sum of all the oxidation numbers of all the atoms of elements present in a particle: neutral molecule = 0, polyatomic ion = ion charge



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  Answers: Sheet 71 Producing Materials 7

  1   reducing agent a donor of electrons, becomes oxidised due to losing electrons, the reductant
  2   positive emf spontaneous redox reactions have this, especially for values greater than 0.2 V
  3   fuel cell possible cell to store electricity: hydrogen anode, oxygen cathode, inert electrodes (porous graphite(C)), and potassium hydroxide electrolyte, which is diluted during operation due to water production
  4   ethanol 2 carbon alkanol produced from ethene using concentrated sulfuric acid, and then dilution, or solid phosphoric acid catalytic addition of water
  5   electrorefining term describing electrolysis processes that are used to purify metals that have already been extracted from their ore (eg copper)
  6   therapeutic a use of radioisotopes to treat cancer by weakening or destroying diseased cells, eg, radiation by Co-60, implanting Ir-192 in target tissue
  7   tandem accelerator instrument used to determine the proportion of rare radioisotopes present by stripping electrons and electrostatic acceleration in a particle accelerator (eg C-14:C-12 ratio for carbon dating)
  8   LPG petrol alternative: propane, propene, butane, from natural gas or petroleum refining, liquid petroleum gas, used in 250 000 vehicles in Australia
  9   injection moulding method used to make a wide variety of plastic shapes by forcing the plastic into a mould
10   redox couple the oxidant-reductant pair in a half equation
11   electrode potential alternative name for reduction potential
12   LDPE production conditions used: 100 - 300oC, very high pressure atmosphere (1500 - 3000 atmospheres), organic peroxide or oxygen initiator
13   ion bridge alternative name for a salt bridge
14   alcohol + carbon dioxide standard equation: fermentation of glucose: glucose --> ...............
15   cyclotron accelerator used to bombard uranium with hydrogen nuclei to make plutonium by nuclear fusion
16   alpha particle a particle consisting of a helium nucleus, with a 2+ electrical charge



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  Answers: Sheet 72 Producing Materials 8

  1   DNA genetic chemical found in cells, controls the production of proteins needed for chemical changes or cell structure, damaged by UV
  2   HDPE production conditions used: 300oC, aluminium based catalysts (metallocene catalyst), normal atmospheric pressure
  3   anode electrode at which oxidation takes place in either electrochemical or electrolytic cells
  4   isotopes atoms with the same atomic number but a different mass number, because they contain a different number of neutrons
  5   diesel petrol alternative, less volatile, injected into combustion chamber as a fine liquid spray, ignited by heat and pressure
  6   ion exchange resin an organic polymer that can exchange ions with a solution passing through it
  7   polymerisation type of organic reaction in which long chain molecules form from smaller molecules called monomers, either by addition or condensation chemical processes
  8   radioactive waste disposal possible waste management: deep burial in drums in mines in remote regions that are free from groundwater, dumping in deep sea in drums, made into glass that can be buried
  9   burning metal standard equation: ...............: metal + oxygen --> metal oxide
10   fluid reason why plastics can be moulded is because they are in this state at some time during manufacture
11   moles generally, for elements or compounds, or atoms within molecules of elements or compounds, n = N/NA, ............... = number of particles divided by Avogadro's number
12   non-metal + non-metal standard equation: ............... --> covalent compound
13   dec- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 10 carbons
14   but- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 4 carbons
15   position isomers hydrocarbon compounds of the same homologous series, but with the functional group attached to a different carbon atom
16   dehydration chemical change in which water is removed from ethanol to make ethene in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid catalyst at 180oC



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  Answers: Sheet 73 Producing Materials 9

  1   heat of combustion enthalpy change that occurs when one mole of fuel is completely reacted with oxygen
  2   aviation turbine fuel fuel used in all jet aircraft engines
  3   electricity this form of energy can be produced by redox cells, eg in fuel cells, batteries
  4   impure copper material placed at the anode of a copper refining electrolytic cell, it oxidises to release copper ions
  5   Leclanche cell dry cell, 1.5 volts, used in torches, radios, toys; has a zinc to zinc ion anode, manganese dioxide to Mn2O3 cathode, ammonium chloride paste electrolyte
  6   electrolytic cell non-spontaneous, redox reaction due to applied emf, cathode negative reducing cations, anode positive oxidising anions
  7   oxidation number the charge that the ion has or the charge that the atom in a molecule would have if the molecule was completely ionic
  8   calendering process used for forming polymer sheets for coverings, flooring; by passing through heated rollers
  9   biomedicine use of radioisotopes by labelling molecules of biological samples because they can then be detected in very low concentrations
10   smoke detectors use of ionising effect of alpha particles from Am-141; a fall in transmission of the alpha particles triggers an alarm circuit (when smoke blocks the radiation)
11   electrolysis the non-spontaneous electron transfer reaction occurring in an electrolytic cell
12   redox reaction a reaction involving a reductant and an oxidant in which electrons are transferred from the reductant to the oxidant
13   foam technique used to reduce polymer density by incorporating gas bubbles eg compressed air, CO2 from NaHCO3, polystyrene insulation
14   avgas aviation gasoline used in piston-engined aircraft
15   electrolyte a substance that releases ions into solution and as a result can carry an electric current by ions diffusing
16   gamma rays radiation that needs to be emitted by diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals because it can be detected outside the body



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  Answers: Sheet 74 Producing Materials 10

  1   reductant (reducing agent) an electron donor (becomes oxidised in the process)
  2   radiation effects use of photographic film to detect exposure to radiation; blacker is more exposure
  3   atomic number (Z) the number of protons in a nucleus
  4   isomers molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae
  5   polymer additives plasticisers, fillers, dyes and pigments, stabilisers
  6   natural radiation cosmic rays from the sun and radiation from radioactive substances found in rocks and minerals
  7   smallest number in the naming of carbon compounds, the carbon atoms with double or triple bonds attached are given numbers so that the double or triple bonds are designated this value
  8   million years time it will take for radioactive wastes to return to the former levels of radioactivity possessed prior to mining uranium
  9   double bond reactivity this feature of ethene makes its extremely useful in industry because it can be used to make polythene, alcohol, antifreeze etc.
10   Avogadro's number number of particles in one mole of a substance, 6.02 x 1023
11   racing fuel petrol with a higher octane rating
12   covalent compound standard equation: non-metal + non-metal --> ...............
13   metal + oxygen standard equation: burning metal: ............... --> metal oxide
14   di- prefix to carbon alkyl groups when a carbon compound contains 2 of them
15   hydrocarbon compound containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon
16   solid generally, the state of plastics when being used



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  Answers: Sheet 75 Producing Materials 11

  1   molar heat procedure: weigh fuel before and after burning, determine temperature change of heated water of known mass (m), c = 4.18 kJ/kg water, calculate using H=mcΔT, n=m/RFM and n = H/ΔH
  2   pure copper material that collects at the cathode of a copper refining electrolytic cell, made from reduced copper ions
  3   sulfuric acid method way of making ethanol from ethene by dissolving it in concentrated sulfuric acid to form ethyl hydrogen sulfate, then adding water to hydrolyse to ethanol
  4   cathode site of reduction in both the electrochemical and electrolytic cells
  5   alkaline battery cell components: potassium hydroxide paste electrolyte, zinc anode, manganese dioxide to manganese III hydroxide cathode, used in high drain appliances, eg tape recorders
  6   zero oxidation number of elements eg oxygen in O2, Na metal
  7   electrochemical cell spontaneous, redox reaction brings about an emf, cathode positive, anode negative
  8   balance equation to ...............: write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with valencies, then balance both sides of the equation
  9   two stroke fuel petrol containing oil, used in lawn mowers and outboard motors
10   electroplating electrolytic process used to apply a thin layer of metal onto a metal base (eg iron) at the cathode, eg silver, gold, chromium, copper used to coat the iron
11   synroc possible storage disposal material for radioactive wastes which withstands high temperatures
12   lithium/thionyl chloride cell military uses, lithium anode, carbon cathode, LiAlCl4 electrolyte in thionyl chloride solvent
13   catalytic hydration method way of making ethanol from ethene in the presence of solid phosphoric acid catalyst and high pressure by the addition of water (steam) to the ethene
14   heat generally, for calculations involving heat of reaction, n = H/ΔH, moles = ............... Actually released or absorbed divided by molar heat of reaction
15   ions particles that carry current through an electrolyte in both electrolytic and electrochemical cells
16   anode site of oxidation in both the electrochemical and electrolytic cells



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  Answers: Sheet 76 Producing Materials 12

  1   reduction the gain of electrons
  2   electrolytic cell an arrangement of electrodes and electrolytes in which a non-spontaneous reaction is forced to occur by the application of an external current
  3   redox reactions reactions where electrons are transferred, made up of two half reactions, one for oxidation and one for reduction
  4   condensation polymer polymer made by a reaction between monomers that release another small molecule, eg water: terylene, nylon, cellulose
  5   short half-life this is essential so that the recipient of radiopharmaceuticals is exposed to radiation for a minimum amount of time
  6   unleaded petrol petrol with <13 mg L-1 lead, and <1.3 mg L-1 phosphorus
  7   geiger counter radiation detector that uses the ionising effect of radiation to stimulate a current as a spark between an anode and a cathode that can be counted
  8   beta particles fast moving electrons produced during nuclear decay
  9   isotopes atoms of an element with the same atomic number but different mass numbers due to different numbers of neutrons
10   radioactivity spontaneous breakdown of unstable nuclei releasing electromagnetic rays and often particles
11   plasticisers polymer additive that makes the finished product more flexible and less brittle by weakening the attractions between polymer chains
12   ethene alkene with 2 carbon atoms, a gas, used to make plastic (polyethylene), alcohol and antifreeze
13   metal oxide standard equation: burning metal: metal + oxygen --> ...............
14   aliphatic compounds hydrocarbons that are based on chains of carbon atoms such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and cyclic alkanes and alkenes
15   natural gas ethane and propane in this material is used to make ethene by thermal cracking in the presence of catalysts
16   thermosets plastics that can only be shaped during formation because reheating will not soften them eg bakelite



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  Answers: Sheet 77 Producing Materials 13

  1   metal oxide standard equation: soluble ............... + water --> alkali
  2   tri- prefix to carbon alkyl groups when a carbon compound contains 3 of them
  3   leaded petrol petrol with up to 0.2 g L-1 lead
  4   non-metal standard equation: burning non-metal: non-metal + oxygen --> ............... oxide
  5   tetra- prefix to carbon alkyl groups when a carbon compound contains 4 of them
  6   polymer substance consisting of many small units called monomers linked together, plastics and some other products such as cellulose
  7   functional group an atom or a group of atoms which gives a homologous series its characteristic chemical properties
  8   CnH2n general formula for alkenes
  9   hydrogen by-product of the thermal cracking of ethane from natural gas to produce ethene
10   alkali standard equation: soluble metal oxide + water --> ...............
11   Δheat the change in the amount of heat that is held in a mole of substances undergoing chemical change
12   nuclear chemistry reactions in the nucleus of an atom in which particles or ionising radiations are emitted, or atomic nuclei capture bombarding particles and radiations
13   ethanol properties substance that has hydrogen bonding and hence is miscible with water; and dispersion forces, miscible with many organic liquids, excellent solvent
14   lithium/silver button cell lithium anode, silver chromate cathode (forms silver) and electrolyte, used as power source of implanted cardiac pacemakers
15   electrons particles that carry current through wires in both electrolytic and electrochemical cells
16   OPEC organisation of petroleum exporting countries that control the supply of petrol and regulate the price



  Producing Materials 13Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 78 Producing Materials 14

  1   symbols/formulae to write balanced equations: write element ............... and compound ..............., balance compound formulae with valencies, balance both sides of the equation
  2   saline wash material used to leach technetium-99m from its molybdenum-99 precursor, able to be used over a two week period
  3   reduction potential the potential of a reduction half-cell relative to the standard hydrogen electrode (electrode potential)
  4   salt bridge a solution of potassium nitrate connecting two standard ionic solutions (each 1 M concentration) in the Daniell electrochemical cells
  5   terylene condensation polymer made from terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol
  6   balance electrons step to be taken before adding together two half equations to represent an overall redox reaction
  7   fillers polymer additive that add bulk, reduce cost and may act as a reinforcing agent to increase strength
  8   scintillation counter radiation detector that measures the amount of fluorescence produced by particular substances when exposed to radiation
  9   fermentation the biochemical reaction in which sugar is converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide under the action of an enzyme
10   mass number (A) the number of nucleons (protons + neutrons) in the nucleus
11   biodiesel a fuel made from vegetable oils
12   fission splitting of heavy nuclei into smaller nuclei, eg U-235 + neutron --> Kr-92 + Ba-141 + 3 neutrons
13   petrol main transport fuel, increasing costs may see it replaced, eg leaded, unleaded, two stroke, racing, avgas
14   nuclide a particular nuclear species, an isotope
15   nuclear reactor uses heat production to make steam to drive electricity turbines, production of radioisotopes for industry and medicine, research facilities eg X-ray diffraction studies
16   biogas fuel gas produced from decaying organic matter or biomass



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  Answers: Sheet 79 Producing Materials 15

  1   monomer a subunit of a polymer chain
  2   gamma camera instrument that detects radiation from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals, by viewing organs at various angles and building up an image that can be computer enhanced
  3   alpha particle helium nucleus, released in radioactive decay of heavy nuclides, least penetrating of radiation (5 cm of air)
  4   dyes/pigments polymer additive that is used for decorative purposes, providing colour
  5   fission the splitting of a heavy nucleus into smaller nuclei with the release of energy
  6   oxygen standard equation: burning non-metal: non-metal + ............... --> non-metal oxide
  7   methane hydrocarbon containing only 1 carbon atom, gas, found in natural gas
  8   homologous series a set of carbon based compounds that have similar properties because they contain the same functional group
  9   CnH2n-2 general formula for alkynes
10   fuel alternatives petrol, diesel, LPG, compressed natural gas, methanol, electricity from coal, oil and gas, ethanol, hydrogen, biomass fuels, light weight batteries, solar powered cars
11   methane by-product of the thermal cracking of propane from natural gas and petroleum to produce ethene
12   non-metal oxide standard equation: soluble ............... + water --> acid
13   monomers small units or compounds that can link together to form polymers eg ethene, glucose
14   alkanols general formula: CnH2n+2O or CnH2n+1OH, functional group is the hydroxyl group -OH, carbons counted from -OH
15   molar heat of reaction generally, for calculations involving heat of reaction, n = H/ΔH, moles = heat actually released or absorbed divided by ….........…
16   valencies to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with ..............., balance both sides of the equation



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  Answers: Sheet 80 Producing Materials 16

  1   radioactive term describing an unstable atomic nucleus that breaks down to release radiation
  2   lithium/iodine button cell solid state cell with lithium anode, iodine cathode, and lithium iodide solid electrolyte, cardiac pacemakers, electric watches, mobile phones
  3   salt bridge (ion bridge) an electrolyte or electrolyte gel that joins two half-cells in a galvanic cell and allows movement of ions to maintain charge balance
  4   negative overall electrical potential of a non-spontaneous electrolytic cell found by adding the standard potentials for the redox half reactions occurring
  5   nylon condensation polymer made from hexandioic acid and 1,6-hexanediamine
  6   reactive metals elements that act most strongly as reducing agents because they readily lose electrons to become oxidised, eg potassium
  7   poisonous gas standard equation: incomplete combustion, ...............: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon monoxide + water
  8   radioisotopes for treatment half life wont cause extended hospital stay due to excessive radiation, emits alpha and beta particles to penetrate lesion being treated, gamma radiation to detect that the target has been reached
  9   potential difference electromotive force of a galvanic cell, found by adding the standard potentials for half reaction equations
10   saturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbon molecule that contains only single C-C bonds and hence the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per molecule
11   spontaneous happens without the addition of energy, term describing redox reactions in which the cell potential difference is a positive value
12   cellulose a naturally occurring condensation polymer in wood formed from the monomer glucose
13   unreactive metals elements that act as oxidising agents because they have a low tendency to lose electrons eg mercury
14   functional group a group of atoms attached to a hydrocarbon chain which controls the physical and chemical properties of the molecule
15   stabilisers polymer additive that reduces damage from environmental exposure, such as UV (which breaks up long chains, and involves oxygen (polystyrene reaction), antioxidants used)
16   nucleon a heavy nuclear particle (eg proton, neutron)



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  Answers: Sheet 81 Producing Materials 17

  1   radioisotopes for diagnosis short half-life (hours), no alpha or beta particles, emits gamma radiation to allow position in the body to be assessed
  2   biological shield concrete 1.5 m thick that surrounds the HIFAR reactor to absorb stray neutrons and radiation
  3   beta particle high speed electron released in radioactive decay, moderate penetration, (5 m of air)
  4   solar power petrol alternative: using solar (photovoltaic) panels to power electric cars in combination with lightweight batteries eg AgO/Zn to store electricity
  5   biomass carbon-based matter (mainly plant matter) which stores chemical energy produced by photosynthesis
  6   positron emission tomography diagnostic device consisting of a ring of stationary radiation detectors around a patient being used to detect positron/electron annihilations from O-15, N-13 or C-11 (expensive, short-lived, needs a cyclotron to make these isotopes)
  7   acid standard equation: soluble non-metal oxide + water --> ...............
  8   non-metal oxide standard equation: burning non-metal: non-metal + oxygen --> ...............
  9   ethane hydrocarbon containing 2 carbon atoms joined with a single covalent bond, gas, found in natural gas
10   thermoplastics plastics that soften when heated and harden when cooled eg polyethene
11   cyclo- prefix used in naming hydrocarbons that have a closed ring of carbon atoms
12   catalytic cracking high temperature process in the presence of zeolite used to produce more useful lighter fractions from petroleum
13   isomers compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae
14   balance to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, ............... compound formulae with valencies, ............... both sides of the equation
15   sodium a metal that alkanols react with to produce hydrogen gas and sodium alkoxides, eg sodium ethoxide
16   moles generally, for calculations involving heat of reaction, n = H/ΔH, ............... = heat actually released or absorbed divided by molar heat of reaction



