Welcome to Alan Thompson's Physics Quiz Sheets Links: Matching Items in Printable Format.

Topic Preview Gateway Page.

 This page is a gateway to other pages, as well as a comprehensive listing of the topics covered, the questions and their matched answers.

 By using CTRL-F various terms or words can be found so that the most useful topic can be located amongst the preview sheets.

 Links to each printable topic quiz can be found both near the top of this page, and between the preview sheets.

 Each topic has matching items statements to assist in gaining familiarisation with Physics terms.


  

1. Link to all the topic question pages, with answers beside the questions, located further down on this webpage.

   Preview Topic Tests on this webpage.


2. Link to individual topic links for printable, 2 page sheets: questions followed by answers, all on separate web pages.

These links are below on this webpage. Note the links are also between between the preview topics located further down this webpage.

  Question/Answer single topic sheet links below


  

3. Link to the complete set of 112 topic question papers with answers collated onto separate consecutive pages, all on a single webpage.

   Question Sheets collated with Answer Sheets, all 112 topics.


  

4. Link to all the questions-only pages (no answers provided), all on a single webpage.

   Question Sheets only, all 112 topics.


  

5. Link to all the answers-only pages, in topic groups of 3, all on a single webpage.

   Answers only webpage, all 112 topics


  

6. Link to Preview sheets: all the question pages with-answers beside the questions. This is located on a separate webpage.

   Preview: Answers and Questions on the same page, all 112 topics.


 Further instructions for finding a suitable topic to print, or a set of answers, accompanies each of the pages indicated in 3 to 6 above.

 Essentially, once a page has loaded, find a topic with CTRL-F, and print by selecting a suitable area (with mouse) and then right click on the selected area to print.

Warning: using Ctrl-P can result the printing of the entire set of question/answer/question and answer sheets, up to around 200 pages depending on which web page you are viewing. Unfortunately, suitable pagination is not available.

  For suitable pagination it is best to access the separate topics from this webpage either via the topic index links immediately below, or via the links located between the preview pages further below.

 The site is set up like this so that you can navigate to the desired topic without relying on specific topic headings which often don't explain fully the contents of the topic.



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The following links open Printable Single Topic pages.

 These pages are composed of a page of matching items and a page with the answers. Using CTRL-P or right-click-mouse (then select print from pop-up menu), will lead to a 2 page print out. Questions on the first page. Answers on the second page.