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  Answers: Sheet 82 Producing Materials 18

  1   light weight batteries petrol alternative; used in electric cars eg a battery based on aluminium could give range and refuelling times similar to conventional vehicles
  2   alkaline button cell zinc anode, mercury II oxide cathode with an electrolyte paste of potassium hydroxide, hearing aids, electronic watches
  3   radioactive decay the breakdown of unstable atomic nuclei to release particles and radiation
  4   both sides to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with valencies, balance ............... of the equation
  5   ethanol uses fuel, solvent (pharmaceutical products, medicines, food colouring, cleaners, varnishes), beverages (wine, beer), petrol additive
  6   alkaline button cell cadmium anode, silver oxide cathode, electrolyte paste of potassium hydroxide, used in hearing aids and electronic watches
  7   nuclear instabilities too many protons compared to neutrons (positron decay), too many neutrons compared to protons (beta decay), too many protons and neutrons (alpha particle decay)
  8   heat to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, ............... = mass of water in grams x specific heat of water x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)
  9   replacement acids proton donating substances that oxidise the more active metals by having the hydrogen ions reduced to hydrogen gas, eg hydrochloric acid, dilute sulfuric acid
10   hydrogen electrode standard electrode used to determine the half cell potentials for redox reactions, H2bubbled over platinum in 1M HCl, 25oC, 101.3kPa
11   lowest potential the electrochemical reaction that has this is the one that will occur in an electrolytic cell if more than one reaction is possible
12   spontaneous reaction a reaction that occurs naturally. In a redox reaction the cell potential is positive
13   biopolymers starch (amylose), cellulose, produced by plants by condensation polymerisation of glucose with the release of water
14   bio-diesel biomass fuel called RME (rape methyl ester) produced from oil-seed rape crops
15   biopolymer a natural polymer, eg, starch, cellulose, protein
16   copolymerisation plastic formation using more than one monomer to increase the range of polymers that can be produced



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  Answers: Sheet 83 Producing Materials 19

  1   fusion the joining together of small nuclei to form a large nucleus with the release of energy
  2   nuclear fuel rods aluminium cylinder, four cylinders of zirconium-aluminium alloy and enriched uranium, weighing 6 kg, containing 170 g U-235
  3   gamma radiation short wavelength electromagnetic radiation released during radioactive decay, has the greatest penetration, eg 2 cm of lead
  4   versatile chemistry advantage of technetium-99m in that it can be incorporated into a wide range of carrier biomolecules which concentrate on specific organs
  5   oxidant (oxidising agent) an electron acceptor, being itself reduced during an electrochemical reaction
  6   SPECT single photon emission computer technology: uses Te-99m, and rotated gamma cameras to produce a 3-D image (more time than PET; 6 hours; cheaper radioisotopes)
  7   acid oxide non-metal oxide
  8   cross-linking the arrangement formation of covalent bonds between polymer chains to form thermosetting plastic networks
  9   glucose + oxygen standard equation: respiration: ............... --> water + carbon dioxide
10   propane hydrocarbon containing 3 carbon atoms joined with a single covalent bonds, gas, found LPG
11   bio-ethanol biomass fuel produced by fermentation of sugar from sugar cane, wheat and corn starch, or cellulose
12   haloalkanes carbon compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms has been replaced by either fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine
13   alkyl functional group based on carbon and hydrogen, alkane chains minus a hydrogen
14   zeolites naturally occurring group of substances containing a mixture of aluminium and silicon oxides which have catalytic effects, eg used in catalytic cracking of petroleum
15   grays unit of radiation based on energy absorbed by tissue: 1 Gy = 1 J/kg
16   thermoplastics polymers that have no cross-linking between polymer chains (or strands)



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  Answers: Sheet 84 Producing Materials 20

  1   aluminium cladding this part of the nuclear fuel rods protects uranium from corrosion and stops fission products from contaminating heavy water used as a coolant
  2   ABS copolymer made using acrylonite, butadiene and styrene, used to make telephone cases
  3   smallest numbers in the naming of carbon compounds, the carbon atoms with halogens attached are given these numbers
  4   water + carbon dioxide standard equation: respiration: glucose + oxygen --> ...............
  5   basic oxide metal oxide
  6   ethene production ethane in natural gas and steam heated in a furnace, cooled in a quench boiler, refrigerated and separated to produce ethene ready for transport
  7   cyclic alkanes hydrocarbon alkanes with the same general formula as alkenes because the carbon atoms link up into a complete ring of atoms
  8   biomass fuels petrol alternative, produced from living things, eg bio-methanol from wood, bio-ethanol from sugar fermentation, and bio-diesel from oil-seed rape crops (canola)
  9   beta decay neutron breaking down to a proton and an electron, increasing the atomic number by 1, mass number remains the same
10   rechargeable term describing batteries in which the redox reactions can be reversed by the application of an external potential in order to store electrical energy
11   ane suffix to chemical names of carbon compounds in which all the bonds linking carbon atoms are single
12   acid + base standard equation: ............... --> salt + water
13   ethanol in fuel advantages boosting octane rating of petrol, and reducing carbon monoxide production
14   mass of water to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, heat = ............... in grams x specific heat of water x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)
15   displace a metal in the activity series of metals does this to the ions of a metal below it in the series
16   electrochemical cells galvanic cell, fuel cell, Daniell cell, corrosion cell, battery



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  Answers: Sheet 85 Producing Materials 21

  1   voltameter device for the electrolysis of water in which the gases hydrogen and oxygen can be separately collected
  2   starch biopolymer made by plants as a storage product, a condensation of glucose monomers, and has a folded chain, and glucose in one orientation
  3   standard hydrogen electrode a standard half cell whose half cell potential is defined as zero volts (hydrogen gas bubbling over platinum electrode (1 atm pressure) 1 molar hydrogen solution, 25oC
  4   catalytic cracking decomposing large chain molecules into smaller chains using a heated catalyst
  5   bio-methanol biomass fuel produced from wood and wood residues
  6   galvanic cell the arrangement of electrodes and electrolytes in which a redox reaction causes a flow of electricity
  7   oxidation loss of electrons
  8   gamma radiography industrial use of radioisotopes in detecting flaws in metal castings or welded joints using a pellet of Co-60 or Ir-192 and photographic film
  9   becquerel (Bq) unit of radioactivity based on the number of nuclear disintegrations per second: 1 Bq = 1 disintegration/s
10   radioisotopes isotopes of elements that have unstable nuclei, and undergo radioactive decay to emit particles and form another element
11   gauging determining the thickness of plastic film as it is being rolled, an industrial use of radioisotopes
12   oxidation state a number given to an atom to indicate (theoretically) the number of electrons it has lost or gained (ie its state of oxidation)
13   cathode the electrode at which reduction takes place
14   gamma rays high energy electromagnetic radiation from the nucleus (positive in electrochemical cells, and negative in electrolytic cells)
15   curie unit of radioactivity based on the activity of 1 g of Ra-226, equivalent to 3.7 x10 E 10
16   half life time taken for half of the original quantity of a radioactive nuclide to decay, the remainder beginning a new half life



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  Answers: Sheet 86 Producing Materials 22

  1   alkali substance that contains water soluble hydroxide
  2   metal hydrides a possible way of storing hydrogen to be used as a fuel because some of these can absorb it and then desorb it when needed
  3   polymerisation process by which many small molecules (monomers) join together to form polymer strands or chains
  4   respiration standard equation: ...............: glucose + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide
  5   alphabetical order in which halogen functional groups are named in a carbon compound, ignoring prefixes like di-, tri-, tetra, eg CFCs: chloro-fluoro-carbons
  6   nonpolar type of solvent that dissolves both alkanes and alkenes because they are nonpolar
  7   heavy water coolant used in HIFAR reactor at Lucas Heights to carry the heat of the reactor
  8   biomass fuels wood, crop straw, sugar cane bagasse, animal wastes, urban organic refuse
  9   aromatics hydrocarbons that are based on the benzene ring
10   positron decay proton breaking down to a neutron and a positively charged electron (beta + decay), atomic number decreases by 1, mass number remains the same
11   salt + water standard equation: acid + base --> ...............
12   ene suffix to chemical names of carbon compounds in which at least one of the bonds linking carbon atoms is a double bond
13   substitution a reaction in which hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon are replaced by other atoms
14   specific heat of water to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, heat = mass of water in grams x ............... x change in water temperature (Celsius degrees)
15   hydrogen petrol alternative: produced from water by electrolysis, possibly a limitless supply of fuel depending on the availability and cost of electricity



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  Answers: Sheet 87 Producing Materials 23

  1   oxidising acids acids that produce gases other than hydrogen when they oxidise less active metals, eg nitric acid, sulfuric acid
  2   secondary battery rechargeable battery, eg lead-acid accumulator, nickel-cadmium battery, vanadium redox battery, lithium iodine battery
  3   salts compounds that can be electrolysed in either the molten or aqueous state
  4   some monomers ethene CH2=CH2(polyethene), chloroethene CH2=CHCl (PVC), styrene C6H5-CH=CH2(polystyrene), acrylonitrile CH2=CHCN (acrylic)
  5   cellulose biopolymer made by plants as a structural product, a condensation of glucose monomers, composed of linear chains hydrogen bonded together, glucose is in two orientations successively, eg paper
  6   oxidation potential this is found by reversing the sign of a reduction potential when adding two half redox equations eg positive changed to negative or vice versa
  7   rubber copolymer made from butadiene and styrene
  8   temperature change to find heat absorbed or produced in a reaction, H = mcΔT, heat = mass of water in grams x specific heat of water x ............... of water (Celsius degrees)
  9   reduction potential found by using the standard hydrogen electrode as one half cell in a redox reaction, and presented in tables showing reduction half equations
10   brine a solution that produces hydrogen instead of sodium at the cathode and chlorine at the anode during electrolysis because sodium is too reactive
11   polylactic acid polymerised lactic acid, the lactic acid produced from starch by bacteria, used in medical implants, a condensation polymer
12   nitric oxide colourless gas produced when dilute nitric acid oxidises less active metals, this gas is quickly oxidised by air to from nitrogen dioxide
13   hydrogen problems storage, safety
14   thermoplastic a polymer that can be repeatedly heated and readily moulded without decomposition
15   primary battery non-rechargeable battery, eg lithium silver button cell, alkaline cells, dry cells



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  Answers: Sheet 88 Producing Materials 24

  1   gamma sterilisation using Co-60 radiation to kill bacteria in medical products, parasites in wool, food preservation
  2   cell potential (voltage) the difference between the electrode potentials of the half cells of a galvanic cell
  3   half cell either the oxidation or reduction half of a galvanic or electrolytic cell
  4   neutron activation radioisotope manufacture technique that involves neutron capture by atoms placed in a nuclear reactor to produce neutron rich nuclei, eg Co-60, Mo-99
  5   petrochemicals products produced from hydrocarbons extracted from crude oil
  6   photosynthesis standard equation: ...............: water + carbon dioxide --> glucose + oxygen
  7   precipitation reactions reactions in which ionic substances swap partners so that an insoluble compound is form from two soluble compounds
  8   HIFAR reactor operated by ANSTO at Lucas Heights Sydney: High Flux Australian Reactor, 10 MW, materials production and testing
  9   addition polymer plastic formed when many monomer molecules simply add together by breaking double bonds, eg polyethene, polystyrene, PVC
10   precedence this is given to alkene functional group, over alkyl functional group, or halogen over alkyl, in the naming of carbon compounds
11   ethanol petrol alternative: made from sugar by fermentation using yeast and then distillation: C6H12O6 --yeast--> 2C2H5OH(l) + 2CO2(g)
12   alpha decay oversized nucleus releases a helium nucleus, lowering atomic number by 2 and mass number by 4
13   non-polar term describing covalent bonds between two atoms of the same electronegativity
14   acid + carbonate standard equation: ............... --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
15   yne suffix to chemical names of carbon compounds in which at least one of the bonds linking carbon atoms is a triple bond



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  Answers: Sheet 89 Producing Materials 25

  1   photosynthesis chemical change carried out by plants to trap solar energy as biomass fuel energy
  2   alphabetical order in which alkyl functional groups are named in a carbon compound, ignoring prefixes like di-, tri-, tetra, eg triethyl before dimethyl
  3   gamma rays electromagnetic radiation often released by nuclei undergoing nuclear reaction, can be included in equations by writing 'energy' or γ
  4   smallest number in the naming of carbon compounds, the carbon atoms to which side alkyl chains are attached are given numbers so that alkyl groups are designated this
  5   salt + water + carbon dioxide standard equation: acid + carbonate --> ...............
  6   pent- prefix to carbon chemical and atom group names meaning 5 carbons
  7   bromine water brown solution that is used to distinguish between alkanes and alkenes because alkenes decolourise it instantly due to addition reaction
  8   thermoset a polymer that decomposes when heated, wont melt, eg cellulose, bakelite
  9   electricity petrol alternative: made from coal, oil, and gas, stored in batteries, or used to power trains
10   lead-acid accumulator lead anode, lead dioxide cathode, sulfuric acid electrolyte, both plates produce solid lead sulfate, rechargeable, 2 V per cell, used in cars
11   biomass fuel disadvantages use of productive agricultural land, clearing old growth forests, erosion, salination, overuse of water resources, increased fertiliser and pesticide use
12   molten salt liquid that is able to be electrolysed to produce sodium at the cathode, and chlorine at the anode
13   reinforcing materials glass fibres (in canoes made of styrene-polyester), carbon (in tennis racquet handles), Kevlar (a polyamide with aromatic rings/in sail cloth)
14   starch packaging polymer being developed because it is biodegradable, made from renewable resources (plants, rather than petro-chemicals)
15   nitrogen dioxide gas produced when concentrated nitric acid oxidises less active metals, brown colour



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  Answers: Sheet 90 Producing Materials 26

  1   calorimeter container used to collect heat from a combusted fuel during the determination of molar heat of combustion
  2   cell notation anode material/product of oxidation//substance being reduced/cathode material eg Cu/Cu2+//Ag+/Ag, Pt(s)/I-(aq)/I2(s)//Fe3+/Fe2+/Pt(s)
  3   cyclotron accelerator used to make proton rich atoms for use as radioisotopes by bombarding them with protons
  4   environmental studies use of radioisotopes to determine the rate of flow of underground water because it does not have its natural radioisotopes replenished eg Cl-36, C-14, H-3
  5   petroleum an oil mixture consisting mainly of hydrocarbons
  6   condensation polymerisation step-growth polymerisation in which two different monomers combine with the release of a smaller molecule (nylon)
  7   methanol petrol alternative: made from natural gas or coal, high octane rating, used in some purpose-designed engines (eg some racing cars) CH3OH
  8   half equation an equation that shows gain or loss of electrons
  9   sievert (Sv) unit of radiation related to grays and the effect of the form of radiation on tissue: beta and gamma: 1 Gy = 1 Sv, neutrons: 1 Gy = 10 Sv, alpha particles: 1 Gy = 20 Sv
10   8 months length of time that a fuel rod is of use for the HIFAR reactor because its neutron producing efficiency falls too far
11   water + carbon dioxide standard equation: photosynthesis: ............... --> glucose + oxygen
12   ionic reactions equations for these reactions leave out spectator ions or other substances that do not change state
13   substitution type of organic reaction in which one element replaces another, eg when chlorine reacts with an alkane
14   initiator substance added to monomers to start the addition polymerisation process because it easily produces free radicals, eg dibutyl peroxide
15   cyclotron accelerator used to make proton rich atoms for use as radioisotopes by bombarding them with protons
16   gray (Gy) radiation exposure defined as 1 Joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of matter



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  Answers: Sheet 91 Acid and Bases 1

  1   square brackets these are used to indicate "concentration of" whatever chemical species is enclosed by them in calculations of equilibrium constants
  2   Avogadro's number generally, for elements or compounds, or atoms within molecules of elements or compounds, n = N/NA, moles = number of particles divided by …
  3   blood buffers H2CO3, HCO3-, H2PO4-, HPO4=, haemoglobin, all assisting to keep pH around 7.4, as death results if pH<7 or pH>7.8
  4   natural acids acetic or ethanoic in vinegar, citric in lemons, ascorbic (vitamin C) in fruit, tartaric in grapes, hydrochloric acids in gastric juices
  5   monoprotic an acid that is able to donate one hydrogen ion per molecule of acid
  6   EPA this establishment uses a scale (API, air pollution index) to indicate pollution in parts per hundred million (pphm): environmental protection authority
  7   hydrogen bonding intermolecular bonding that is the result of the presence of hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxyl (-C=O alone or in -COOH or -CHO) functional groups in alkanols and alkanoic acids, alkanones or alkanals
  8   Davy (Sir Humphrey) person suggested that hydrogen was the one element present in all acids after studying HCl and finding no oxygen
  9   sulfur trioxide covalent molecular solid, dissolves in water to from sulfuric acid: SO3, H2SO4
10   acid constant Ka this value equals: [H+][A-]/[HA], for weak acids with general equation HA <--> H+ + A-
11   Arrhenius (Svante) person who, after observations of ability of acids and bases to conduct current, proposed electrolytic dissociation theory
12   pH equation negative logarithm of the concentration of the hydrogen ion -log10[H+]
13   alkanoic acid an organic compound derived from an alkane which contains the carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional group at the end of the chain
14   fluorine oxide a non-metal oxide that is not acidic, F2O, the only group VII oxide that is not acidic
15   acidosis condition that occurs when blood pH<7.4 reducing ability of haemoglobin to carry oxygen, cell fatigue, headaches eg from strenuous exercise causing lactic acid production



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  Answers: Sheet 92 Acid and Bases 2