    Worksheet   1    Science Method and other Terminology 1

    Worksheet   2    Science Method and other Terminology 2

    Worksheet   3    Science Method and other Terminology 3

    Worksheet   4    Science Method and other Terminology 4

    Worksheet   5    Science Method and other Terminology 5

    Worksheet   6    Science Method and other Terminology 6

    Worksheet   7    Measurement and errors 1

    Worksheet   8    Measurement and errors 2

    Worksheet   9    Waves and Communication 1

    Worksheet  10   Waves and Communication 2

    Worksheet  11   Waves and Communication 3

    Worksheet  12   Waves and Communication 4

    Worksheet  13   Waves and Communication 5

    Worksheet  14   Waves and Communication 6

    Worksheet  15   Waves and Communication 7

    Worksheet  16   Motion 1

    Worksheet  17   Motion 2

    Worksheet  18   Motion 3

    Worksheet  19   Motion 4

    Worksheet  20   Motion 5

    Worksheet  21   Motion 6

    Worksheet  22   Electrical Energy 1

    Worksheet  23   Electrical Energy 2

    Worksheet  24   Electrical Energy 3

    Worksheet  25   Electrical Energy 4

    Worksheet  26   Electrical Energy 5

    Worksheet  27   Electrical Energy 6

    Worksheet  28   Electrical Energy 7

    Worksheet  29   Electrical Energy 8

    Worksheet  30   Electrical Energy 9

    Worksheet  31   Electrical Energy 10

    Worksheet  32   Electrical Energy 11

    Worksheet  33   Cosmic Engine 1

    Worksheet  34   Cosmic Engine 2

    Worksheet  35   Cosmic Engine 3

    Worksheet  36   Cosmic Engine 4

    Worksheet  37   Cosmic Engine 5

    Worksheet  38   Cosmic Engine 6

    Worksheet  39   Cosmic Engine 7

    Worksheet  40   Cosmic Engine 8

    Worksheet  41   Cosmic Engine 9

    Worksheet  42   Cosmic Engine 10

    Worksheet  43   Space 1

    Worksheet  44   Space 2

    Worksheet  45   Space 3

    Worksheet  46   Space 4

    Worksheet  47   Space 5

    Worksheet  48   Space 6

    Worksheet  49   Space 7

    Worksheet  50   Space 8

    Worksheet  51   Motors and Generators 1

    Worksheet  52   Motors and Generators 2

    Worksheet  53   Motors and Generators 3

    Worksheet  54   Motors and Generators 4

    Worksheet  55   Motors and Generators 5

    Worksheet  56   Motors and Generators 6

    Worksheet  57   Motors and Generators 7

    Worksheet  58   Ideas to Implementation 1

    Worksheet  59   Ideas to Implementation 2

    Worksheet  60   Ideas to Implementation 3

    Worksheet  61   Ideas to Implementation 4

    Worksheet  62   Ideas to Implementation 5

    Worksheet  63   Ideas to Implementation 6

    Worksheet  64   Ideas to Implementation 7

    Worksheet  65   Ideas to Implementation 8

    Worksheet  66   Ideas to Implementation 9

    Worksheet  67   Ideas to Implementation 10

    Worksheet  68   Astrophysics 1

    Worksheet  69   Astrophysics 2

    Worksheet  70   Astrophysics 3

    Worksheet  71   Astrophysics 4

    Worksheet  72   Astrophysics 5

    Worksheet  73   Astrophysics 6

    Worksheet  74   Astrophysics 7

    Worksheet  75   Astrophysics 8

    Worksheet  76   Astrophysics 9

    Worksheet  77   Astrophysics 10

    Worksheet  78   Astrophysics 11

    Worksheet  79   Quanta to Quarks 1

    Worksheet  80   Quanta to Quarks 2

    Worksheet  81   Quanta to Quarks 3

    Worksheet  82   Quanta to Quarks 4

    Worksheet  83   Quanta to Quarks 5

    Worksheet  84   Quanta to Quarks 6

    Worksheet  85   Quanta to Quarks 7

    Worksheet  86   Quanta to Quarks 8

    Worksheet  87   Quanta to Quarks 9

    Worksheet  88   Quanta to Quarks 10

    Worksheet  89   Quanta to Quarks 11

    Worksheet  90   Quanta to Quarks 12

    Worksheet  91   Quanta to Quarks 13

    Worksheet  92   Quanta to Quarks 14

    Worksheet  93   Quanta to Quarks 15

    Worksheet  94   Quanta to Quarks 16

    Worksheet  95   Quanta to Quarks 17

    Worksheet  96   Quanta to Quarks 18

    Worksheet  97   Quanta to Quarks 19

    Worksheet  98   Quanta to Quarks 20

    Worksheet  99   Quanta to Quarks 21

    Worksheet  100   Quanta to Quarks 22

    Worksheet  101   Medical Physics 1

    Worksheet  102   Medical Physics 2

    Worksheet  103   Medical Physics 3

    Worksheet  104   Medical Physics 4

    Worksheet  105   Medical Physics 5

    Worksheet  106   Medical Physics 6

    Worksheet  107   Medical Physics 7

    Worksheet  108   Medical Physics 8

    Worksheet  109   Medical Physics 9

    Worksheet  110   Medical Physics 10

    Worksheet  111   Medical Physics 11

    Worksheet  112   Medical Physics 12



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Answers: Sheet   1   Science Method and other Terminology 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   propose to put forward an idea for consideration, acceptance or action
  2   distinguish between show ways in which two alternatives differ, both things need to be mentioned
  3   hot equipment one of the dangers in a laboratory, when using a Bunsen Burner to do things
  4   aim the purpose of an experiment, quite often based on an hypothesis, and indicating only one variable to be studied
  5   explain to make plain or clear; tell how to do a process; to tell the meaning of something; to interpret; to give reasons for a phenomena; account for
  6   describe set forth in written or spoken words, give an account of
  7   produce to yield, furnish or supply an idea or an observation
  8   account for explain a reason for an action or a phenomena, a justification
  9   label to write identifying words or statements on diagrams or the axes of graphs
10   state to describe or set forth formally or in proper form, the condition of a person or thing, physical condition, eg structure or phase of matter
11   what a word used in asking about people or things
12   evaluate to explain the value of something or a procedure, to weigh up both sides of an argument or discussion and draw a conclusion
13   prediction a future possible occurrence that can be logically obtained from a law, theory or an hypothesis
14   risk assessment determination of the danger or the amount of damage to the environment that a procedure will cause
15   tabulate organise information into table form with columns and rows that have identifying headings
16   result the effect of the method or an occurrence or phenomena
17   contradiction the act of denying what has been said; saying the opposite
18   determine to find something previously unknown or uncertain by observation, calculation or logical deduction
19   impacts to have a forceful or dramatic effect on something
 



   Science Method and other Terminology 1 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   2   Science Method and other Terminology 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   pattern the structure, trend or design in a results table, graph, or other data
  2   process information to analyse data so that conclusions, inferences, predictions and implications can be made
  3   symbol something that stands for or represents something else, eg a couple of letters representing an element
  4   inference a conclusion obtained by deduction or reasoning about an observation or a theory. Not testable by experiment (compared to hypothesis)
  5   gather information collecting details about a phenomenon from a variety of sources
  6   refute to disprove; to show (a claim, opinion, argument or hypothesis) to be incorrect or wrong
  7   hypothesis an idea that is used to explain something that has happened. Used as the basis for an experiment, used to provide an aim to the experiment
  8   subjective belonging to the thinking of a person rather than to the results of an experiment, being biased opinions and feelings
  9   assumption underlying concepts that are taken for granted to be correct without proof, concepts upon which other logical conclusions have been drawn
10   formulate express in a precise form, develop a systematic means of giving information, make up an idea
11   extrapolate to extend a graph beyond the actual data, to calculate or infer from what is known something that is possible but unknown; predict from facts
12   relate describe, recite, or recount, to give an account of; to connect in thought or meaning
13   modify to make partial changes in; change somewhat; change a technique after it has been used
14   contrast to place (two things) side by side to show their differences, both alternatives need to be mentioned in a description, as well as the alternative features
15   give to offer or present information
16   suggest to put forward; propose; to bring to mind; to call up the thought of an idea
17   justify give a good reason for a chosen action
18   model any formula, diagram, physical structure that is used to illustrate a system or scheme in an attempt to understand the system or scheme
19   plan answers during tests and exams this must be done in order to answer questions succinctly, completely and accurately with all relevant information
 