  1   neutralisation the reaction of an acid with a base in which the corrosive and other properties of the acid and the base are destroyed
  2   manufactured acids sulfuric, hydrobromic, hydrochloric, nitric acids
  3   API scale used by the EPA (environmental protection authority) to indicate the amount of air pollution, measured in parts per hundred million (pphm)
  4   acid rain formation SO2 + H2O --> H2SO3, SO2 oxidised in air to SO3, then SO3 + H2O --> H2SO4, 2NO2 + H2O --> HNO2 + HNO3
  5   concentration from pH negative indice of base 10, eg, pH of 3.5 means [H+] = 10-3.5
  6   Arrhenius theory acids dissolve in water to produce H+ and the only + ion, water soluble bases produce OH- as the only negative ion in solution
  7   unsaturated fatty acids long chain alkanoic acids which contain at least one C=C bond
  8   oxidising agents oxides of chlorine are not only acidic but they are also used for this purpose in bleaching and germicides, eg ClO2 (HClO2 + HClO3) and Cl2O7 (HClO4 perchloric acid)
  9   Avogadro's number number of particles in one mole of a substance, 6.02 x 1023
10   weak blood bases haemoglobin and oxyhaemoglobin, involved in a series of equilibria, overall: HbH+ (aq) + O2(aq) <==> HbO2(aq) + H+(aq)
11   acid a substance that donates a proton (hydrogen ion)
12   pH negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution, logarithm base 10
13   balance equation to ...............: write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with valencies, balance both sides of the equation
14   polyprotic an acid that is able to donate more than one proton per molecule of acid
15   Kw ionic product of water, has a value of 1 x 10-14 at 25oC



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  Answers: Sheet 93 Acid and Bases 3

  1   unpolluted rain pH normally about 6, above 5.6, due to the presence of carbonic acid formed when carbon dioxide dissolves in water
  2   pKw negative logarithm of the ionisation constant of water, equals 14, such that pH + pOH = 14
  3   Bronsted and Lowry proposed in 1923 (independently): acids are substances that donate a proton when in solution, and bases are substances that accept a proton
  4   ester flavours rum: methyl butanoate, banana: 1-pentyl ethanoate, orange: 1-octyl ethanoate, apricot, peach, pineapple: ethyl butanoate
  5   basic classification of oxides of metals because they neutralise acids and form alkaline solutions if soluble in water
  6   haemoglobin changes arterial blood: 86% oxyhaemoglobin (bright red) in basic form, venous blood 86% haemoglobin (dark blue) is in acid form
  7   conjugate pairs acids and bases must exist in these because a proton is transferred from an acid to a base
  8   amphoteric oxides of beryllium and aluminium because they react with both acids and alkalis, also: ZnO, PbO, SnO, Cr2O3
  9   acidic solutions mixtures that produce extra hydrogen ions in aqueous solution so that [H+] > [OH-], eg solution of HCl
10   blood carbonate buffer at cellular level, H+(aq) + HCO3- <==> H2CO3(aq) <==> H2O(l) + CO2(g) at lungs; ratio H2CO3 : HCO3- of 1 : 20 at pH of 7.4
11   primary standard a substance used in volumetric analysis which is of such high purity and stability that it can be used to prepare a solution of accurately known concentration
12   acidic solutions aqueous solutions of substances with pH less than 7
13   acid rain effects dissolving marble statues, damaging plants (eg pine trees in the Black Forest, Europe), leaching aluminium from soil into streams poisoning fish and other aquatic life and plants
14   food use of glycerol esters: fats and oils we eat eg margarine, butter, cooking oil
15   basic solutions aqueous solutions of substances with pH greater than 7



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  Answers: Sheet 94 Acid and Bases 4

  1   natural pollution lightning and some biological processes making oxides of nitrogen
  2   solvents use of esters because they dissolve both polar and non-polar organic compounds eg ethyl ethanoate as used in paints, varnishes, model aeroplane glue
  3   acid-base reaction the transfer of a proton from an acid to a base
  4   neutral oxides oxides that are neither acidic nor basic: CO, N2O, NO, F2O
  5   strong acid an acid that is completely ionised in water solution
  6   neutral solution solutions that have a pH of 7 because [H+] = [OH-] = 10-7 M at 25oC
  7   ester an organic compound derived from an alkanol and alkanoic acid containing the -COO- functional group
  8   NOx nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide designation because they are both pollutants
  9   soaps use of esters, substances produced by the hydrolysis of long chain esters found in lipids (fats and oils)
10   pH scale 1 M HCl, has a pH of 0, pure water is neutral pH of 7, 1 M NaOH has a pH of 14
11   aqueous acid this is formed when an acid transfers a proton to a water molecule to form the hydronium ion [H3O]+(aq)
12   Le Chatelier's Principle if any chemical system is subjected to a change in concentration or temperature, the system will react in the direction to minimise the effect of the change
13   balance to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, ............... Compound formulae with valencies, ............... both sides of the equation
14   greater for an electrolytic cell to work, the applied voltage must be ................ than the emf for the cell
15   titration a technique in volumetric analysis in which one reactant is added to another from a burette until an end point is reached



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  Answers: Sheet 95 Acid and Bases 5

  1   alkyl alkanoate (ester) an organic compound derived from an alkanol and an alkanoic acid containing the ester (-COO-) functional group
  2   concentrated acid a solution of an acid in which there is a large amount of acid dissolved, eg 10 M HCl
  3   both sides to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, balance compound formulae with valencies, balance ............... of the equation
  4   dilute acid a solution of an acid in which there is a small amount of acid dissolved, eg 0.1 M HCl
  5   outside 1 to 13 range pH calculation can be this, eg pH of 0.1 M H2SO4 is 0.7 assuming complete dissociation, pH of 0.2 M NaOH is 13.3
  6   triglyceride a tri-ester composed of glycerol and long chain fatty acids (lipids, oils, fats)
  7   titre the volume of solution that has been added from a burette which achieves the end point
  8   NOx sources NO from internal combustion engines (N2 + O2 --> 2NO), which is readily oxidised to NO2 (2NO + O2 --> 2NO2)
  9   exothermic neutralisation, a proton transfer reaction, is this because it releases heat
10   indicators dyes that change colour if their pH is changed, and can be used to identify the presence of acid or basic solutions, and possibly identify actual pH
11   Lewis proposed that acids are electron-pair acceptors, and bases are electron pair donors eg H+ + NH3 --> [NH4]+
12   shift term describing the direction a reaction moves when an equilibrium is disturbed by a change in concentration of a reactant or product, or temperature
13   conjugate pair the acid and the base that forms from it when it donates a proton, or the base and the acid that forms from it when it accepts a proton
14   endothermic type of reaction that shifts to the right with an increase in temperature to absorb the extra heat
15   ester compound formed from the reaction of an organic acid and an alkanol: RCOOR'



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  Answers: Sheet 96 Acid and Bases 6

  1   acid strength this feature of acids depends on the ability of the acid to dissociate or ionise in solution
  2   acid + base standard equation: ............... --> salt + water
  3   volumetric analysis determination of the volume of a standard solution that is required to exactly react with a substance being analysed
  4   citric acid 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
  5   universal indicator a blend of several indicators that produces a different colour at each solution pH
  6   indicator action conjugate bases of weak acids that undergo structural changes that result in colour changes when solution pH is changed
  7   exothermic type of reaction that shifts to the left with an increase in temperature to absorb extra heat by moving in the endothermic direction
  8   Lewis acids substances that function as electron-pair acceptors other than H+
  9   ester names alkyl alkanoate, drawn with the alkanoic acid part first, alkanol part second, written with the alkanol part first and the alkanoic acid salt name last (alkanoate)
10   salt + water standard equation: acid + base --> ...............
11   strong acid an acid that ionises or dissociates completely into hydrogen ions and anions in aqueous solution
12   weak acid an acid that is partially ionised and contains few free hydrogen ions in solution
13   pipette bulbous glass tube with one graduation for obtaining accurately measured aliquot’s of solutions for titration in volumetric analysis
14   weak acid an acid that does not dissociate completely in aqueous solutions, has a low dissociation constant
15   red cabbage plant that contains a natural universal indicator (cyanidin) coloured from red to purple, blue, green and yellow



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  Answers: Sheet 97 Acid and Bases 7

  1   Lewis base a substance that donates its electron pair to either H+ or any other substance, eg NH3
  2   catalysts substances that alter the time for a system to reach equilibrium without affecting equilibrium concentrations
  3   refluxing experimental technique used in making esters so that volatile reactants and products are returned to the reaction flask
  4   acid + carbonate standard equation: ............... --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
  5   cheaper reactant in ester manufacture this substance is used in excess because this favours the production of the ester due to the reaction being an equilibrium
  6   salt + water + carbon dioxide standard equation: acid + carbonate --> ...............
  7   poisonous liquids these must never be pipetted by mouth
  8   equilibrium constant a number obtained by dividing the concentrations of products by the concentrations of reactants in a chemical change
  9   moles for gases, n = V/MV, ............... = volume in litres divided by molar volume (either 22.71 or 24.79 L)
10   methyl orange indicator suitable for titrating strong acids with weak bases because the pH at end point is 3.2 to 4.4 red-yellow
11   NaOH strengths sodium hydroxide is a strong base, while sodium ions (conjugate acid) are so weak that they neutral dissolved in water (weak electron pair acceptor)
12   shift to right direction a system at equilibrium moves if reactants are added (increased in concentration)
13   methyl red indicator suitable for titrating strong acids with weak bases because the pH at end point is 4.8 to 6 red-yellow
14   HCl strengths hydrochloric acid is a strong acid, while chloride ion (conjugate base) are so weak that they are neutral dissolved in water (weak electron pair donor)
15   acid (Arrhenius) a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution



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  Answers: Sheet 98 Acid and Bases 8

    1   shift to left direction a system at equilibrium if products are added (increased in concentration)
    2   acid + metal standard equation: ............... --> salt + hydrogen
    3   dehydration catalytic function of concentrated sulfuric acid in the formation of esters, as the presence of water tends to hydrolyse any ester formed
    4   acid substances with a sour taste, which can dissolve metals and change the colour of certain vegetable dyes
    5   burette graduated glass tube with a tap for delivering known variable volumes of a reactant during titration
    6   dissociation constant the equilibrium constant obtained for an acid undergoing dissociation as it forms an aqueous solution, high for strong acids, low for weak acids
    7   volume in litres for gases, n = V/MV, moles = ............... / molar volume (22.71 or 24.79 for STP and RTP respectively)
    8   acid oxide non-metal oxide
    9   molar volume for gases, n = V/MV, moles = volume of gas in litres divided by ............... of 22.71 (STP) or 24.79 (RTP)
10   basic oxide metal oxide
11   bromothymol blue indicator suitable for titrating strong acids with strong bases or weak acids with weak bases because the pH at end point is around 6 to 7.6 yellow-blue
12   amphiprotic ion an ion that can act either as an acid or a base depending on which reaction is occurring, eg H2PO4=, HSO4-, HCO3-
13   acid (Bronsted-Lowry) a proton donor
14   sodium carbonate substance added to a reactant and ester mixture to neutralise any acid present (eg excess alkanoic acid reactant, or sulfuric acid catalyst) prior to placing the mixture in a separating funnel to collect the ester floating on the top
15   salt + hydrogen standard equation: acid + metal --> ...............



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  Answers: Sheet 99 Acid and Bases 9

  1   volumetric flask stoppered flask with a single graduation for preparing solutions of known concentration in preparation for titration
  2   higher pH this is the result of the low rate of dissociation of weak acids compared to the high rate of dissociation of strong acids
  3   lower pH this is the result of the high rate of dissociation of strong acids compared to the low rate of dissociation of weak acids
  4   conical flask flask to which is added a known volume of reagent and indicator prior to volumetric analysis by the delivery another reagent from a burette
  5   alkali substance that contains water soluble hydroxide
  6   22.71 litres molar volume of a gas at STP (standard temperature and pressure)
  7   phenolphthalein indicator suitable for titrating weak acids with strong bases because the pH at end point is 8.2 to 10 colourless-pink
  8   oxidising acids concentrated acids that produce gases other than hydrogen when they oxidise less active metals, eg nitric acid on copper: nitrogen dioxide, sulfuric acid on copper: sulfur dioxide
  9   amphiprotic molecule a molecule that can act either as an acid or a base depending on which reaction is occurring, eg H2O
10   acid (Lewis) an electron pair acceptor eg H+ accepts electrons to become elemental hydrogen (gas)
11   hydrangeas plant that produces blue flowers when growing in acid soil and pink flowers when growing in alkaline soils
12   distillation process used to separate an ester from reactants if the ester has a lower boiling point than the reactants
13   acid rain rainwater that has a lower pH than normal rainwater, that is, pH less than 5.6
14   separation funnel device used to separate an ester from reactants if the ester has a higher boiling point the reactants, as esters in immiscible with water
15   distilled water substance used to rinse volumetric flasks and conical flasks prior to being used for titration experiments



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  Answers: Sheet 100 Acid and Bases 10

  1   litmus dye extracted from lichens, red in acid and blue in alkali
  2   polyprotic acids acids that have more than one ionisable proton, as a result they have more than one dissociation constant
  3   24.79 litres molar volume of a gas at RTP (room temperature and pressure)
  4   common bases soda water, soap, toothpaste, washing soda, oven cleaner
  5   freed OH- these ions raise the pH of a solution of a salt containing a conjugate base of a weak acid because the conjugate base accepts H+ from water, eg sodium ethanoate
  6   swimming pool pH application: for chlorination substances to function the pH must be maintained around 7.2, by adding HCl
  7   freed H+ these ions lower the pH of a solution of a salt containing a conjugate acid of a weak base because the conjugate acid donates H+ to water, eg ammonium chloride
  8   miscible term describing the dissolving of liquid reactants (alkanols and alkanoic acids) used in ester formation because they dissolve readily in water while the product ester does not dissolve
  9   acidic solution a solution containing hydrogen ions and having a pH less than 7
10   reagent substance used to rinse pipettes and burettes prior to using them for titration experiments
11   acidic oxides non-metal oxides, due to the fact that when they dissolve in water they produce acid
12   acid conductivity ability of an acid solution to carry current, for strong acids: this property increases in proportion to concentration
13   moles generally, for elements and compounds, n = m/RFM, ............... = mass in grams divided by relative formula mass
14   mass in grams generally, for elements and compounds, n = m/RFM, moles = ............... divided by relative formula mass
15   sulfur dioxide gas produced when concentrated sulfuric acid oxidises less active metals
16   chlorination reaction in swimming pools, pH > 7.4, allows algal scum growth HClO <--> H+ + ClO-, while pH <7 (acid) causes eye problems



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  Answers: Sheet 101 Acid and Bases 11

  1   neutral pH salts of strong acids and strong bases have this pH because no hydrolysis occurs, eg NaCl
  2   alkaline solution a solution containing hydroxide ions and having a pH greater than 7
  3   alkanol an organic compound derived from an alkane which has the alcohol (-OH) functional group
  4   carbon dioxide covalent molecular, gas, dissolves in water to produce carbonic acid (H2CO3) weak acid, needed for photosynthesis
  5   non-linear increase change that occurs in conductivity of weak acid as concentration is increased because a decreasing percentage of the acid is dissociated
  6   ideal primary standard easy to purify, dry, store, unaffected by air moisture during weighing, reasonably high molar mass (less error), readily soluble
  7   silicon dioxide covalent network solid, almost insoluble, forms silicates, used to class rocks as being acidic (granite)
  8   linear increase change that occurs in conductivity of a strong acid as concentration increases because the number of ions present also increases at the same rate
  9   sodium hydroxide a base frequently used as a primary standard but which absorbs water and carbon dioxide from air necessitating additional titrations to standardise
10   relative formula mass generally, for elements and compounds, n = m/RFM, moles = mass in grams divided by ...............
11   amphiprotic of a chemical that can behave as either a Bronsted-Lowry acid or a base under different conditions
12   chlorination compounds sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2), strong base, weak acid; raise pool pH
13   neutral pH salts of weak acids and weak bases have pH around this because the conjugate base accepts H+ from H2O, while the conjugate acid donates H+ to H2O, eg ammonium ethanoate
14   glycerol a trihydric alkanol: 1,2,3-propanetriol, forms natural esters with fatty acids called lipids, oils and fats
15   alkali standard equation: soluble metal oxide + water --> ...............
16   alkanols organic compounds containing the hydroxyl functional group: -OH, CnH2n-1OH



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  Answers: Sheet 102 Acid and Bases 12

  1   volume in litres for solutions, n = MxV, moles = concentration in moles per litre x ................
  2   standardising NaOH titrate with primary standard acids made from solid oxalic or benzoic acid, or firstly standardise HCl with primary standard made from anhydrous Na2CO3, and then standardise NaOH with the HCl
  3   food preservation pH application: low pH(<4) inhibits pathogen growth and food spoilage organism growth; onions pickled in vinegar (pH 2.8), soft drinks, benzoic acid pH<4.5
  4   atomic weights quantities from the periodic table that are used to determine the relative formula mass of elements or compounds
  5   amphoteric the ability of a chemical compound or element to react as an acid or a base. Amphiprotic substances and metals like lead and aluminium
  6   buffer a solution containing similar molar quantities of acid-base pairs which maintains a fairly constant pH via shifts in the equilibria, eg, ethanoic acid and sodium ethanoate, or carbonic acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate
  7   base (Arrhenius) a substance that produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
  8   conjugate the relationship between a Bronsted-Lowry acid-base pair in which a proton (H+) is transferred from the acid to the base
  9   dinitrogen trioxide covalent molecular gas, N2O3 which dissolves in water to from weak nitrous acid (HNO2)
10   moles for solutions, n = MxV, ............... = concentration in moles per litre x volume in litres
11   primary alkanol alkanol with the hydroxyl functional group at the end of the chain (attached to a carbon with only one other carbon attached)
12   primary standards used anhydrous Na2CO3 for strong acids with methyl orange, oxalic acid ((COOH)2.2H2O) for strong alkalis, phenolphthalein
13   soils medium requiring pH corrections eg powdered limestone used to make conditions suitable for plant growth (raise pH); ammonium sulfate lowers pH
14   relative formula mass the mass in grams that is needed to have one mole of an element or compound
15   relative formula mass term that may be used instead of atomic weight, molecular mass, or molecular weight in the equation n = m/RFM
16   digestive upset pH application: antacids used to raise stomach pH to prevent heart burn, eg calcium or magnesium carbonate, magnesium and aluminium hydroxide



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  Answers: Sheet 103 Acid and Bases 13