   Science Method and other Terminology 2Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   3   Science Method and other Terminology 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   technology tools, machines, techniques and processes used to study nature and living things
  2   when at what time
  3   bar graph a chart for comparison of quantities by means of shaded rectangles, used when there is no continuous gradations of values
  4   define to make the meaning of a word, process or phenomenon clear; explain.
  5   difference the condition of being unalike; or not the same
  6   proposal a plan or suggestion put forward for consideration, discussion, acceptance, or trial
  7   specify to mention or name definitely, to state in detail
  8   variable factors that can vary during an experiment. Only one is allowed to vary between treatment and control set ups
  9   chemical these substances can be poisonous and corrosive and so they must be handled with care
10   method the way in which an experiment is done, procedure, explains fully how the aim of an experiment is to be tested
11   control the experimental set up that is used for comparison with the treatment, and which varies only in one way from the treatment experimental set up
12   treatment experimental set up that has the one variable being tested different from the control set up, used to determine if the variable being tested has had an effect
13   objective term describing interpretation of experiments based on real and observable results, free from personal feelings or bias
14   implication an indirect suggestion based on information without saying it outright
15   secondary sources information obtained from the published results of other people who have made observations obtained experimental results
16   phenomenon a fact, event or circumstance that can be observed
17   adjustment a small modification in an experiment, technique or model made necessary because of new information obtained
18   line graph a graph in which points are plotted and then connected by a series of short straight or curved lines (line of best fit where appropriate)
19   recommend to speak in favour of an idea, person or action
 



   Science Method and other Terminology 3Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   4   Science Method and other Terminology 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   theory an explanation or a thought that is in the process of being tested by experiment or obtaining supporting evidence
  2   controls possible variables that are kept the same between the two experimental set ups, treatment and control
  3   analysis using tables, graphs, diagrams and reasoned discussion to obtain valid conclusions, inferences and hypotheses from gathered information
  4   independent variable a factor that is deliberately changed in an experiment and as a result changes another changeable factor called the dependent variable
  5   relevant connected with the matter in hand; applicable, appropriate, purposeful, meaningful
  6   anticipate to take care of ahead of time; consider in advance, to look for possible problems before they actually occur
  7   best fit term describing a line on a graph drawn amongst points rather than just joining the dots
  8   flow diagrams a chart showing the flow of events or information in a series of processes
  9   hazard that which could cause a chance of loss or harm; risk; danger; peril, injury, damage.
10   why for what reason cause or purpose
11   biological of plant and animal life; connected with the processes of life.
12   establish to set up on a firm basis, to show beyond doubt
13   compare to place (two things) side by side to show their similarities
14   glassware these pieces of equipment are easily broken to form sharp edges and so must be handled with care
15   bias the tendency of a sample to be unrepresentative of all samples in a study or experiment
16   effect something made to happen by a person or thing; a result.
17   sequential in a certain order, connected in a series, the order of events shown in a flow chart
18   suitability being right for the occasion; being fit, proper, or appropriate.
19   demonstrate to establish the truth of for example by argument or deduction, show clearly, prove, attest
 



   Science Method and other Terminology 4 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   5   Science Method and other Terminology 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   variables factors that can vary during an experiment. Only one is allowed to vary between treatment and control experimental set ups
  2   name identify a process, structure or phenomenon by a title or a term
  3   care this is always taken in the laboratory so that no one is hurt and equipment is not damaged
  4   hypothesis an idea that is used to explain something that has happened. A statement used as the basis for an experiment
  5   dependent variable a factor that changes as a result of changes deliberately made in another changeable factor called the independent variable
  6   information presentation putting data into a form ready for publication, in prose, point form, tables, graphs, diagrams, flow charts
  7   prove to show as true and right; make certain; demonstrate the truth of by evidence (experiment or observation) or argument
  8   trend to have a general tendency; the general direction
  9   present information putting forward data in forms such as prose, tables, graphs, diagrams, flow charts
10   cooperation this is necessary so that people can work together with the limited equipment available
11   interpolate to find or insert (an unknown term) between two known terms in a series; to determine a value between known values using a graph
12   safety being careful in the laboratory so that equipment is not damaged and people are not hurt
13   destructive test a method used to take samples of materials or living things which destroys the samples, eg, cutting grass and drying it in an oven to find its water content
14   formula an expression showing a rule by algebraic symbols; also an expression showing by symbols and figures the composition of a compound
15   support to be in favour of, to help prove, verify, confirm, or substantiate
16   select pick or choose from a group of alternatives, to list a group of related observations
17   predict to announce or tell beforehand; forecast; prophesy.
18   goggles eye protection that needs to be worn during experiments
19   consequence a result or effect; the relation of a result or effect to its cause; a logical result, deduction of an inference
 