  1   base (Bronsted-Lowry) a proton acceptor
  2   end point the stage in a titration in which the indicator just changes colour
  3   acid standard equation: soluble non-metal oxide + water --> ...............
  4   proteins source of sulfur in fossil fuels, the fossilisation process releases and traps the sulfur in the fossil fuel
  5   dinitrogen pentoxide covalent molecular gas, N2O5 which dissolves in water to from strong nitric acid (HNO3)
  6   concentration for solutions, n = MxV, moles = ................ in moles per litre x volume in litres
  7   secondary alkanol alkanol with the hydroxyl functional group in the middle of the chain (attached to a carbon with two other carbons attached)
  8   dilution equation M1V1 = M2V2, concentration1 x volume1 = concentration2 x volume2
  9   phosphorus(III) oxide covalent molecular, P2O3 which dissolves in water to form weak phosphorous acid (H3PO3)
10   tertiary alkanol alkanol with the hydroxyl functional group at the branching of the chain (attached to a carbon with three other carbons attached)
11   shampoo pH application, hair cleaning agents with pH adjusted (4 to 7.5) so that skin pH is not upset (range 3 to 5)
12   limiting reagent a reacting substance that is in short supply and so determines how much of other reactants will be used up
13   titration curves graphical representations of the way the pH of a solution changes during a titration as a reagent is added to a known volume of another reagent
14   equivalence point the point during a titration when the quantities of the two reacting species are just sufficient to allow complete reaction
15   base (Lewis) an electron pair donor, eg NH3
16   respiratory irritation main direct effect of sulfur dioxide pollution on people because it dissolves in water to make sulfurous acid



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  Answers: Sheet 104 Acid and Bases 14

  1   plants these organisms have reduced chlorophyll production at low concentrations of SO2, and die if H2SO4 is made at higher concentrations
  2   oxygen element present in alkanols and alkanoic acids that make them polar because it is slightly negative compared to the rest of the molecule
  3   phosphorus (IV) oxide covalent molecular, P4O10 which dissolves in water to form strong phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
  4   dilution this causes the reaction of dissociation of weak acid to shift in the direction that produces the larger number of particles
  5   conditioners pH application, hair dressing agent with pH 2.6 to 4.8, used after shampoo to restore normal skin pH (3 to 5)
  6   temperature the end point of a titration can be determined by what mixture of acid and alkali causes a maximum in this quantity
  7   limiting reagent the chemical that is completely used up when two or more chemicals react, the chemical that is in short supply
  8   basic solution alternative term for alkaline solution
  9   esterification the reaction of an alkanoic acid and an alkanol to form an ester
10   indicator a coloured dye that shows the pH of a solution or the end point of a titration through a colour change
11   reagent moles calculation technique used to find which substance is the limiting reagent, or which substance is the excess reagent
12   respiration standard equation: ...............: glucose + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide
13   increased melting and boiling points of alkanols and alkanoic acids are this compared to similar mass alkanes
14   gas volume dilution equilibrium shift is similar to the effect of changing this in reactions involving gas volumes (shift in direction of more particles)
15   buffer a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, which resists changes in pH when a strong acid is added to the solution eg ethanoic acid and sodium ethanoate
16   Lavoisier (Antoine) proposed 1779 all acids are oxygen containing substances



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  Answers: Sheet 105 Chemical Systems Management 1

  1   metal oxides contain oxygen with complete valance octet, generally insoluble in water except oxides of group I elements, high MP and BP, regular crystal lattice
  2   22.71 litres molar volume of a gas at S.T.P. (standard temperature and pressure 0oC, 100 kPa)
  3   phosphate test yellow precipitate forms on warming with a solution of ammonium molybdate and nitric acid
  4   water anions tested phosphate, chloride, nitrate, sulfide, sulfate
  5   monitoring soap making packaging material, free fatty acid test, saponification value, iodine number, moisture content, final product test
  6   photochemical smog pollution material produced when sunlight and oxygen act on a mixture of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen from motor vehicle exhausts
  7   potable water that is sufficiently pure for drinking
  8   lead pollutant from car emissions that can affect oysters, as 98% of it in the ocean comes from air
  9   water heavy metals tested nickel, iron (III), copper, cadmium, lead, zinc
10   reagent a substance or solution that causes a reaction to occur
11   bonds these are broken by UV in plastics causing failure of the plastic, cracking, chalking, brittleness eg vinyl upholstery in cars
12   anions tested carbonate CO32-, sulfate SO42-, nitrate NO3-, chloride Cl-, phosphate PO43-
13   24.79 litres molar volume of a gas at R.T.P. (room temperature and pressure25oC and 100 kPa)
14   packaging material checked for weight, thickness, size, used for wrapping soap
15   ocean another water environment that can have algal blooms as a result of sewage disposal



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  Answers: Sheet 106 Chemical Systems Management 2

  1   chromatography process which separates the components of a mixture by selective removal of these components from a moving fluid
  2   balance to write balanced equations: write element symbols and compound formulae, … compound formulae with valencies, ............... both sides of the equation
  3   cations tested barium Ba2+, calcium Ca2+, copper Cu2+, lead Pb2+, iron (II) Fe2+, iron (III) Fe3+
  4   gold-198 gamma emitting isotope used to provide accurate information about the sewage dispersal plumes out from Malabar, Sydney
  5   UV damage sunburn, cataracts, skin cancer, mutations, photosynthesis, plastic failure
  6   free fatty acid a test of 5 g of fat to determine the amount of 1M KOH needed to neutralise it
  7   reverse osmosis the application of an external hydraulic pressure to reverse the normal flow of water across a semipermeable membrane
  8   halogens elements in group VII of the periodic table, act as catalysts to breakdown ozone in the stratosphere, used to make haloalkanes, halons, CFC's, HCFC's etc
  9   barium ion tests sulfuric acid produces a white precipitate, apple green colour in the flame test
10   dithizone solution that can be sprayed onto chromatography paper to detect the presence of copper (yellow-brown), cadmium (blue-violet), lead (brick-red), and zinc (pink)
11   saponification value a measure of the average molar mass of fats and oils used to make soap, the number of moles of KOH needed to saponify 1 g
12   tritium isotope that is used to obtain information about dilution occurring at sewage dispersal plumes, Malabar, Sydney
13   salinity the salt content of a solution
14   greenhouse effect a warming of the lower atmosphere and surface of a planet by a complex process involving sunlight and heat retention by gases
15   iodine number a measure of the degree of unsaturation of fat or oil used to make soap, grams of iodine that reacts with 100 g fat or oil



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  Answers: Sheet 107 Chemical Systems Management 3

  1   stratosphere the second layer of the atmosphere (15-50 km)
  2   calcium ion tests sulfuric acid produces a white precipitate, brick red colour in the flame test
  3   Sydney sewage treated and then carried in pipelines 4 km out to sea, released in dispersing plumes 80 m underwater
  4   ozone decomposition CCl3F(g) --UV--> CCl2F(g) + Cl(g)
Cl(g) + O3(g) ---> ClO(g) + O2(g)
ClO(g) + O(g) (from O2) ---> Cl(g) + O2(g)
Overall: O(g) + O3(g) --Cl--> 2O2(g)
  5   aluminium ion test aluminon reagent turns a pink-red colour
  6   chlorine radical single chlorine atom released from CFC in the presence of UV, able to react readily with ozone to form oxygen and be released to react again (catalyst)
  7   enhanced greenhouse gases gases released by human activities raising atmospheric temperatures, eg CO2, methane, CFC-11, CFC-12, N2O
  8   magnesium ion test magneson I turns a light blue colour
  9   moisture content soap formed by saponification is 35% water, and has to be vacuum dried to 17% water prior to packaging and sale
10   copper ion test a solution turns a deep blue colour when ammonium hydroxide is added due to the formation of copper ammonium complex [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+
11   sewage treatment preliminary treatment by screening, primary sedimentation, secondary treatment, chlorination
12   transmission passing through
13   CFC advantages inert (unreactive), non-toxic, safe to use in the troposphere
14   sodium ion test flame test colour yellow
15   screening preliminary sewage treatment to remove larger floating and coarser suspended solids, air bubbled to cause turbulence and remove odours



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  Answers: Sheet 108 Chemical Systems Management 4

  1   lead ion test a white precipitate forms when cold dilute HCl is added and dissolves when the solution is heated
  2   troposphere the lowest layer of the atmosphere (0-15 km)
  3   infrared radiation heat energy that is absorbed by atmospheric gases to raise the average temperature of the atmosphere
  4   final product test for soap this is done by a quality inspector who checks weight, odour, and appearance of wrapped and unwrapped soap
  5   Ostwald process industrial chemical process used to convert ammonia to nitric acid, requiring monitoring and controlling of reaction conditions
  6   troposphere pollutants extra CO2, CH4, CFCs, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, particulates, SO2
  7   potassium ion test flame test colour lilac when viewed through cobalt glass
  8   CFC substitutes HCFC's, because they have much less ozone destroying potential
  9   lead ion test a bright yellow precipitate is produced when potassium iodide solution is added
10   turbidity lack of water clarity due to suspended matter
11   primary sedimentation sewage placed in settling tanks, 60% suspended solids settle as sludge which is pumped into heated sludge digesters, clarified liquid chlorinated and released
12   iron (II) ion test a blue green precipitate forms when sodium hydroxide solution is added, and the precipitate rapidly turns brown due to oxidation to iron III
13   ultrafiltration filtration involving fine pore membranes (0.1 micro metres down to 2 nm)
14   calcium ion test flame test colour brick-red
15   stratosphere pollutants CFCs and oxides of nitrogen both of which breakdown ozone present in this layer of the atmosphere



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  Answers: Sheet 109 Chemical Systems Management 5

  1   CFC uses refrigeration, aerosols, foams, air conditioning, electronics, dry cleaning, fire extinguishers
  2   uncontrolled NH3 burn 4NH3(g) + 3O2(g) --> 6H2(g) + 2N2(g) ΔH = -1267 kJmol-1
  3   secondary treatment bacteria act on effluent from primary treatment, air bubbled through, removes up to 90% of suspended solids; activated sludge
  4   phosphate ion test acidify with HNO3, add excess ammonium molybdate to produce a crystalline yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate
  5   reverse osmosis membranes pliable cellulose triacetate or polyamides, used to desalinate water by forcing it through under pressure
  6   controlled NH3 burn temperature 820 to 930oC depending on pressure, platinum rhodium gauze contact <0.003 s, NH3/air mix 9 to 12 %, to yield NO in a converter, in production of nitric acid
  7   HCFC hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbon compounds that are being used to replace CFC's because they have much less ozone destroying potential
  8   chlorination final sewage treatment to remove most of the remaining bacteria before the effluent is released into rivers, lakes, ocean or used for irrigation
  9   iron (II) ion test a deep blue precipitate forms when potassium ferricyanide is added
10   CO2 sources decomposition of organic matter, fossil fuel combustion, deforestation
11   NO oxidation once made from NH3: 2NO(g) + O2(g) --> 2NO2(g) ΔH = -114 kJ mol-1 in a cooling chamber in preparation of nitric acid
12   iron (III) ion test a red-brown precipitate is formed when sodium hydroxide is added
13   hydrogenation the addition reaction in which hydrogen molecules are add onto an unsaturated molecule
14   methane sources anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, ruminants (sheep, cattle), land fill from organic wastes, and rice paddies
15   halogen prefixes bromo-, chloro-, fluoro, iodo-, in alphabetical order, ignoring di-, tri-, tetra- which are used to indicate the number present



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  Answers: Sheet 110 Chemical Systems Management 6

  1   chloride ion test white turbidity which darkens on exposure to light after addition of silver ions
  2   activated sludge a secondary sewage treatment utilising bacteria present and bubbled air to remove suspended solids
  3   iron (III) ion test a blood red complex ion is formed when potassium thiocyanate KNCS is added [Fe(NCS)]2+
  4   CFC sources aerosol propellants, foams, refrigerants, air conditioners
  5   structural formula diagram showing the arrangement of atoms in molecules, and the bonds between the atoms
  6   HNO3 formation absorption of NO2 by water in an absorption tower: 3NO2(g) + H2O(l) --> 2HNO3(aq) + NO(g), final solution is 45 to 50% HNO3 from Ostwald Process
  7   lagooning a secondary sewage treatment in which raw sewage is treated by soil and grass filtration, takes up a lot of land, Melbourne
  8   nitrate ion test brown ring test: add iron (II) sulfate and pour concentrated sulfuric acid down side of test tube, a brown ring forms at junction of the two liquids
  9   trickle filter method a secondary sewage treatment in which effluent flows over rocks on which aerobic bacteria grow, gaps in the rocks allow air to flow
10   nitrogen oxides sources motor car engines, combustion of organic matter, volcanic gases, burning fossil fuels
11   sulfide ion test a black deposit of PbS forms with lead acetate solution or paper
12   condensed structural formula diagram showing the atoms attached to each carbon atom and some of the bonds present eg CH2Br-CH=CHCl
13   ammonia uses fertiliser eg NH3, NH4NO3, chemicals eg HNO3, Na2CO3, explosives eg NH4NO3, fibres and plastics eg nylon, refrigerant, drugs eg sulfonamide, vitamins, cleaning eg cloudy ammonia, metals eg nitriding, paper eg NH4HSO3 for wood pulping
14   flame test platinum wire in a glass holder, dipped into HCl, cleaned in blue Bunsen flame, then dipped into a solution to be tested before being heated again
15   ozone sources in the troposphere, a poisonous gas: diffusion from stratosphere, photochemical smog



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  Answers: Sheet 111 Chemical Systems Management 7

  1   cation test scheme to unknown mixture first add HCl, does precipitate dissolve on heating?, test filtrate with H2SO4, flame test any new precipitate, add NaOH to new filtrate, check next precipitate with ammonium, ferrocyanide, and thiocyanate separately
  2   Haber process industrial chemical process for making ammonia from nitrogen in the air
  3   sulfur dioxide covalent molecular gas, acid rain pollutant in the atmosphere, SO2, low solubility in water to form H2SO3
  4   Sirofloc method a secondary sewage treatment in which pH is adjusted (5 - 7.5), effluent flows over magnetite (Fe3O4) which absorbs organic matter, magnets clump the magnetite, leaving clear water. NaOH reactivates magnetite
  5   sulfate ion test boil with HCl to remove CO2, add barium chloride, a white precipitate forms
  6   halo these atoms are given before alkyl side chains in naming haloalkanes eg 1-chloro-2-methylpropane
  7   temperature this physical quantity influences the amount of dissolved oxygen present in water (negative relationship), thermometer, oC
  8   explosives reason why the German chemical industry was interested in ammonia manufacture prior to WW I
  9   AAS acronym for atomic absorption spectrograph, which is an instrument that uses characteristic cation flame colour to determine their concentrations, inventor: Alan Walsh
10   drinking water treatments flocculation, settling, filtration, chlorination, fluoridation
11   particulate sources dust storms, soot, smoke, oil and salt spray result in this sort of pollution
12   isomers two or more compounds having the same molecular formula eg 1-chloropropane and 2-chloropropane, functional groups attached to different carbon atoms
13   hollow cathode lamp used in the AAS to produce a sharp line emission spectrum of the metal to be determined prior to it being absorbed by atoms in an atomic vapour
14   pH use universal indicator, pH meter, <5 is most damaging to eggs and larvae of aquatic organisms, rises during photosynthesis as CO2 concentration falls
15   active end numbering of carbons in a carbon compound commences here, eg nearest double bond, nearest hydroxyl, nearest halogen alphabetically, finally side chains



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  Answers: Sheet 112 Chemical Systems Management 8

  1   flocculation water treatment by adding electrolytes (eg Al3+) to aggregate colloidal particles by neutralising surface charges, gives filterable precipitates
  2   NH3 manufacture problems hydrogen must be high purity and low cost, catalyst not poisoned, low yield at high temperature (exothermic) vs slow rate of reaction at low temperature
  3   settling water treatment by standing in tanks to allow flocs to precipitate as a sludge
  4   turbidity measure of water clarity, affected by suspended solids that block light from plants and raise temperature, Sechi disc
  5   halo-alkene names 1-iodo-hex-3-ene, 3-bromo-1-chloroprop-1-ene, 1-bromo-2,4-dimethylpent-2-ene
  6   hydrogen gas needed to make ammonia obtained by reacting methane with steam (Ni catalyst), and then oxygen in air (Ni catalyst), followed by carbon monoxide produced reacted with steam (iron oxide catalyst)
  7   pollution consequences enhanced greenhouse effect, depletion of stratosphere ozone layer, acid rain, and photochemical smog
  8   controlling SO2 pollution use low S content fuels, remove S from oil in refineries, remove SO2 from flue gases in industrial plants
  9   spectrophotometer a device that detects and measures a substance by its absorbency of certain wavelengths of light from the electromagnetic spectrum
10   H2 production reactions CH4(g) + H2O -- Ni, 700oC --> CO(g) + 3H2(g)
2CH4(g) + O2 +4N2 -- Ni --> 2CO(g) + 4H2(g) + 4N2(g)
CO(g) + H2O(g) --iron oxide--> H2(g) + CO2(g)
11   total dissolved solids electrical conductivity test, using a TDS meter: freshwater 0-1000 ppm, slightly saline 10000 - 30000 ppm, moderately saline 3000 - 10000, highly saline 10000-35000, seawater and brine over 35000 ppm
12   prediction what analyses claims will occur in the future, eg what the greenhouse gases situation will be when providing figures for 2100
13   Lewis diagrams electron dot diagrams of atoms showing the valance (or outer electrons) around the atoms
14   filtration water treatment by passing it through a bed of sand over gravel to remove any remaining suspended solids and mineral particles
15   atomic vapour this is produced by spraying a solution into a flame in the AAS, so that the atoms present can absorb a particular wavelength light



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  Answers: Sheet 113 Chemical Systems Management 9

  1   base substance, such as sodium hydroxide, that is used to remove the carbon dioxide produced in the hydrogen manufacturing phase of the Haber process to make ammonia
  2   dissolved oxygen found with the Winkler test or colorimeter test, it varies with temperature (negative relationship), is highest late afternoon, lowest just before dawn, needed by aquatic animals and plants
  3   chlorination water treatment by adding chlorine to form hypochlorite (OCl-) ion that removes biological contaminants (bacteria) from water: Cl2(g) + H2O(l) ---> HOCl(aq) + H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
  4   octet rule Lewis's rule stating that the number of covalent bonds an atoms could form could be calculated by assuming that in the combined form each atom would have 8 electrons in its outer shell
  5   electronic detector a part of the ASS that determines the intensity of light (from a hollow cathode lamp) left after an atomic vapour has absorbed a portion of it
  6   rising concentrations this has been observed over the past 20 years with respect to atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane, dinitrogen oxide, and CFC-11
  7   IPCC acronym for intergovernmental panel on climate change
  8   N:H ratio proportion of nitrogen compared to hydrogen after methane steam and air have been used to produce hydrogen and nitrogen ready to make ammonia = 1 : 3
  9   characteristic wavelengths of light, these are absorbed by an atomic vapour in the ASS, in proportion to the amount of the atom concerned that is present
10   BOD test in which a sample is kept in a dark cupboard 5 days and DO measured, biological oxygen demand, the rate of oxygen consumption by organisms in the water over a 5-day period
11   fluoridation water treatment to reduce dental decay by adding either sodium fluoride, sodium silico fluoride (Na2SiF6) or calcium fluoride
12   coordinate bond a covalent bond in which one atom provides both electrons to form the bonding pair
13   salinity found with silver nitrate, K2CrO4 indicator reddens AgCl at end point, affects osmotic pressure, many species only survive a very narrow range
14   equilibrium equations reaction equations showing that only some of the reactants change to products, as well as the mole ratios for the reactants that do react to form products
15   desalination processes multistage flash distillation, Sirotherm process, reverse osmosis process



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  Answers: Sheet 114 Chemical Systems Management 10

  1   Montreal Protocol rules governing the release of CFCs which has been implemented but with only partial compliance and so is not very effective
  2   exothermic term describing reactions that release heat, eg combustion of ethane and combustion of ethene
  3   maximum yield this is possible in ammonia production by lowering the temperature (exothermic reaction) and raising the pressure (there is a decrease in the number of gas molecule produced)
  4   concentration this quantity is directly proportional to the amount of light of particular wavelengths absorbed by atoms in an atomic vapour in the ASS
  5   coordinate covalent type of bond present in ozone attracting the third oxygen atom to oxygen
  6   Kyoto Agreement rules governing the release of CO2, only partial agreement by governments, especially big fossil fuel users and suppliers (eg US and Australia)
  7   allotrope oxygen and ozone are an example of this type of relationship
  8   free atoms ASS (atomic absorption spectrograph) relies on heating a sample sufficiently to produce these in a flame
  9   multistage flash distillation desalination process used to obtain water from sea water where energy costs are relatively low, eg Saudi Arabia
10   water hardness the inability of water to lather due to the presence of mineral ions such as calcium and magnesium
11   Le Chatelier's Principle this is applied to the Haber Process to produce ammonia because it is an exothermic equilibrium involving gases
12   Haber process conditions temperatures 400 to 500 oC, 25 atmospheres pressure, porous iron catalyst of iron oxide (Fe3O4)
13   total phosphorus a measure of pollution by agricultural run-off or domestic sewage, 0.2 mg L-1 common, 50 mg L-1 indicate the possibility of eutrophication with algal blooms
14   IPCC assumptions population 9.5 billion by 2050, economic growth continues, energy from coal, CO2 controls are modest, deforestation continues, partial compliance to Montreal Protocol (CFCs)
15   photochemical smog produced by hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen reacting with oxygen to form ozone, aldehydes (alkanals), ketones (alkanones), and PAN (peroxyactyl nitrate) in the presence of UV in sunlight



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  Answers: Sheet 115 Chemical Systems Management 11

  1   Sirotherm process desalination process using ion exchange resin to replace Na+ with H3O+, and Cl- with OH-, from 3000 ppm to acceptable 500 ppm, regenerated by hot water flush
  2   independent the absorption measurement in the AAS must be this with respect to any radiation (light) emitted by excited atoms in the flame
  3   allotropes different structural forms of an element in the same state having distinctly different physical properties, but the same chemical properties, eg red and white phosphorus
  4   faster reaction reason for high temperature and use of iron oxide catalyst in ammonia manufacture
  5   total phosphorus measured with: [H2SO4] and ammonium persulfate digestion, neutralised with NaOH titration (phenolphthalein), cleared (drops H2SO4), add ammonium molybdate solution then solid ascorbic acid, intense blue molybdate complex formed measured with colorimeter
  6   electrons the energy in the light used in the AAS is absorbed by these subatomic particles in the atomic vapour produced by heating samples
  7   climate predictions sea level to rise 0.2 to 0.5 m, more intense tropical cyclones, temperature rise (1 to 4 oC), major shifts in the earth's climate zones
  8   reverse osmosis process desalination process in which water is forced under pressure through a semi permeable membrane, reducing salt from 35000 ppm (seawater) to an acceptable 500 ppm
  9   ozone formation in the stratosphere: O2(g) --UV--> 2O(g), then, O(g) + O2(g) ----> O3(g)
10   higher yield reason for 25 atmosphere pressure in ammonia manufacture
11   total nitrogen a measure of a pollutant that causes eutrophication due to animal wastes, fertiliser fun-off, domestic sewage, uses Kjeldahl digestion then distillation for >1 mg L-1, or colorimeter with Nessler's reagent
12   BOD the amount of oxygen that is reeded by decomposers to respire organic waste present in water: biological oxygen demand
13   to limit impact the aim of the following with regards to enhanced greenhouse effect: developing alternatives to fossil fuels, energy conservation encouraged, tree plantings, phase out CFCs
14   ozone formation in the troposphere: pollutant that forms forms as a result of reactions between gases such as nitrogen oxides and volatile hydrocarbons in the presence of UV to form photochemical smog
15   AAS principles heat frees atoms, electrons absorb specific wavelengths of light to attain a higher energy level, amount of energy absorbed is proportional to the concentration of absorbing atoms



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  Answers: Sheet 116 Chemical Systems Management 12

  1   calibration correlating readings with a standard
  2   UV shield function of ozone in the stratosphere where 90% of the atmospheric ozone is found
  3   recycling unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen have this process applied in the Haber process to increase overall yield (the yield of ammonia is only 10 to 20%)
  4   artificial SO2 emission burning sulfur containing fossil fuels, smelting sulfide ores, making sulfuric acid by the contact process, petroleum refining, making coke from coal
  5   gravimetric method water hardness by calcium measured by precipitation with 0.02M Na2CO3, filtering, ashing, weighing
  6   quality control the job of chemists in production of everyday products to detect what chemicals are present and how much of each is present
  7   AAS techniques solution nebulised into a flame, specific wavelengths of light used, flame colour is independent, calibrating and blank solutions used, high purity water, duplicate solutions, calibration graphs linear
  8   natural equilibrium ozone production from oxygen in the presence of sunlight and the natural breakdown of ozone to oxygen: O2(g) <===> O3(g) + O(g)
  9   cooling this is done to the mixture of gases in the Haber process to remove liquefied ammonia in a condenser so it does not interfere with the reaction
10   CFCs chlorofluorocarbons
11   covalent bond the sharing of a pair of valance electrons between two atoms, especially common in non-metal element and compound molecules
12   EDTA reagent used to determine dissolved calcium (at pH 12-13) and dissolved magnesium (at pH 10) by forming a soluble complex, ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid
13   quantitative analysis a procedure used to estimate the composition of a mixture or the constituents of a compound
14   calibration graph used to check the proportionality of absorption and atom concentration when using AAS (atomic absorption spectrograph), should be linear
15   nitrogen oxide (NO) a product of jet engines which could seriously harm the ozone layer in the stratosphere if high flying aircraft fleets are developed



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  Answers: Sheet 117 Chemical Systems Management 13

  1   colorimeter a device that measures the colour intensity of a solution at a specific wavelength
  2   resonance forms two forms of a covalent compound that have single and double bonds but in which measurements show that the bonds are equal and intermediate in length, eg ozone, benzene ring
  3   NO/ozone reactions in engines: N2(g) + O2(g) ---> 2NO
in the stratosphere: NO(g) + O3(g) ---> NO2(g) + O2(g)
then NO2(g) + O(g) ---> NO(g) + O2(g)
overall: O(g) + O3(g) ---> 2O2(g)
  4   AAS alternative technique to gravimetric analysis that can be used to determine the amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium ions in a water sample, atomic absorption spectrograph
  5   stoichiometry the quantitative relationship between reacting substances
  6   activation energy this aspect of chemical change is lowered by the presence of a catalyst allow a reaction to occur at a lower temperature and to reach equilibrium faster
  7   N2 and H2bonds the iron oxide catalyst lowers the activation energy needed to break these in the production of ammonia in the Haber process
  8   parts per million range of concentrations of the 68 metals that can be detected by AAS (atomic absorption spectrograph)
  9   complementary colours two colours that add together to form white light
10   oxygen properties odourless gas, supports life, reactive oxidising agent
11   ozone hole place where the ozone layer is depleted, contains less ozone, located over the Antarctic in the stratosphere
12   qualitative analysis a procedure used to identify constituents or materials
13   temporary hardness caused by calcium bicarbonate, which can be removed by boiling water as calcium carbonate precipitates
14   AAS uses mining assays (purity of copper, silver, gold samples), pollutants in effluents (mercury), metal particles in air, metals in foods and vitamins
15   Haber reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g) <==> 2NH3(g) ΔH = -92 kJ mol-1



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  Answers: Sheet 118 Chemical Systems Management 14

  1   change lamp this is done for every element being tested in a sample with the AAS because each one needs a different wavelength of light from the hollow cathode lamp
  2   Haber aims maximise rate of ammonia production, minimise costs and safety concerns, quality control
  3   permanent hardness caused by chlorides and sulfates of magnesium and calcium, cannot be removed by boiling the water
  4   equilibrium a time in a reaction when the forward and reverse reactions are occurring at the same rate
  5   ozone properties slightly pungent odour, causes respiratory and eye irritation, strong oxidising agent, more reactive than oxygen due to lower bond energy
  6   polar stratospheric clouds ice clouds that form over polar regions when temperatures fall below -80oC, play a role in ozone destruction, leading to ozone hole because of free radical ClO present
  7   Dobson unit one molecule of ozone to every billion molecules of air, a measure of ozone concentration
  8   eutrophication the enrichment of bodies of water by nutrients resulting in excess algal growth
  9   ozone use sterilisation of water supplies, it is more soluble in water than oxygen
10   thermosphere hottest, outer layer of the atmosphere, over 90 km above the earth's crust, N2, atomic O, -100 to 1200 oC, part of ionosphere
11   highest volumes direction in which a gas equilibrium system shifts if pressure is decreased or container volume is increased
12   ion exchange process used to soften water by removing calcium and magnesium ions in a resin filled column
13   not true equilibrium Haber process is really this because the product (ammonia) is drawn of constantly so the reactants and product do not reach equilibrium
14   magnesium problems water hardness, scouring in livestock (diarrhoea)
15   quality control as well as maximising production, this is also a reason why chemical processes in industry require monitoring and management, eg Haber process



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  Answers: Sheet 119 Chemical Systems Management 15

  1   excitation the promotion of an electron into a higher energy level, which occurs when light of particular frequencies is passed through an atomised vapour in the AAS
  2   safe water a reason why chemical monitoring and management of water in waterways is necessary: ............... for human use despite the impact of human activity
  3   mesosphere layer of the atmosphere between the thermosphere and stratosphere, coldest layer, 50 to 90 km above the earth's crust, N2, O2, strong winds, 0 to -100 oC, part of ionosphere
  4   bond energy energy needed to break a covalent bond, lower in ozone than oxygen, hence ozone is more reactive than oxygen
  5   water + carbon dioxide standard equation: complete combustion: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> ...............
  6   maximise production as well as quality control, this is also a reason why chemical processes in industry require monitoring and management, eg Haber process
  7   incomplete combustion standard equation: ..............., soot: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon + water
  8   smog formation conditions sunshine, temperature inversion to accumulate pollutants nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, tetraethyl lead (C2H5)4Pb (anti-knock petrol additive)
  9   stratosphere layer of the atmosphere between the mesosphere and troposphere, very stable layer, 15 km to 50 km above the earth's crust, N2, O2, -60 to 0oC, contains ozone layer
10   protect habitats a reason why chemical monitoring and management of water in waterways is necessary: ............... for other organisms from the impacts of human activity
11   calcium problems water hardness, boiler scale produced by temporary hardness
12   flocculation the clumping together of colloidal particles following the addition of a chemical such as alum
13   troposphere layer of the atmosphere closest to the earth, in which our weather is generated, 0 to 15 km above the earth’s crust, N2 and O2, 15 to -60 oC
14   chemical composition this is performed as well as energy content analysis, another reason for analysing manufactured products including food and household products eg ions present
15   Winkler test used to determine the dissolved oxygen content of water by successively oxidising manganese, iodide, and thiosulfate; 1 mol S2O32- = 0.5 mol I- = O.25 mol O2
16   Lewis/metals metal atoms represented: .M. metal ion represented: [M]2+



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  Answers: Sheet 120 Chemical Systems Management 16

  1   soot standard equation: incomplete combustion, ...............: hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon + water
  2   trace amounts zinc, copper, and manganese are often present in natural water in this concentration, 0.05 mg L-1
  3   gravimetric an analytical procedure involving accurate weighing
  4   increase galvanised pipes, brass fittings have this effect on the presence of copper (0.2 mg L-1), zinc and manganese (2 mg L-1) in irrigation water
  5   halons bromofluorocarbons. May also contain chlorine
  6   smallest volumes direction in which a gas equilibrium system shifts if pressure is increased or container volume is decreased
  7   energy content as well as chemical composition analysis, this is another reason for analysing manufactured products including food and household products eg ions present
  8   anaerobic bacteria bacteria that do not require oxygen for respiration
  9   UV-C higher energy, shorter wavelength 240-290 nm ultraviolet completely screened by the ozone layer
10   DO dissolved oxygen, important because plants and animals living in water need it; amount is found using the Winkler test
11   exosphere layer of the atmosphere beyond the thermosphere, merges with inter planetary gases, atomic O and N, then He, then H
12   carbonate test inorganic acid (eg HCl) producing bubbles, which turn limewater milky due to carbon dioxide produced
13   hydrometer a device for measuring the density of a liquid by the height at which it floats in the liquid
14   tropopause junction of atmosphere between troposphere and stratosphere
15   nitrogen dioxide covalent molecular gas, NO2 (atmospheric pollutant, photochemical smog), dissolves in water to make both strong nitric and weak nitrous acid
16   eutrophication excessive growth of algae in waterways due to the presence of phosphate and nitrate ion pollution, resulting in low dissolved oxygen, killing fish



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  Answers: Sheet 121 Chemical Systems Management 17

  1   UV-B lower energy, longer wavelength 290-320 nm ultraviolet not completely screened by the ozone layer, biologically active: sunburn, cataracts, skin cancer, DNA mutations
  2   limestone source of magnesium and calcium ions in river water: as a result of water percolating through rocks
  3   metallurgy the science of the properties of metals
  4   forest clearing agricultural process that has resulted in rising water tables with more salt being brought to the ground surface, resulting in increased river salinity
  5   anaerobic bacteria only organisms able to survive in water with low DO, eg biodegradable wastes (sewage) or eutrophications
  6   limewater test for carbon dioxide in carbonate after adding acid and collecting the gas produced, turns milky: Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) --> CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)
  7   photosynthetic apparatus damaged by UV-B in soya, rice, phytoplankton; the pigments and enzymes that absorb light to convert carbon dioxide and water to sugar
  8   sulfate test barium nitrate solution when added forms a white precipitate because barium sulfate is insoluble
  9   mesopause junction of atmosphere between mesosphere and thermosphere
10   biodegradable wastes materials that encourage the growth of organisms causing decomposition and hence reducing dissolved oxygen levels in waterways
11   inversion layer a layer of warm air lying above cooler air resulting in lack of movement of air, leading to accumulation of pollutants in the cooler air
12   fertilisers source of nitrates and phosphates that are leached from farmland into rivers resulting in eutrophication
13   monitoring observing and undertaking chemical checks to ensure compliance to standards
14   sewage source of nitrates and phosphates that are from human wastes being placed in rivers after treatment resulting in eutrophication
15   monitoring combustion fuel/air mixture ratio, testing for the presence of products of incomplete combustion (CO, C) and pollutants (SO2, NO2)
16   nanofiltration filtration through very fine pore (1 nm) filter membranes



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  Answers: Sheet 122 Chemical Systems Management 18

  1   ionosphere is a part of the earth's atmosphere that has many ions (electrically charged atoms and groups of atoms) and free electrons.
  2   nitrate test adding some copper and concentrated sulfuric acid produces the brown pungent gas nitrogen dioxide
  3   noble gas addition of this substance to a gas system at equilibrium will have no effect on the equilibrium concentrations because it does not take part in reactions
  4   nitrates and phosphate ions that result in excessive algal growth in water ways called eutrophication, leading to low DO levels
  5   gas equilibria these are affected by changes in pressure or volume if total volume of reactants is different to total volume of products in the reaction
  6   chloride test adding solution of silver nitrate results in a white precipitate which on exposure to light turns purple, will not dissolve if heated
  7   water cations tested aluminium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium, ammonium
  8   photodissociation the breaking of a covalent bond by high energy light photons
  9   combustion a reaction in which reactants form different products under different conditions and so need monitoring eg oxygen in the fuel/air mixture,
10   ozone layer part of the stratosphere containing the greatest concentration of O3
11   reduced flow this results from increased use of water for irrigation, and has the effect of increasing the concentrations of nitrates and phosphates in river water leading to eutrophication
12   safe water a reason why chemical monitoring and management of water in waterways is necessary: …….......... for human use despite the impact of human activity
13   photochemical smog produced by hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen reacting with oxygen to form ozone, aldehydes (alkanals), ketones (alkanones), and PAN (peroxyactyl nitrate) in the presence of UV in sunlight
14   pollutants harmful substances released into the atmosphere, eg poisonous gases: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide
15   nitrogen dioxide covalent molecular gas, NO2 (atmospheric pollutant, photochemical smog), dissolves in water to make both strong nitric and weak nitrous acid
16   natural pollution sulfur dioxide made from hydrogen sulfide released during decay of organic matter: 2H2S + 3O2 --> 2SO2 + 2H2O