   Science Method and other Terminology 5Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   6   Science Method and other Terminology 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   effectiveness able to cause some desired result; getting results.
  2   non-destructive test a method used to observe materials or living things which does not destroy them eg, photographing instead of taking samples
  3   reliability trustworthiness or dependability of experimental results or conclusions based on experimental results
  4   identify to recognise as being a particular person or thing, to put forward an observation or reason
  5   collate to arrange in order; put together
  6   observation what has been seen to happen
  7   conclusion summing up at the end of an experiment, related back to the aim, based directly on the results; also a discussion and evaluation can have this
  8   random selection choosing a sample by chance so that bias can be eliminated from an experiment, very important in biological studies due to variations between individuals of a species
  9   law a statement of what always occurs under certain conditions, has plenty of supporting evidence
10   repetition to do something over again. This is done in experiments to eliminate bias and to obtain average results and so make conclusions more reliable
11   assess to estimate the value of a procedure or technique, or the impact of a procedure on the environment, for example
12   reason an explanation, justification or conclusion as to why or how something occurs
13   where in what place; at what place.
14   how in what way or manner; by what means; in what state or condition; to what effect; with what meaning
15   primary sources obtaining information personally by performing experiments or observations
16   similarities resemblances or likenesses between two or more alternative things
17   valid supported by facts or the results of an experiment
18   provide to give or put forward an idea, observation or reason
19   biological variation reason why statistical analysis is essential in analysing the results of biological experiments
20   statistical analysis the application of mathematical statistics to the analysis of numerical results of biological experiments.



   Science Method and other Terminology 6 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   7   Measurement and errors 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   quantitative term that is used to describe the results of a measurement that provides a numerical value eg 3.5 amps of current are flowing in conductor
  2   qualitative term that is used to describe the results of "measurement" that provides a descriptive value, eg the earth is bigger than the moon
  3   measurement the process of comparing properties of things against a reference quantity, eg length in metres
  4   fundamental term describing quantities such as length, mass and time which are in turn used to provide derived quantities such as speed and velocity
  5   derived term describing quantities such as speed, acceleration, and rate of change which are found by calculation from fundamental quantities such as length, mass and time
  6   standards rules for measuring fundamental quantities, related back to a defined unit, eg time: 1 second is defined, mass: 1 kilogram is defined, length: 1 metre is defined
  7   Systeme Internationale a set of rules used to determine the values of standard quantities, like: length (metre), mass (kilogram) and time (second)
  8   one metre the distance light travels in a vacuum in a fraction of a second: 1/(299,792,458) th of a second.
  9   one kilogram fundamental quantity defined from Planck's constant (6.62607004 × 10-34 m2 kg / s) and then calculated using the standard metre and standard second
10   one second time that elapses during 9,192,631,770 cycles of the radiation produced by the transition between electron two levels of the cesium 133 atom
11   standards properties unchangeable, easily accessible, indestructible, if possible part of an actual measuring instrument
12   dimension the way in which a derived quantity depends upon the fundamental quantities of mass (M), length (L) and time (T). Eg the derived quantity volume has dimensions L3 and units m3
13   numbers these items are dimensionless, eg, 3, 1/4, π
14   dimension checking the dimensions of quantities on the left side of an equation equals the dimensions of quantities on the right side of the equation eg F = ma: Newtons = kg m s-2 or MLT-2
15   order of magnitude power of 10 closest to the number eg, for speed of light this is 8, because the speed of light is 3x108 m/s
16   scientific notation numbers written in the form of a unit followed by a decimal and subsequent numbers multiplied by 10 raised to a power, eg Planks constant: 6.62607004 × 10-34 m2
17   significant figures accurately known figures in a measurement, eg a page measured as 29.64 cm with a ruler marked down to mm. The first 3 digits are accuately known, hence 2.96x101 cm
18   least significant figures when calculating an answer the significant figures of the measurement with the lowest accurancy is used to write the answer eg page area: 2.964x10 cm x 2.1x10 cm = 6.2244x102 would be written as 6.2x102



   Measurement and errors 1 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   8   Measurement and errors 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   significant zeros zeros between integers of a measurement (1.006 has two zeros), zeros after the last integer after a decimal (1.020: 4 sig. fig.)
  2   non-significant zeros zeros after a decimal and before any integer (0.004 percent CO2 in air: 1 sig. fig.), or zeros after the last integer of a large number (eg 75 kg = 75000 grams: 2 sig. fig.)
  3   non-zero integers in a measurement these are always significant unless the last digit is beyond the limit of reading of the measuring device
  4   errors apparent mistakes made in measuring the size of a quantity, can be labelled either systematic (regular) or random (accidental)
  5   systematic errors errors caused by a non-zero measurement on a measuring device or parallax mistakes during measuring, also called regular errors
  6   random errors errors caused by unknown factors such as variations in size of object being measured, jaws of the measuring device closed with different pressures, temperature variation
  7   parallax a systematic error in measurement that results from taking a reading from a measuring device by looking from the side rather than from directly overhead
  8   zero reading a systematic error in measurement that results from failure to note the initial position of a measuring device before any measurements are made
  9   measuring devices Vernier callipers, micrometer, ammeter, stop watch, metre ruler, thermometer, barometer, beam balance, electronic balance
10   residual difference between any particular measurement value and the mean of the series of measurements of which that measurement is part. The sum of the absolute value of these is used to calculate the overall absolute error
11   statistical analysis a method of calculating the absolute error of an averaged measurement from how much a series of repreated measurements vary from the mean (the variation being the residuals) : error =(3 Σ |residual|)/(n √ n). Note: absolute residual values added
12   reading limit error half the limit of reading eg a measurement is 35.3 cm, half the limit of reading is 0.05 cm, so the measurement is expressed as 35.3 ± 0.05 cm
13   absolute error error expressed in the dimensions of the measurement being performed: eg 35.3 ± 0.05 cm
14   percentage error error expressed as a percentage when the absolute error is divided by the measurement and multiplied by 100, eg: 42 ± 0.5 calculation: (0.5/42)x100 percent.
15   relative error error expressed as a fraction or a decimal. found when the absolute error is divided by the measurement, eg: 42 ± 0.5 calculation: 0.5/42
16   add absolute errors this is done when a calculaton involves adding or subtracting two measurements, eg: 23 ± 0.5 - 12 ± 0.5 = 11 ± 1
17   add percentage errors this is done when a calculation involves multiplication or division. Calculate the quantity. Find percentage errors, and add them. Then convert back to absolute error



   Measurement and errors 2 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   9   Waves and Communication 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   medium the way in which the information is carried from the sender to the receiver
  2   transverse waves waves in which the particles vibrate about a mean position at right angles to the direction of energy transfer
  3   compressional wave alternative name for longitudinal wave
  4   hertz unit for frequency
  5   hard copy media storage of information on paper
  6   receiver destination of information
  7   rarefaction part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are drawn apart
  8   communication transfer of information from a sender to a receiver through a medium
  9   decoding interpreting the message when it is received
10   mechanical waves waves travelling through physical media such as ropes, springs, wood, air. Waves requiring a medium
11   longitudinal waves waves in which the particles vibrate back and forth parallel to the driection of energy transfer
12   symbols pictures words or diagrams used to convey information
13   frequency number of waves to pass a given point per second
14   disturbance an occurence that initiates a set of waves by providing energy for the waves
15   sender source of information
16   memory first place in which information is stored (in the brain)
17   crest peak on a transverse wave



   Waves and Communication 1 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   10   Waves and Communication 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   wavelength distance between any two corresponding successive points on a set of waves eg crest to crest, or trough to trough
  2   encoding preparing a message for transmission
  3   waves carriers of energy, a travelling disturbance. Transporter of energy without transporting matter
  4   trough hollow at the bottom of a transverse wave
  5   T = 1/f period equation
  6   electromagnetic waves waves that do not require a medium for propagation
  7   in phase term describing particles on a wave that are moving in the same way at the same time
  8   information that which is being communicated
  9   propagation transmission of waves
10   v = f λ wave equation
11   out of phase term describing particles on a wave that are moving in exactly the opposite way at the same time
12   word of mouth first way in which primitive societies passed information from person to person
13   longitudinal wave examples sound, waves through springs, primary earthquake waves
14   amplitude maximum displacement of particles in a wave from their equilibrium position
15   period time for one complete wave to pass any point
16   circle of reference device used to plot a wave by plotting vertical displacement against the angle on a circle, moving anticlockwise around the circle
17   compression part of a longitudinal wave where the particles are close together



   Waves and Communication 2 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   11   Waves and Communication 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   wave velocity distance a wave travels per unit time, or wave frequency x wavelength v = f λ
  2   transverse wave examples waves on springs, ropes, ripple on water, light, secondary and long earthquake waves
  3   X-rays electromagnetic waves used to view internal structures in the body, detected by photographic film
  4   gamma rays shortest electromagnetic waves that also possess the most energy, very penetrative
  5   ultrasound frequencies of sound above normal human hearing range (over 20 000 Hz), used to view foetuses
  6   20 Hz lower frequency limit of sound that our ears detect as sound
  7   superposition adding two waves in the same space in the same medium to form a combined wave form
  8   echo reflected sound wave
  9   mesophere layer of the atmosphere between the thermosphere and stratosphere, coldest layer
10   nodal lines lines joining points of destructive interference for two sets of point sourced waves
11   hard X-rays X-rays with frequency close to gamma rays, most penetrating of X-rays
12   radio waves long electromagnetic waves, low energy, from less than 1 metre wavelength to kilometres wavelength
13   soft X-rays X-rays with frequency close to ultraviolet light
14   restoring force force needed to return a medium to its original position after being deformed by a wave. If this force is not present then the wave cannot be transmitted, eg gas and liquid cannot transmit transverse waves through their substance
15   20 000 Hz upper frequency limit of sound that our ears can detect
16   medium substance carrying a wave
17   visible light electromagnetic waves detected by the retina of the eye and photographic film