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  Answers: Sheet 123 Industrial Chemistry 1

  1   Kc decreases this happens with increase in temperature if the forward reaction is exothermic (ΔH -ve)
  2   hydrogen bond type of bond that forms between water and the charged end of a surfactant ion
  3   oil soluble the non-polar (long hydrocarbon) end of a surfactant molecule is this, enabling it to dissolve in oil and grease
  4   H2SO4 importance a useful industrial chemical: make fertilisers (ammonium sulfate and super phosphate), dehydration (esters), explosives (nitroglycerine), paint, soap, detergent, dyestuffs, lead-acid accumulators, cleaning metals for galvanising and electroplating
  5   Frasch process method used to mine elemental sulfur using superheated steam (170oC) under pressure because quicksand overburden material prevents normal mining (US)
  6   hydrophilic water loving, term describing the charged end of a surfactant molecule because this end dissolves in water
  7   low MP and low density sulfur properties that Frasch process depends on: 120oC and 2 g cm-3 respectively
  8   concentric pipes arrangement by which superheated steam and compressed air are delivered to sulfur deposits and molten sulfur is brought to the surface in the Frasch process
  9   stratopause junction of atmosphere between stratosphere and mesosphere
10   Frasch issues sulfur fumes, unsightly platforms, water pollution by sulfur and heat released into the environment
11   mole ratio to find this when electrons are involved, use redox half equations and balance electrons before adding the half equations together
12   Contact process method by which sulfuric acid is made from sulfur, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, dissolving in 98% sulfuric acid and then appropriate dilution
13   SO3 formation conditions vanadium oxide catalyst, 1 to 2 atmosphere pressure, 450oC for a yield of 98%
14   contact process reactions S(s) + O2(g) ---> SO2 (g)
electrostatic precipitation to remove particles
2SO2(g) + O2(g) <== vanadium oxide ==> 2SO3(g)
SO3 + H2SO4 ---> H2S2O7
H2S2O7 + H2O ---> 2 H2SO4



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  Answers: Sheet 124 Industrial Chemistry 2

  1   soap problem forms an insoluble scum in the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, however, synthetic detergents form soluble salts
  2   oleum name given to concentrated sulfuric acid (98.5%) because it is a thick oily liquid. It is also the form in which it is transported
  3   branched chain this structure in the hydrocarbon end of early synthetic detergents resulted in them being non-biodegradable, polluting streams and rivers
  4   biodegradable modern straight chain synthetic detergents and soap, breakdown in the environment
  5   H2SO4 reactions as an oxidising agent: concentrated acid, makes SO2, as a dehydrating agent, eg ethanol to ethene; as a dilute acid: precipitations eg BaSO4, PbSO4; and H2 with active metals.
  6   oxidising agent reaction of hot concentrated sulfuric acid with metals to convert S in SO42- (+6) to SO2 (+4)
  7   renewable type of resource from which soap is made, because more plants and animals can be produced continuously
  8   dehydrating agent reaction of sulfuric acid because it has a strong attraction for water eg in ester formation form alkanol and alkanoic acid
  9   common ion effect the effect of an ion common to an equilibrium which shifts that equilibrium. The addition of a common ion always decreases solubility, eg Na in NaCl to precipitate soap
10   non-renewable type of resource from which synthetic detergents are made, petrochemicals, not being produced at the rate at which the resource is being used
11   soaps these products are less soluble, able to deteriorate, harder to rinse from fabric, able to clog sewage systems because they gel in stationary water, compared to other surfactants
12   saponification an important organic industrial process, making soap by the hydrolysis of fats with caustic soda
13   precipitation reaction of sulfuric acid to form insoluble solids with ions of Ba, Sr, Pb, and sparingly soluble solids with ions of Ca, Ag and Hg (I)
14   water hardness inability of water to lather due to the presence of mineral ions such as calcium and magnesium precipitating soap



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  Answers: Sheet 125 Industrial Chemistry 3

  1   equilibrium constant a mathematical calculation using the concentration of products and reactants present when a chemical reaction is at equilibrium
  2   Le Chatelier's principle if conditions in a system at equilibrium are changed the system will adjust to try to minimise the change
  3   dilution safety reason dilution of H2SO4 is a strongly exothermic reaction and could cause boiling and spattering
  4   natural esters lipids, animal fats, animal and vegetable oils, based on 1,2,3-propanetriol combined with 3 fatty acids
  5   synthetic detergents are more soluble, unlikely to deteriorate, easier to rinse from fabric, unlikely to clog sewage systems when compared to soaps
  6   reaction quotient calculation based on the concentrations of products and reactants, used for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. Can be used to determine the predominant reaction
  7   dilution safety add concentrated H2SO4 slowly to water, in a fume cupboard, wearing protective clothing, covered shoes and safety glasses, allow cooling time before using
  8   charges cationic surfactants neutralise these in fabrics, so the fabric is easier to fold and feels softer, eg Comfort fabric softener
  9   saponification the hydrolysis in a basic solution of fats and oils to produce glycerol and salts of fatty acids
10   reversible reaction chemical changes which do not completely convert reactants into products
11   triglycerides naturally occurring esters formed from glycerol and fatty acids (lipids, oils, fats)
12   Solvay process an industrial process that had been in use since the 1860's, producing sodium carbonate
13   vulcanise this process is done to treat a rubber or rubber-like substance with sulfur to increase its strength and elasticity
14   saturated fatty acids fatty acids with only single bonds between carbon atoms
15   precipitation reaction sulfuric acid(aq) + lead nitrate(aq) ---> lead sulfate(s) + nitric acid(aq), H2SO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) ---> PbSO4(s) + 2HNO3(aq)



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  Answers: Sheet 126 Industrial Chemistry 4

  1   endothermic phase changes melting or fusion, vaporisation or boiling, sublimation
  2   exothermic phase changes freezing, condensation, changing directly from gas to solid
  3   unsaturated fatty acids fatty acids with one or more double bonds (alkenes) between carbon atoms
  4   contact process method in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. The main reaction is the reversible one in which sulfur dioxide and oxygen form sulfur trioxide
  5   oxidation reaction copper(s) + sulfuric acid(aq) ---> copper sulfate(aq) + sulfur dioxide(g) + water (l)
Cu(s) + 2H2SO4(aq) ---> CuSO4(aq) + SO2 + 2H2O(l)
  6   fat lipids that contain mainly saturated fatty acid, eg beef tallow is 30% palmitic acid (16C), 24% stearic acid (16C) and 40% unsaturated oleic acid (18C)
  7   steady state conditions circumstances in which changes are occurring at a continuous rate in open systems and are not reversible, eg water running from a tap in a uniform stream
  8   dispersion forces the forces of attraction between atoms or molecules arising from temporary dipoles
  9   dehydrating reaction ethanol + propanoic acid ---[H2SO4]--> ethyl propanoate + water
CH3CH2OH + CH3CH2COOH --[H2SO4]--> CH3CH2COOCH2CH3 + H2O
10   sodium hydroxide production of this substance is an example of the use of electricity in an industrial production
11   open system system in which steady state conditions can occur, eg evaporation of ethanol from an open beaker, rate of evaporation > rate of condensation
12   hydrogen bonds bonds occurring in polar molecular interaction where hydrogen is bound to F, O or N
13   oil lipids that contain a greater proportion of unsaturated fatty acids eg peanut oil: 10% palmitic acid (16C), 3%stearic acid (18C), 48% unsaturated oleic acid (18C) and 34% unsaturated linoleic acid
14   closed system system in which an equilibrium can occur, eg evaporation of ethanol into the air in a closed bottle, rate of evaporation can equal rate of condensation
15   even numbers carbon atoms contained in the fatty acids in triglycerides fats with 14 to 18 carbon chains (including the carbon with the carboxylic acid group)



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  Answers: Sheet 127 Industrial Chemistry 5

  1   galvanic cells spontaneous redox reactions occur in these items, generating electricity, also called electrochemical cells
  2   electrolytic cells non-spontaneous redox reactions occur, using electricity to cause chemical change
  3   homogeneous reactions all species of reactants and products in the same state, eg 2NO2(g) <===> N2O4(g)
  4   emulsion a dispersion of one liquid in another, eg soap dissolved in droplets of oil and grease and dispersed in water
  5   Solvay process a continuous process that uses carbon dioxide and ammonia dissolved in brine (concentrated NaCl) as starting materials to make sodium carbonate
  6   feedstock materials required for an industrial process, either from natural raw materials or processed raw materials
  7   sulfur dioxide sources volcanic gases, fossil fuels, metal ore smelting, industrial processes
  8   homogeneous reaction factors concentration of reactants and products (pressure, volume, solute concentrations), temperature, presence of a catalyst all affecting rate of reaction, or whether a forward or a reverse reaction is favoured
  9   electricity cost this is an important factor in locating chlor-alkali plants because they use electrolytic cells to produce sodium hydroxide and chlorine from brine
10   sodium carbonate uses manufacturing of glass, soap, detergent, paper, dyes
11   hydrophilic a substance that has a high affinity for water
12   chlor-alkali processes mercury process, diaphragm process, membrane process
13   brine purification carbon dioxide in ammonia precipitates ions of calcium, magnesium and iron as carbonate so they can be removed as a sludge from a settling tank
14   heterogeneous reactions situation where species of reactants and products are in different states eg AgCl(s) <===> Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
15   mercury process problems there is a danger of loss of mercury into natural waters and its concentration reaching dangerous levels in edible marine life



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  Answers: Sheet 128 Industrial Chemistry 6

  1   ammonia scrubber first stage of the Solvay process in which ammonia is bubbled through brine in vertical compartments, together with carbon dioxide (to remove unwanted metal ions as carbonates
  2   reactant if the concentration of this substance is increased in an equilibrium then a reaction will occur to decrease its concentration and increase the concentration of the products
  3   settling tank second stage of the Solvay process in which ammoniated brine is held to allow carbonates of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+ to settle so they can be removed in a sludge
  4   product if the concentration of this substance is increased in an equilibrium reaction, then a reaction will occur to decrease its concentration and increase the concentration of the reactants
  5   diaphragm process problems use of asbestos in the diaphragm and possible exposure to fibres that cause mesothelioma cancers in the lungs
  6   micelle a cluster of surfactant molecules of colloidal size
  7   mercury process reactions anode: 2Cl-(aq) ---> Cl2(g) + e-, cathode: Na+(aq) + e- ---> Na(s), 2Na/Hg(l) + 2H2(l) ---> 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) + H2(g) + 2Hg(l)
  8   pressure increase for gases in an equilibrium reaction, if this condition change is applied, a reaction occurs to decrease the number of molecules produced and hence lower the pressure
  9   surfactant surface active agent; a substance (eg a detergent ) that alters the physical properties of a surface, a wetting agent
10   saponification value a measure of the average molar mass of fats and oils used to make soap, the number of moles of KOH needed to saponify 1 g
11   Solvay tower structure in which carbon dioxide is bubbled through cooled ammoniated brine to produce hydrogen carbonate: CO2(g) + H2O(l) <===> HCO3-(aq) + H+(aq)
12   ammonia substance that combines with the H+ produced during hydrogen carbonate formation in the Solvay tower to shift the equilibrium to the right (makes NH4+)
13   diaphragm process reactions anode: 2Cl-(aq) ---> Cl2(g) + 2e-, cathode: 2H2O(l) + 2e- ---> H2(g) + 2OH-(aq), leaving Na+ ions unreacted, resulting in sodium hydroxide solution
14   pressure decrease for gases in an equilibrium reaction, when this reaction conditionis changed, a reaction occurs to increase the number of molecules produced and hence raise the pressure
15   biodegradability capable of being broken down by natural decomposers



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  Answers: Sheet 129  Industrial Chemistry 7

  1   mercury process cell titanium coated with a rare earth metal anode, mercury flowing along the bottom of the cell as the cathode to dissolve sodium formed as sodium amalgam
  2   volume increase for gases in an equilibrium reaction, if this condition is altered, a reaction occurs to increase the number of molecules produced and hence occupy the extra volume
  3   common ion effect in the Solvay process, this results in sodium hydrogen carbonate being insoluble in brine (concentrated sodium chloride) and forming a filterable suspension
  4   moisture content soap formed by saponification is 35% water, and has to be vacuum dried to 17% water prior to packaging and sale
  5   detergent a cleaning agent, soap is a naturally occurring one
  6   volume decrease for gases in an equilibrium reaction, if this condition is changed, a reaction occurs to decrease the number of molecules produced and hence occupy the less volume
  7   filtration separation technique used to obtain suspended sodium hydrogen carbonate from ammonium chloride and brine in Solvay process
  8   saponification soap making, the alkaline hydrolysis of fats and oils
  9   Caster-Kellner cell alternative name for the mercury process cell for the production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide (chlor-alkali industry) from brine
10   cationic surfactants surfactants where the head carries a positive charge, eg, quaternary ammonia compounds, used as fabric softeners
11   Solvay equations NH3(aq) + CO2(aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) ---> NaHCO3(s) + NH4Cl(aq)
NaHCO3(s) --heat--> Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g)
2NH4Cl(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) ---> NH3(g) + 2H2O(l) + CaCl2(aq)
12   temperature increase for exothermic equilibria, if this condition is altered, the reaction will reverse to favour the endothermic reaction to absorb the extra heat
13   brine concentrated solution of sodium chloride used to extract chlorine and alkali by electrolysis
14   non-ionic surfactants surfactants that do not have a specific charge, eg alcohol ethoxylates, low sudsing, automatic dishwasher detergents
15   temperature decrease for exothermic equilibria, if the conditions are changed in this manner, the reaction will favour the forward reaction to produce more heat



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  Answers: Sheet 130 Industrial Chemistry 8

  1   Na2CO3 formation this is done by heating sodium hydrogen carbonate obtained by filtration NaHCO3(s) --heat--> Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g)
  2   chlorine in the Nelson diaphragm and the membrane cells, this gas is prevented from reacting with either sodium hydroxide or hydrogen gas by keeping it separate after formation at the anode
  3   fatty acids long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, can be saturated or unsaturated carbon chains
  4   Nelson diaphragm cell carbon anode, asbestos diaphragm to allow electrolyte to seep through to the steel-mesh cathode, steam used to form a hot water solution at the bottom of the cell
  5   temperature increase for endothermic equilibria, if conditions are altered in this manner, the reaction will favour the endothermic reaction to absorb the extra heat
  6   limestone use heated to produce both carbon dioxide to make hydrogen carbonate, and calcium hydroxide to allow ammonia to be recycled in the Solvay process: CaCO3(s) --heat---> CaO(s) + CO2(g), and CaO(s) + H2O(l) ---> Ca(OH)2(aq)
  7   yield the quantity of product formed in a process, usually expressed as a percentage of the expected amount of product from a fully balanced chemical equations
  8   ammonia recovery process in which calcium hydroxide converts ammonium chloride to ammonia so it can be reused in the Solvay process: Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2NH4Cl ---> CaCl2(aq) + 2NH3(g)
  9   temperature decrease for endothermic equilibria, if this condition is altered, the reaction will favour the reverse (exothermic) reaction to produce more heat
10   crystallisation method of obtaining sodium hydroxide from the Nelson diaphragm cell solution
11   recycling this is done with virtually all the ammonia and half the carbon dioxide in the Solvay process (half the carbon dioxide is used up in sodium carbonate formation)
12   natural products industrial chemistry has allowed the development of concentrated forms of these to occur, eg, NaOH
13   solids and liquid since species of reactants and products in these states do not have concentrations, adding or removing them from the system will not cause a reaction to occur
14   sodium mercury amalgam method used in the Castner-Kellner cell to keep the sodium produced at the cathode separated from both water and chlorine
15   anionic detergents surfactants with a negatively charged head, eg, alkyl benzene sulfonates, used in laundry and dishwashing detergents, highly sudsing



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  Answers: Sheet 131 Industrial Chemistry 9

  1   activation energy energy needed to cause a reaction to occur
  2   concentrated salt added to a mixture of caustic soda and saponified fat during laboratory soap making to harden the soap so it can be filtered off
  3   membrane process reactions anode: 2Cl-(aq) ---> Cl2(g) + 2e-, cathode: 2H2O(l) + 2e- ---> H2(g) + 2OH-(aq), leaving Na+ ions unreacted, resulting in sodium hydroxide solution
  4   Solvay process issues potential air and water pollution, personal safety, location, environmental impact
  5   membrane process cell titanium anode, ion-exchange membrane that allows movement of sodium ions but blocks chloride ions, and nickel cathode
  6   air pollution in the Solvay process this is continually monitored to ensure that ammonia does not escape and cause this problem
  7   metallic impurities substances that could affect the perfume and colour stability of soap
  8   lower it catalysts provide alternative reaction pathways and effectively do this to the activation energy
  9   soda ash sodium carbonate, the substance used first to neutralise fatty acids in soap manufacture because it is cheap and contains few metallic impurities
10   water pollution calcium chloride produced in the Solvay process has limited uses and so has the potential to do this, along with ammonia residues in water and hot cooling water, and pH alterations
11   solvent if this takes part in a reaction then its concentration is said to remain constant, so it cannot alter the equilibrium position, eg water in liquid state: H+(aq) + H2O(l) <===> [H3O]+(aq)
12   ion-exchange membrane material that separates the anode and cathode compartments of the electrolytic cell used to make chlorine and sodium hydroxide from brine in the membrane process
13   personal safety Solvay process plant staff need to undergo regular safety education because of hazards such as: ammonia is poisonous, hot water, calcium oxides and hydroxides are caustic
14   caustic soda sodium hydroxide, used to bring about the final saponification of unreacted fatty acids in soap manufacture
15   equilibrium constant product of the concentrations of the products to the power of the moles in reaction divided by the product of the concentrations of the reactants to the power of the moles in the reaction