   Waves and Communication 3 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   12   Waves and Communication 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   antinodal lines lines joining points of constructive interference for two sets of waves
  2   ultraviolet light electromagnetic waves of shorter wavelength than visible light, helps produce vitamin D in the skin, can cause cancer, ionisation of atoms, kill bacteria, fluorescence of some substances
  3   density a property of a medium that inversely affects the speed of waves being transmitted: mass/volume
  4   elasticity a property of a medium that directly affects the speed of waves
  5   spectrum a range of wave frequencies and wavelengths of the one wave type eg. electromagnetic
  6   microwaves electromagnetic waves used for communication, radar and cooking
  7   inverse square law when a quantity increases in proportion to the inverse of the square of distance from the source object, eg light intensity, gravity, electric field intensity, magnetic field intensity
  8   destructive interference interaction in which waves cancel each other out eg crest on trough
  9   oscillator part of an electric circuit that produces radio waves
10   infrared waves waves emitted by hot objects, detected by our skin, photographic film, thermometers and thermistors, used by night vision goggles
11   density mass per volume. As this property of a gas increases the speed of sound in the gas decreases
12   loudness a psychological response (subjective) related to the amplitude of sound
13   intensity energy per unit time per unit area (J.s-1.m-2) .
14   interference interaction between waves when they travel through each other
15   3 500 Hz frequency of sound that our ears are most sensitive to
16   sound the sensation that our brain interprets when vibrations carried to our ears stimulate the auditory nerves



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Answers: Sheet   13   Waves and Communication 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   pitch a psychological response (subjective) related to frequency of sound
  2   elasticity ease with with a solid returns to its original shape when any deforming forces are removed, as this property of a medium increases, the speed of sound increases (faster in solids than liquids)
  3   constructive interference interaction in which waves reinforce each other eg crest on crest and trough on trough
  4   echo location technique used by bats to navigate and locate prey with ultrasound frequencies 20 kHz to 120 kHz
  5   aerial piece of metal from which radio waves and related waves are radiated, a similar piece of metal is used to receive these waves
  6   focus point on the principal axis of a lens or curved mirror where rays parallel to the principal axis pass after are refracted or reflected respectively
  7   carrier wave radio wave that can be modulated to carry a sound wave that has been applied to it
  8   focal plane line through the focus where all parallel sets of rays intersect after reflecting off a curved mirror surface
  9   amplitude modulation changing a carrier radio wave to transmit sound waves by altering its depth
10   frequency modulation changing a carrier radio wave to transmit sound waves by altering its wavelength
11   refractive index the ratio of the sine of the angle in incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction. It is constant for each change of medium
12   polarisation the restriction of vibrations of transverse waves to one plane, a wave property of transverse
13   angle of incidence angle between the incident ray and the normal ray
14   coherent term describing light that is polarised and in phase intensifying the energy being transferred, as in lasers
15   angle of refraction angle between the refracted ray and the normal ray
16   refraction this property is due to changing the velocity of a wave as it travels from one medium to another



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Answers: Sheet   14   Waves and Communication 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Snell's Law refractive index law, sin i / sin r, or velocity in medium 1 / velocity in medium 2
  2   reflection bouncing of waves off objects
  3   total internal reflection this occurs when the angle of incidence of light in a more dense medium exceeds the critical angle for the change to a less dense medium
  4   laser light amplification with stimulated emission of radiation, produces intense coherent light beams
  5   CD an information storage device that is read using lasers, compact disk
  6   normal ray incident ray and reflected or refracted ray that is at right angles to the mirror or transparent medium interface
  7   angle of reflection angle between the reflected ray and the normal ray for mirrors
  8   modem device used to convert between analogue and digital forms (it can modulate and demodulate)
  9   parabola shape of curved mirror in car headlights. The light source is placed at the focus to produce a beam of parallel rays
10   bandwidth the difference between the upper and lower frequency limits of a frequency band, eg VLF is 3 to 30 kHz
11   laws of reflection angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection AND the incident, reflected and normal ray all lie in the same plane
12   critical angle angle of incidence for which the angle of refraction is 90 degrees; occurs when a ray passes from a more dense medium to a less dense medium, and hence passes along the surface of the medium
13   plane mirror flat mirror, produces an upright virtual image which appears to be behing the mirror, and which is the same size as the object being viewed, and laterally inverted
14   digital physical quantity that is a series of bits (1 or 0)
15   convex mirror curved mirror with the reflecting surface on the opposite side to the centre of the sphere of which it is part. Used in driving mirrors, blind corner mirrors
16   principal axis ray drawn through the centre of curvature of a mirror to the surface of the mirror