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  Answers: Sheet 132 Industrial Chemistry 10

  1   chlorine uses PVC (plastic) CCl4 (drycleaning agent), HCl, bleaches, weed killers, paints and dyes, killing bacteria in water supplies and pools
  2   equilibrium factors constant temperature and closed container or system
  3   location placement of Solvay process plants can only be in industrial areas, near sources of raw materials, a suitable workforce and transport
  4   neat soap soap that comes off the final caustic soda neutralisation, 65% soap, 35% water, has to be vacuum dried
  5   sodium hydroxide uses soaps, detergents, textiles, paper, cleaning agent
  6   solid if this takes part in a reaction then will not alter the equilibrium position, it has no concentration, eg CaCO3(s) <==> CaO(s) + CO2(g) ; Kc = [CO2(g)]1
  7   environmental impact water needs from the Solvay process to be monitored for pH, temperature, ammonia content before being returned, air monitored for ammonia content
  8   vacuum drier method used to remove water from neat soap, from 35% down to 13% water
  9   hydrogen uses making margarine (saturating poly-unsaturated lipids by addition), nylon, HCl
10   constant change a change in temperature does this to the equilibrium constant for a reaction
11   chlorine a poisonous yellow-green gas produced by the chlor-alkali industry by the electrolysis of brine
12   glycerol by-product of soap manufacture, 1,2,3-propantriol, obtained by distillation from the solution left after saponification
13   vulcanising treating a rubber or rubber-like substance with sulfur to increase its strength and elasticity
14   sodium hydroxide an alkaline and corrosive solid produced by the chlor-alkali industry as a result of the electrolysis of brine
15   perfume and colour these are added to soap chips in an amalgamator after drying



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  Answers: Sheet 133 Industrial Chemistry 11

  1   contact process method used in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. The main reaction is the reversible one in which sulfur dioxide and oxygen form sulfur trioxide
  2   exothermic in this type of reaction the equilibrium constant goes down if the temperature goes up because the reaction tends to reverse (more reactants)
  3   dispersion forces the forces of attraction between atoms or molecules arising from temporary dipoles
  4   exothermic in this type of reaction the equilibrium constant goes up if the temperature goes down because the reaction tends to favour the forward reaction (more products)
  5   hydrogen a colourless, flammable gas produced by the chlor-alkali industry by the electrolysis of brine
  6   amalgamator equipment used to combine soap with perfume and colouring agents after vacuum drying
  7   plodder machine that produces bars of soap ready to be cut into short cakes of soap by a rotary cutter
  8   endothermic in this type of reaction the equilibrium constant goes down if the temperature goes down because the reaction tends to reverse (more reactants being produced)
  9   rotary cutter machine to cut longer bars of soap from the plodder into short cakes ready for packaging
10   polar molecule molecules having an uneven distribution of charge, eg HCl
11   endothermic equilibrium constant goes up if the temperature goes up because the reaction tends to favour the forward reaction (more products produced)
12   Solvay process a continuous process that uses carbon dioxide and ammonia dissolved in brine (concentrated NaCl) as starting materials to make sodium carbonate
13   one kWhr a kilowatt-hour of electrical energy, equal to 3.6 x 106 J
14   Kc increases in equilibrium reactions, this happens with increase in temperature if the forward reaction is endothermic (ΔH +ve)
15   surfactant ion particle that has a long non-polar hydrocarbon end with a COO- ion at the other end, the charged end is formed when soap dissolves in water



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  Answers: Sheet 134 Electrochemistry and Salvage 1

  1   chloride content solutions used to clean marine artefacts are tested for this by titration with silver nitrate using an indicator of K2CrO4. Red brown colour (silver chromate) means no more chloride ions in solution
  2   alnico permanent magnets, very high magnetic permeability, 61% iron, 12% aluminium, 22% nickel, 5% cobalt and carbon
  3   RMS Niagara sunk 1940 after hitting a German mine, 8 tonnes of gold, some recovered within a year, uncorroded, noble metal
  4   electrolyte chemical composition of the ocean makes it able to conduct electricity, and so it is an ..............................
  5   British destroyers Falklands war, ship decks made of aluminium/magnesium/silicon for lightweight, corrosion resistant, non-magnetic metal, but burned when hit by Exocet missiles
  6   ceramics restoration artefacts that have concretions removed, stains treated and removed, electrophoresis to move salts, repair and restoration
  7   galvanic cell an electrochemical cell in which a spontaneous reaction produces an electric charge
  8   ionic conductor a film of aqueous solution (seawater in the case of shipwrecks) on the surface of the corroding metal acts as this
  9   letters, bank notes, leather artefacts that are cleaned with electrophoresis; metallic stains eg rust, removed with complex metal ions, the stored away from light, in controlled humidity
10   complications these arise in shipwreck conservation because of the composite (varied) nature of shipwrecks
11   corrosion resistant metals like gold, platinum, and palladium have this property and are found uncombined in nature
12   Daniell cell an electrochemical cell consisting of two separate half cells with appropriate metals and solutions, connected by wire and salt bridge
13   seawater salts 75% NaCl, 16% MgCl2 and MgSO4, and 6% potassium salts, making up 3.5 to 4 grams per litre
14   stabilising materials aim of shipwreck conservation, to prevent further deterioration rather than clean and restore to original appearance
15   passivating metal a reactive metal that forms an inactive coating as a result of reaction with substances in the environment eg aluminium



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  Answers: Sheet 135 Electrochemistry and Salvage 2

  1   ocean mineral origin marine salts are from rainwater leaching terrestrial environments, hydrothermal vents (hot springs: smoke and water up to 400oC
  2   electrophoresis carried out on artefacts by placing it between electrodes carrying high current to cause particles of salt, dirt and corrosion products to move in the electric field
  3   aluminium oxide a thin, strongly adherent (tenacious), protective coating that forms immediately on the surface of exposed aluminium, protecting it from further corrosion
  4   conservation treatment after assessing composition and condition of a shipwreck or artefact, the most appropriate one of these is selected from the many alternatives
  5   anode electrode at which oxidation takes place
  6   waterlogged wood aims of conservation of this material include: shrinkage avoided (size maintained), durability enhanced, retreatment should be possible, little modification of the wood
  7   cell notation anode material/product of oxidation//substance being reduced/cathode material eg Cu/Cu2+//Ag+/Ag, Pt(s)/I-(aq)/I2(s)//Fe3+/Fe2+/Pt(s)
  8   terrestrial leaching calcium hydrogen carbonates, magnesium sulfate, iron and aluminium compounds, salts of sodium and potassium (mainly chlorides): sources of salts in the ocean
  9   atmospheric corrosion rusting can occur if humidity >70% during ship building, accelerated by air pollution and sea spray
10   waterlogged wood material from ships, first treatments to prevent further damage include: desalination, impregnation, slow controlled drying, maintaining a stable environment
11   reduction voltages standard protentials provided in table format for reduction of various species of substances
12   hydrothermal vents sulfides of copper, zinc, and iron from this source dissolve in the hot water (400oC)
13   immersion corrosion steel in contact with surrounding water provides ideal conditions for electrochemical cell formation, eg in ship hulls
14   anodising process in which a thick layer of protective oxide is formed on the surface of aluminium by placing it at the anode of an electrolytic cell in 2 M H2SO4
15   waterlogged wood artefact treatments include: impregnation to fill spaces, cell wall bulking to control shrinkage, and water replacement to protect against cell collapse



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  Answers: Sheet 136 Electrochemistry and Salvage 3

  1   contact with metals iron in steel acting as an anode to accelerate corrosion of the iron, eg with less active metals such as copper fasteners, lead in solder, tin on tinplate
  2   impregnation waterlogged wood artefact treatment aimed at filling up spaces with a chemically inert material that provides structural support
  3   electrolyte a substance which either in the fused (molten) state or in solution conducts an electric current and is decomposed by it (according to Faraday)
  4   chromium a passivating metal which forms an extremely thin oxide layer, remaining shiny and decorative. It also has a similar effect in alloys eg stainless steel
  5   oxidation voltage this is found by changing the sign given for standard potentials for reduction as the half equation must also be reversed
  6   desalination process performed on shipwreck waterlogged wood: removal of soluble salts such as chlorides and sulfate
  7   electrolytic dissociation some molecules when dissolved in water break up into ions of opposite charge (according to Arrhenius)
  8   pits and crevices sites where water can collect on steel, thus providing differential aeration, resulting in the formation of corrosion cells on steel articles, eg holes and between sheets riveted together
  9   cell wall bulking waterlogged wood artefact treatment used to strengthen cell walls; polyethylene glycol, controls shrinkage
10   reduction equation half equation given on tables of standard reduction potentials, electrons being accepted
11   impregnation of shipwreck waterlogged wood: solid material added to replace the water and support degraded cellular structure
12   polished steel this alloy can be made 'passive' by concentrated nitric acid causing the production of a reasonably adherent Fe3O4 layer of a dark blue colour
13   metal artefacts marine archaeological conservation: restoring of these by removal of concretions, washing, storing in tanks of water at until brought ashore, then using appropriate chemical treatments
14   zero oxidation number of elements eg oxygen in O2, Na metal
15   stainless steel an alloy of iron made corrosion resistant by the presence of passivating metals chromium (18%) and nickel (8%)



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 3Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 137 Electrochemistry and Salvage 4

  1   oxidation equation half equation found by reversing the equation given on a table of standard reduction potentials, so that electrons are produced
  2   water replacement waterlogged wood artefact treatment in which a non-aqueous solvent is used to replace water eg acetone to prevent shrinkage and protect against cell collapse
  3   strong electrolytes ionic substances that are very soluble in water forming solutions of high concentration
  4   differential aeration situation in which a material has differences in the amount of available oxygen between two points, eg water in a pit or crevice in steel
  5   negative charge on the anode (site of oxidation) of an electrochemical cell because electrons are being released in the reaction
  6   noble term describing metals of low activity eg gold, or those which are able to form a passivating layer eg stainless steel, nickel
  7   rust a non-adherent brown coating that forms when carbon steel and iron corrode at points where pure iron has been oxidised
  8   artefact an article produced by human workmanship
  9   artefact treatment remove salts (rinsing, electrophoresis), electrochemical and/or electrolytic treatments, chemical corrosion inhibitors to prevent further damage, applying a protective coating, handled with gloves, placed in a stable environment after
10   weak electrolytes ionic substances that are not very soluble in water forming solutions of low concentration
11   salts substances removed from salvaged artefacts, especially chlorides. Can be difficult because ions are tied up in corrosion products, and water can damage some metals in artefacts
12   dissolving salt occurs when polar water molecules are able to attract ions away from the crystal lattice allowing new layers of lattice to be similarly affected
13   rust compound iron (III) oxide monohydrate, formed by the oxidation and dehydration of iron (II) hydroxide: 4Fe(OH)2(s) + O2(g) ---> 2Fe2O3.H2O(s) + 2H2O(l)
14   concretion a formed solid mass on another object
15   positive charge on the cathode (site of reduction) of an electrochemical cell because electrons are being used up in the reaction



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 4Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 138 Electrochemistry and Salvage 5

  1   ignoble term describing metals of high activity, and which form anodes or corrode readily, eg magnesium, zinc, aluminium
  2   conserve preserve from decay
  3   predict corrosion the reduction potentials can be used to do this with respect to two metals in contact, a positive emf indicates the reductant will corrode
  4   chloride ions the use of electrochemical/electrolytic treatment on salvaged artefacts for stabilisation by reduction processes also releases these, permitting their removal
  5   iron anode corrosion iron releases 2 electrons that are conducted through the metal: Fe(s) ---> Fe2+(aq) + 2e-
  6   electrically neutral reason for ions migrating through the salt bridge is to ensure that the solutions remain this
  7   electron transfer this occurs as a result of the following reactions metals reacting with non-metals, metals reacting with displacement acids, metals displacing metal ions from solution
  8   iron cathode reaction electrons from corroding iron reduce water and oxygen (ie near the air-water junction) to hydroxide ions: O2(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 4e- ---> 4OH-(aq)
  9   hydrothermal vent a fissure in the earth's crust on the ocean floor that generates hot mineralised water
10   corrosion protection complete films of paint or plated metal, using cathodic protection eg applied voltage or sacrificial anode systems
11   redox reactions that involve the transfer of electrons between species
12   corrosion inhibitors used on salvaged artefacts to prevent further corrosion occurring
13   cathode the electrode at which reduction takes place
14   anode negative ions move through the salt bridge towards this electrode in an electrochemical cell (thus the salt bridge completes the circuit)
15   oxidation loss of electrons from a substances, indicated in half equations as electrons in the products: Mg(s) ---> Mg2+(aq) + 2e-
16   cathode positive ions move through the salt bridge towards this electrode in an electrochemical cell, to replace positive ions that have been reduced



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 5Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 139 Electrochemistry and Salvage 6

  1   impressed current an electric current that is applied to a metal to make it cathodic
  2   protective coating used on salvaged artefacts to prevent further erosion by preventing contact with the new environment
  3   protective coating complete films of paint or plated metal that prevent contact between structural material and the water and air of the environment,
  4   Fe(OH)2 formation during corrosion of steel, iron (II) ions diffuse from the corrosion cell anode while hydroxide ions diffuse from the cathode, a bluish precipitate forms: Fe2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) ---> Fe(OH)2(s)
  5   Titanic environment no light (3 800m), very little oxygen (0.2 ppm), near freezing water, shipworms weakening wood, anaerobic bacteria, aerobic bacteria, high water pressure
  6   leaching the removal of soluble material (salts that end up in the ocean) by water as it percolates through rock or soil layers
  7   sacrificial anode type of cathodic protection in which a more active metal is placed in contact with the less active structural component so that the more active metal acts as an anode and is corroded eg galvanised iron
  8   reduction gain of electrons by a substance, indicated in half equations as electrons in the reactants: Cl2(g) + 2e- ---> 2Cl-
  9   spontaneous the reactions of an electrochemical cell are this if the total potential for the cell is positive
10   rust formation oxidation and dehydration of iron (II) hydroxide: 4Fe(OH)2(s) + O2(g) ---> 2Fe2O3.H2O(s) + 2H2O(l)
11   accelerate corrosion an effect of the following in rusting: deep pits resulting in anodes with low oxygen, impurities eg carbon and copper, metal lattice distorted by stress eg bending
12   cell potential use prediction of the oxidising or reducing ability of substances, and the metal that is most likely to corrode
13   cathodic protection use of sacrificial anode systems and impressed current systems to protect structural steel components
14   electron acceptor an oxidising agent or oxidant which becomes reduced in a reaction, gaining electrons from the substance it is oxidising
15   sulfide occlusions a factor contributing to the sinking of the Titanic, making the hull more brittle and unable to bend when it struck the iceberg, causing the ship to break up
16   restoration aim of stabilising and repairing an object (artefact) in order to bring it back to as close to its original state as possible



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 6Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 140 Electrochemistry and Salvage 7

  1   little oxygen this results from the lack of light for photosynthesis, being at great depth from atmospheric air, and the decay of dead plants and animals on the ocean floor around the Titanic
  2   electron donor a reducing agent or reductant; it becomes oxidised in a reaction, losing electrons to the substance it is reducing
  3   sulfate-reducing bacteria anaerobic bacteria that reduce sulfate ions to obtain energy for metabolism, found in deep sea environments, eg Titanic shipwreck
  4   reductant chemical species that easily provides electrons to another species in a redox reaction, a reducing agent
  5   differential aeration this is the result of cracks in protective paint coatings, leading to accelerated corrosion under the paint
  6   corrosion detection red ferricyanide ions turn blue in presence of iron (II) ions being released at a corrosion anode, by forming Prussian blue: Fe2+(aq) + Fe(CN)63-(aq) <===> Fe[Fe(CN)6]-(aq)
  7   British tea clippers composite hull ships, iron frames added to a wooden ship, 1860's
  8   tarnish a film or stain on a metallic surface (often referring to black stains on silver)
  9   oxidant chemical species that accepts electrons from another chemical species in a redox reaction, an oxidising agent
10   impressed current method of metal protection using an applied voltage to make the structure a protected cathode, includes having noble metal anodes (platinum or lead/silver alloy) in the nearby electrolytic environment (soil, sea water)
11   near freezing water this condition of the Titanic wreck was expected to slow any corrosion, but the action of anaerobic bacteria has still accelerated it
12   oxidation number a value given to an element in a molecule which is the charge that atom would have if it were completely ionic
13   larger emf this is the result of greater differences in reducing and oxidising power of two chemical species in a redox reaction, the half equations are widely separated on the table of standard potentials
14   powerful reductants metals that are high in the activity series, they displace metals (and hydrogen) lower in the series from solutions
15   barques ships of the last part of 19th century, 4-masted, built first of iron and then steel
16   shipworms animals that have burrowed through and weakened wooden structures on the Titanic



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 7Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 141 Electrochemistry and Salvage 8

  1   sacrificial anode metals zinc is used: ship hulls, ballast tanks, oil and natural gas pipelines, galvanised iron; magnesium in non-aqueous environments: petrol storage tanks, zinc and aluminium alloys (zincalume)
  2   emf decrease this occurs as a redox cell operates because reactants are used up slowing the forward reaction (due to lowering concentration), and products accumulate, speeding up the reverse reaction
  3   balance electrons when adding two half redox equations, this must be done before adding, so that the electrons cancel out in the final ionic equation
  4   steamships type of ship from early 1900's, replaced sail, able to be larger because steam tugs were being used for berthing
  5   black sulfides these substances produced by seafloor bacteria have stained artefacts
  6   oxygen substance that has an oxidation number of -2 in compounds (except for peroxides where it is -1)
  7   paint a pigment dispersed in a liquid vehicle of substances that for polymers during the "drying" process
  8   emf factors potentials apply to reactions in aqueous solutions of particular concentrations, at 25oC, and in some cases are pH dependent
  9   Dreadnought battleships, 1906, improved steel quality available, steam turbine engine, and improved weaponry
10   anaerobic bacteria organisms living in the mud on the ocean floor which carry out respiration in absence of air, and which can reduce sulfate to sulfur
11   acidic half equations deducting reduction and oxidation equations from known reactants and products: excess oxygen as water on other side, excess hydrogen as H+ on other side, balance charges with electrons
12   paint vehicles bitumen, oil, alkyl resins, epoxy resins, polyurethane resins, vinyl resins, form polymers around the pigments
13   Titanic ship launched in 1912, largest liner at the time, 25 boilers, reciprocating engines, four funnels, two masts, lookout cage on the foremast
14   bitumen product of coal distillation and petroleum, high boiling point compounds made mainly from carbon and hydrogen, used as a corrosion inhibiting paint vehicle, coal tar
15   emf electromotive force, the potential of an electrochemical cell, another term (acronym) for voltage
16   sulfate reduction process carried out by deep sea anaerobic bacteria which increased the rate of corrosion of the Titanic by causing an acidic environment around the wreck