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Answers: Sheet   15   Waves and Communication 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   modulation alteration of a wave by superimposing another wave type, eg sound waves superimposed on radio carrier waves
  2   more dense term describing a medium in which waves slow down as they enter the medium causing a ray to bend towards the normal ray during refraction
  3   ray line drawn at right angles to a wavefront
  4   less dense term describing a medium in which waves speed up as they enter the medium causing a ray to bend away from the normal ray during refraction
  5   analogue physical quantity that can be divided into an infinite number of subdivisions, has continuous variation eg sound waves, radio waves, thermometer temperature readings
  6   wavefront line joining points on a wave that are in phase
  7   concave mirror curved mirror with the reflecting surface on the same side as the centre of the sphere of which it is part. Used in dentist's mirror, optical and reflecting telescopes, car headlights, can be used to produce a magnified virtual image
  8   optical fibre thin glass or transparent plastic that is used to transmit information in laser pulses using the principal of total internal reflection
  9   prismatic binoculars a use of total internal reflection to shorten the length of a telescope and produce an upright virtual image
10   GPS a means of locating your position on the earth with a high degree of accuracy using satellites and radio waves (global positioning systems)
11   real image image formed by actual rays of light reaching a screen either by reflection from a concave mirror or refraction by a convex lens, rays converging
12   virtual image image that appears to be formed in a position where rays of light cannot enter, eg, plane mirror and convex mirror images, and concave lens images, can be viewed with the eye, rays diverging
13   real, inverted, diminished, close nature of an image of a distant object that is produced when it is cast onto a screen from a convex lens or a concave mirror
14   real, inverted, magnified, distant nature of an image of an object located between focus and centre of curvature of a concave mirror or a convex lens, can be cast onto a screen
15   virtual, upright, magnified, distant nature of an image of an object located between focus and a convex lens or focus and a concave mirror
16   virtual, upright, diminished, close nature of an image of an object produced by either a concave lens or a convex mirror



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Answers: Sheet   16   Motion 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   fundamental forces of nature strong nuclear, weak nuclear, electromagnetic, gravity
  2   rectilinear motion straight line movement
  3   motion this occurs when an object changes its position relative to other objects or some coordinate system (a frame of reference)
  4   vector a quantity that needs both size and direction to completely describe it eg velocity, acceleration, force
  5   pythagoras calculation that can be used on right angle triangles to solve vector triangle problems: a2 + b2 = c2
  6   scalar quantities that can be completely described by their size (magnitude), eg speed, distance, time, temperature
  7   gravitational force force that results from the attraction of objects with mass to other objects with mass
  8   velocity of A relative to B this is calculated using vector diagrams showing magnitude and direction from: velocity of A relative to observer - velocity of B relative to observer
  9   tangent line just touching a curved graph enabling instantaneous velocity or acceleration to be calculated from its slope (gradient)
10   distance how far it is from one place to another, not necessarily by the most direct route, a scalar quantity
11   speed time rate of change of distance, a scalar quantity
12   rectangular component component vectors that are at right angles to each other, allowing use of simple trigonometry or pythagoras to solve problems
13   resultant a single vector that would have the same effect as all the other vectors added together
14   change in a vector final vector - initial vector, allowing for direction and magnitude in each case
15   instantaneous speed change in distance/small change in time, as measured by a car speedometer
16   displacement straight line distance between two points, a vector quantity



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Answers: Sheet   17   Motion 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   balanced forces when the resultant of two or more forces is zero, no acceleration is caused, although motion can occur at a constant velocity in a straight line
  2   quantitative relies on measurement for description
  3   velocity time rate of change of displacement, a vector quantity
  4   displacement area under a velocity-time graph
  5   kinematics study of motion without regard to its causes
  6   acceleration slope of a velocity-time graph
  7   dynamics investigates causes of motion, forces
  8   average speed total distance/time, a scalar quantity
  9   velocity slope of a displacement-time graph
10   force a push or a pull, causes a change in velocity in either magnitude, or direction or both magnitude and direction
11   constant speed travelling equal distances in equal time
12   scale diagrams can be used to solve polygon of vector problems by using a suitable scale for magnitude and angles and directions
13   cos rule pythagorean calculation based on the cosine of an angle used to solve vector triangle problems c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab Cos C, useful for non-right angled triangles
14   component vectors two other possible vectors that could replace an actual vector, usually drawn at right angles for ease of calculation
15   unbalanced forces situation where the resultant of two or more forces is greater than zero and acceleration results
16   gravitational mass mass of an object found statically on a balance that depends on gravity for its operation, on a beam balance, related to W = mg, expressed in kilograms



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Answers: Sheet   18   Motion 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   one Newton a force of this magnitude would accelerate a mass of 1 kg at 1 ms-2
  2   contact forces forces applied directly to objects, result from electrons in the surfaces of both objects exerting electrostatic forces of repulsion, eg car tyre on road
  3   gravitational field strength acceleration due to gravity (symbol g): weight/mass, N/kg or ms-2, term that best describes the situation for a non-accelerating object because it still has weight
  4   Newton's First Law a body continues in its state of rest or uniform velocity unless acted upon by an external force
  5   mg sin θ component of a weight force down a slope with angle of elevation θ
  6   strong nuclear force force that holds the nucleus of atoms together, the strongest force force in nature
  7   Newton's Third Law to every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force
  8   acceleration due to gravity g = 9.8 ms-2, rate at which an object changes its velocity in a gravitational field
  9   force speeding up, slowing down, changing direction and/or changing shape: all caused by ....
10   friction a contact force that opposes motion
11   acceleration time rate of change of velocity, = (final velocity - initial velocity)/time taken for the change: (vf -vi)/(Δt)
12   tension pullings force exerted by a rope, cable, chain, metal coupling, string
13   internal forces forces that cannot affect the motion of a system
14   closed vector polygon equilibrium forces diagram adding up to a resultant of zero, all the forces being shown as arrows for direction and length for magnitude
15   vectors force, momentum, displacement, velocity, electrical field intensity, magnetic field intensity, gravitational field. All have both magnitude and direction