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 8Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 142 Electrochemistry and Salvage 9

  1   reactants and products writing acidic half equations: known ................., excess oxygen as water on other side, excess hydrogen as H+ on other side, balance charges with electrons
  2   particle charge the sum of all the oxidation numbers of all the atoms of elements present in a chemical particle: neutral molecule = 0, polyatomic ion = ion charge
  3   acidic environment conditions around the wreck of the Titanic accelerating corrosion of iron, produced when sulfates are reduced to sulfur by anaerobic bacteria
  4   oils corrosion inhibiting paint vehicle, from drying vegetable oils eg linseed which polymerise in air forming a coating, have double bonds (unsaturated)
  5   excess oxygen writing acidic half equations: known reactants and products, ................. shown as water on other side, excess hydrogen as H+ on other side, balance charges with electrons
  6   Selandra first ocean-going diesel-driven ship, launched 1912
  7   finding emf electrochemical cell voltage = reduction half cell voltage + oxidation half cell voltage (found by reversing the sign of the species reduction half cell)
  8   modern ships use diesel or steam turbine driven engines, a few are powered by nuclear reactors (eg Lenin, 1959, an icebreaker)
  9   voltameter reactions cathode reaction: 2H2O(l) + 2e- ---> H2(g) + 2OH-(aq) Eo = -0.83 V
anode reaction: 2H2O(l) ---> O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e- Eo = -1.23 V
overall reaction: 2H2O(l) ---> 2H2(g) + O2(g) Eo = -2.06 V
10   alkyl resins corrosion inhibiting paint vehicle, fast drying time and excellent film forming properties, due to cross-linked polymers
11   sulfates seawater contains 840 mgL-1 of these substances, which can be reduced to sulfur by anaerobic bacteria, releasing acid in the environment
12   excess hydrogen writing acidic half equations: known reactants and products, excess oxygen as water on other side, ................. as H+ on other side, balance charges with electrons
13   electrolytic cells redox reactions that are not spontaneous, occur as a result of a solution conducting an electric current, have a negative emf
14   balance charges writing acidic half equations: known reactants and products, excess oxygen as water on other side, excess hydrogen as H+ on the other side, ................. with electrons
15   calcium carbonate substance that is soluble at high pressures and low temperatures found at the depth of the Titanic, resulting in no bones being left on board, and no shellfish encrustations
16   steel carbon mild steel <0.25%, medium steel 0.25 to 0.6%, high steel 0.6 to 1.5%, resulting in increasing hardness and strength and decreasing ductility and malleability



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 9Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 143 Electrochemistry and Salvage 10

  1   epoxy resins corrosion inhibiting paint vehicle consisting of a 2-pack formulation: epoxy resin and cold curing agent, mixed just before application
  2   polyurethane resins corrosion inhibiting paint vehicle, polymers formed between isocyanates and hydroxyl containing compounds, hard, tough, glossy, used above water on ships
  3   ductility the ability of a metal to be drawn into wire, this decreases with iron based alloys as carbon content increases
  4   cast iron artefacts have uncorroded metal core surrounded by graphitised corrosion products, containing water, FeO(OH), iron chlorides, SiO2, Fe3C and graphite
  5   dilute nitric acid example of a reactant given for writing an acidic half equation: HNO3, product given: nitrogen oxide (NO). The two extra oxygen atoms in the HNO3 written as 2 water molecule products, and then the extra hydrogens balanced as H+ ions on reactant side prior to balancing the charges with e-
  6   sulfuric acid substance added to water in a voltameter to enable it to conduct electricity more readily
  7   malleability the ability of a metal to be beaten into sheets, this decreases with iron based alloys as carbon content increases
  8   vinyl resins corrosion inhibiting paint vehicle which addition polymerises at vinyl group: CH2=CH-, effective underwater protection of metal surfaces but need a pre-treatment powder to improve adhesion
  9   anode electrode where oxidation occurs in both the electrochemical and electrolytic cells
10   iron chlorides in artefacts forms into Fe2O3, HCl and FeO(OH) which in turn accelerate corrosion in presence of oxygen when allowed to dry out
11   concentrated nitric acid reactant given for writing half equations: [HNO3], product given: nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
12   sodium hydroxide solution that helps protect cast iron artefacts by neutralising any HCl formed from iron chlorides and forming a passivating film on metallic iron particles
13   cathode electrode where reduction occurs in both the electrochemical and electrolytic cells
14   alloy a material that contains more than one element and has the characteristic properties of metallic elements
15   metallic zinc a paint pigment that provides cathodic protection and develops a passivating layer if pigment content > 90%, in epoxy resin
16   concentrated sulfuric acid reactant given for writing half equations: [H2SO4], product given: sulfur dioxide (SO2)



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 10Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 144 Electrochemistry and Salvage 11

    1   negative charge on the cathode (site of reduction) of an electrolytic cell because electrons are being supplied for the reduction reaction
    2   metal properties shiny appearance, malleable and ductile, able to conduct heat and electricity
    3   anti-fouling paints these metal protecting materials contain slowly released substances that are poisonous to marine plant and animal growth, eg copper
    4   no graphite network reason why wrought iron artefacts are not as susceptible to post-excavation corrosion as cast iron
    5   positive charge on the anode (site of oxidation) of an electrolytic cell because electrons are being taken away in the oxidation reaction
    6   steel production removal of impurities from cast iron (carbon, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, manganese) and then the addition of other elements such as chromium, nickel
    7   James Craig restoration this wreck was restored with underwater anticorrosive vinyl, antifouling paint with copper, topside and bulwarks with zinc rich paint, final coat containing micaceous iron oxide (mica containing)
    8   Cl- ions these ions are released when iron artefacts are washed in 0.5 M NaOH solution allowing them to diffuse into the washing solution
    9   increased porosity method used to increase Cl- diffusion from iron artefacts by converting iron compounds to denser forms eg Fe3O4[Fe(FeO2)2]
10   hydrogen substance that generally has an oxidation number of +1 in compounds (except for ionic hydrides where it is -1)
11   cast iron hard, brittle form of iron, 2 - 4% C, 1 - 3% Si, P, S, Mn impurities, strong, cheap, withstands shock and vibration (used in engine blocks), made by melting pig iron
12   James Craig a 3 masted ship which used wrought iron (0.01% carbon), barque built 1874, abandoned at Recherche Bay, Tasmania, 1930's, being restored in Darling Harbour
13   electroplating an electrolytic process in which a metal cathode is coated by another metal which is being reduced from its ions in the surrounding solution
14   electroplating processes anode = plating material, electrolyte contains ions of plating material, cathode = object being plated, direct current used
15   pig iron product of the blast furnace, mostly made into steel, the rest into cast iron or wrought iron, 2 - 4% C, 1 - 3% Si, some P, S, Mn, 90% Fe
16   iron artefact object restored using electrolysis as follows: NaOH (1M) electrolyte, stainless steel anode (O2 made), artefact at cathode (-ve), the H2evolved loosens concretions and Cl- ions, takes weeks



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 11Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 145 Electrochemistry and Salvage 12

  1   pressure increase in this factor increases the solubility of atmospheric gases in water, but has virtually no effect on solubility of salts
  2   Leyden person 1745, stored static electricity in a Leyden jar made of two conducting plates with a slab of insulating material between
  3   wrought iron made from molten cast iron by oxidising Si and Mn and other impurities to form a slag, 0.04% C, 0.1% Si
  4   alkaline-sulfite reduction small iron artefacts can be reduced using 0.5 M Na2SO3 and 0.5 M NaOH, 70oC, in a sealed container, weakens bond between concretions and corrosion products, takes weeks
  5   zinc plating galvanised iron, if scratched the iron becomes a cathode (it is less active), zinc anode corrodes protecting the iron, also zinc forms passive coat of zinc carbonate
  6   temperature increase in this factor decreases the solubility of atmospheric gases in water, and generally increases solubility of salts
  7   Galvani person 1791, noted twitching of freshly killed frogs legs when subjected to electric currents from a Leyden jar, called the effect animal electricity
  8   heat treatments of iron artefacts: hot air 400 - 500oC to remove chlorides, heat in reducing atmosphere (H2) volatilises chlorides and produces metallic iron
  9   tin plating food cans, the coating forms a protecting oxide coating, but if scratched iron rapidly corrodes as it is more active than tin, and acts as an anode while tin, being less active acts as a cathode
10   pressure decrease in this factor decreases the solubility of atmospheric gases in water, but has virtually no effect on solubility of salts
11   wrought iron properties metal that can withstand shock (impact) and vibration, corrosion resistant, ability to hold protective coatings, eg zinc galvanising
12   wrought iron uses plates where high corrosion resistance is needed, chains where weldability and impact strength are needed
13   knives and swords iron artefacts that should not be heat treated because archaeological information about their metallurgical structure (smelting and forging) would be lost
14   chrome plating shiny metal that forms a protective adherent layer in air
15   galvanism the production of electric current by two metals in contact with a moist environment, Galvani used brass hooks and iron container for frog leg-twitch experiments
16   temperature decrease in this factor increases the solubility of atmospheric gases in water, and generally also decreases solubility of salts



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 12Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 146 Electrochemistry and Salvage 13

  1   Volta person 1800, used a stack of zinc and silver discs separated by felt pads soaked with brine to produce a current (Voltaic pile)
  2   cementite hard, brittle compound iron carbide (FeC) that precipitates as iron cools from high temperatures, hardens steel
  3   phosphoric acid/tannic acid substances that can be applied to iron artefacts to provide some passivity and a surface for coating with varnish
  4   air composition nitrogen 78%, oxygen 21%, argon 0.9%, carbon dioxide 0.04% when dry, but water content normally varies between 1.2% and 3.3% by volume
  5   cell comparison electrolytic: voltage applied to cause reaction, common electrolyte (single container), non-spontaneous, negative emf; electrochemical: reaction causes voltage, separate electrolytes, spontaneous, positive emf
  6   photosynthesis chemical reaction that increases the dissolved oxygen content of seawater in the light zone (first 200 m) during daylight hours
  7   Nicholson and Carlisle persons, 1800, inspired by Volta's work produced an early voltameter to split water into its elements
  8   body centred cubic crystal structure of iron at moderate temperature resulting in carbon impurities precipitating as iron cementite, hardening the steel
  9   copper artefacts pure copper nails and sheets, phosphor bronze (Cu/Sn 90/10, P 0.6%) propellers, gunmetal (Cu:Sn:Pb:Zn = 85:5:5:5) cannons, fittings and bells, brass (Cu:Zn = 60:40) sheathing and rudder fittings
10   cell similarities both electrolytic and electrochemical cells have: electrolyte, with ions to carry charge, oxidation at anode, reduction at cathode, electrons in external circuit,
11   face centred cubic crystal structure of iron at high temperature allowing carbon impurities to dissolve and making steel more malleable at high temperature
12   oxygen gas produced by photosynthesis and dissolved into seawater from atmospheric oxygen, reduced sharply at greater depths due to being used up oxidising dead plants and animals
13   electrolysis products depend on Eo value of half-reaction, type of electrode (inert or reactive), reactant concentration, temperature, current density, applied emf
14   Davy person, 1807 used electrolysis to isolate magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium from their molten compounds
15   copper artefacts all similar, treated similarly, have little or no marine growth on surfaces (copper is poisonous), corrosion products chlorides
16   carbon dioxide gas fifteen times as soluble as oxygen in water, reacts with water to form hydrogen carbonate and carbonate, used in photosynthesis, nearly as much in the ocean as in the air



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 13Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 147 Electrochemistry and Salvage 14

  1   copper artefact treatment chemical stripping with citric acid, then sodium carbonate, then electrolysis, finally rinse with deionised water and dry
  2   homogeneous alloy metal mixture with components dispersed randomly and uniformly eg substitutional and interstitial steels
  3   Faraday person, 1833, published work showing the relationship between the amount of electricity involved in electrolysis and related it to the amount of substance produced
  4   oxygen gas twice as soluble in water as nitrogen, but only one fifteenth as soluble as carbon dioxide
  5   heterogeneous alloy metal mixture in which the components are not dispersed uniformly eg pearlite steel containing a mixture of iron and cementite (FeC), solder
  6   Faraday's terms electrolysis, electrolyte, anode, cathode, anion, cation
  7   chemical stripping copper artefact treatment using citric acid and thiourea in tapwater to remove chlorides; pH rises 2 to 4 due to carbonate reacting with the acid
  8   substitutional alloy homogeneous metal mixture that has solute (chromium) atoms taking positions normally occupied by solvent (iron) atoms
  9   Faraday's first electrolysis law: the amount of any substance deposited, dissolved or evolved at an electrode during electrolysis is directly proportional to the amount of electricity passed through the electrolyte
10   nitrogen main atmospheric gas least soluble in water compared to oxygen (a half as soluble) and carbon dioxide (a thirtieth as soluble)
11   sodium carbonate a solution used to hydrolyse CuCl and Cu2(OH)3Cl to release Cl- ions from crevices in copper artefacts
12   one kWhr a kilowatt-hour of electrical energy, equal to 3.6 x 106 J
13   interstitial alloy homogeneous metal mixture that has solute atoms (carbon) in the spaces between the solvent atoms (iron), creating more bonding and higher tensile strength
14   reagent a substance or solution that causes a reaction to occur
15   Faraday's second law of electrolysis: the amount in moles of different substances deposited, dissolved or evolved at an electrode by the passage of the same amount of electricity are inversely proportional to the charges on their ions
16   carbon dioxide gas, up to 106 ppm of seawater, more soluble in sea water than in pure water, 15 times more soluble than oxygen, 30 times more soluble than nitrogen



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 14Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 148 Electrochemistry and Salvage 15

  1   electrolysis process used to reduce copper bearing corrosion products (CuO, CuCl and Cu(OH)3Cl) to denser copper and release Cl- ions in the treatment of copper based artefacts
  2   deionised water final rinse used for copper based artefacts before drying
  3   equilibrium term describing the balance between atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater: CO2(g) + H2O(l) <===> H2CO3(aq)
  4   intermetallic alloy homogeneous metal mixture with specific properties and composition, eg CuAl2 (duralumin), and FeC (cementite)
  5   voltaic pile a battery created by Alessandro Volta consisting of layers of two different metals separated by cardboard discs soaked in brine
  6   slow expected rate of corrosion of Titanic, but anaerobic bacteria produce acid when they obtain energy from sulfur and caused the opposite effect
  7   anodic behaving as an anode
  8   silver artefacts usually coins, corrosion layer usually matches original preserving inscriptions, silver content varies: 90 - 60%, rest copper
  9   medium steel uses girders and rails, tough, 0.25 to 0.6% carbon
10   chloride ions these must be removed from artefacts as they can accelerate corrosion once the artefacts are placed in air
11   mild steel uses cars, ships, bridges, buildings, cheap, ductile easily welded, 0.15 to 0.25% carbon
12   fast actual rate of corrosion of Titanic due to the action of anaerobic bacteria producing acid from sulfur used to obtain energy
13   Batavia flagship of Dutch United East India Company, 1629, west coast Australia, coral reef, mutiny, murder, rape amongst survivors
14   high carbon steel uses scissors, axes, knives, hard but lowered ductility, 0.6 to 1.5% carbon
15   silver corrosion products silver chloride and silver sulfide
16   cathodic behaving as a cathode



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 15Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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  Answers: Sheet 149 Electrochemistry and Salvage 16

  1   Gilt Dragon Dutch East Indiaman, reef north of Perth, reputed to have 8 chests of silver, cargo salvaged 1963
  2   mole ratio to find this when electrons are involved use redox half equations, balance out electrons before combining
  3   cobalt steel improved magnetic properties, magnets, jet engines, 73.5% iron, 17% cobalt, 2.5% chromium, 8% tungsten and carbon
  4   silver artefact these are treated with HCl to remove CaCO3, reduction of silver corrosion products with electrolysis or galvanic reduction
  5   Dunbar immigrant ship, sand Sydney Heads 1857 with only one survivor, cargo of gold sovereigns and silver coins minted for the colony of NSW
  6   corrosion process of wearing away, usually by a chemical agent
  7   chrome-vanadium steel tools, grinders, hard wearing, shock resistant, 98% iron, 1% chromium, 0.2% vanadium
  8   HCl acid chemical used in the treatment of silver artefacts, to remove CaCO3, and copper corrosion products, silver sulfide and silver chloride are not soluble
  9   electrolysis process used to reduce silver in corrosion products to silver by passing a current, eg silver coin as cathode, stainless steel anode, (oxygen produced), NaOH electrolyte, then rinse in deionised water
10   Titanic on this ships maiden voyage, struck an iceberg off Newfoundland, 3800 m water, hull in two parts now 1 km apart, 1523 out of 2227 passengers froze
11   corrosion oxidation of metals by certain substances (mostly water and oxygen) in the environment
12   stainless steel sinks, cisterns, cutlery, corrosion resistant, chemically unreactive, hard and strong, 74% iron, 18% chromium, 8% nickel and carbon
13   high-speed steel drills, cutting tools, hard at high temperatures, 75% iron, 18% tungsten, 6% chromium and carbon
14   corrosion damage metals lose strength and elasticity
15   SS President Coolidge ship sunk by a mine, Second World War, off Espirito, Vanuatu, one casualty
16   galvanic reduction silver artefact wrapped in aluminium foil and covered with formic acid solution, some electrons used to reduce silver, rest reduce hydrogen



  Electrochemistry and Salvage 16Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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