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Answers: Sheet   19   Motion 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Newton's Second Law the acceleration of an object is proportional to the unbalanced force acting on it and is inversely proportional to its mass
  2   mg cos θ component of a weight force at right angles to a slope with angle of elevation of θ, the reaction force
  3   work this is done when an object is moved by a force through a distance: units are Joules, or Nm
  4   equilibrium condition of a body if its moving with constant velocity or is at rest
  5   reaction force force at right angles to a slope, or force that equally opposes weight force on a horizontal surface, or an appropriate component of a weight force
  6   inertial mass mass of an object measured dynamically (while it is moving) and independently of gravity (the motion is horizontal, eg between two springs, related to F = ma
  7   air resistance force between air and objects moving through it
  8   weight mass x acceleration due to gravity, units: Newtons
  9   mass amount of matter, provides inertia to a body
10   weak nuclear force force of nature involved in the radioactive decay of elements
11   Isaac Newton person who published Principia Mathematica in 1687 stating laws of motion
12   energy capacity to do work: units are Joules
13   acceleration speeding up, slowing down or changing direction
14   electromagnetic force force that acts between charged objects or magnets
15   weight force on an object in a gravitational field, measured with a spring balance, varies, depends on location eg earth, moon



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Answers: Sheet   20   Motion 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   elastic collisions collisions in which the kinetic energy is conserved
  2   model a representation of some phenomenon, generally in terms of things already known and familiar
  3   momentum product of mass and velocity: p = mv
  4   Newton's Second Law the time rate of change of momentum is proportional to the resultant force and acts in the direction of the force (or alternatively: the acceleration of a body is proportional to the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object)
  5   potential energy stored energy, due to position (= mgh), chemical composition or elasticity
  6   two number of objects on which a Newton's third law force couple operate, action-reaction force pairs
  7   car safety devices seat belts, airbags, crumple zones, bull bars: used to slow down the rate at which a passenger comes to rest during a collision, so that the vehicle absorbs most of the energy
  8   mechanical energy kinetic energy and potential energy
  9   types of models physical, mathematical, scaled or analogous descriptions to assist in understanding phenomena
10   interact two or more objects do this when they exert forces on each other either by contact (tyre on a road) or acting over a distance (magnets, electric charges, gravity)
11   bull bars car safety device to limit damage to radiators of vehicle involved in collisions with animals so the driver is not isolated in inhospitable country
12   scaled models models using a non-life size physical representations of things eg solar system model
13   transformation changing from one form of energy to another
14   seat belt car safety device that restrains the user so that inertia will not result in the user being thrown against the windscreen
15   physical model model made of real materials such as string, plastic etc



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Answers: Sheet   21   Motion 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   impulse change in momentum of a body: or force x time the force is applied: Δp = FΔt
  2   conservation laws these assist in calculating what occurs to each object in an interaction because the total for the situation after the interaction is the same as the total before the interaction
  3   mathematical model model using graphs, equations or symbols to explain phenomena
  4   conservation laws these cover mass in chemical change, energy. charge, linear momentum, kinetic energy in elastic collision
  5   momentum in collisions the vector sum of the momenta of the objects before collision equals the vector sum of the momenta after the collision
  6   crumple zones car safety device to increase to time it takes for the car to stop during a collision, to reduce the force applied during the collision because impulse is the same no matter how long it takes: Δp = FΔt
  7   analogous models models that represent a phenomenon in terms of concepts and objects that are more familiar, eg kinetic model of gases using beads in a container
  8   law of conservation of energy energy can be neither created nor destroyed, but only changed in form (be transformed)
  9   law of conservation of momentum in interactions between objects, momentum is conserved in an isolated system
10   kinetic energy energy an object possesses because it is moving: = 0.5 mv2
11   air bag car safety device which inflates within 0.1 seconds and then begins deflating, after having absorbed the impact of a person during a collision
12   Joules units for both work and energy, alternatively: Nm
13   one number of object(s) forces in equilibrium operate on
14   impulse area under a force-time graph
15   inertia the tendency for a body to resist changes in its velocity, mass of a body



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Answers: Sheet   22   Electrical Energy 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   electrocution safety concern with the use of electricity as an energy source in industry and the home
  2   alternator device used to make electricity by electromagnetic induction
  3   Joseph Henry discovered electromagnetic induction in United States in 1831
  4   neutral household wire that is maintained at 0 volts and connected to appliances so that when a switch in the active wire there is a potential difference of 240 volts applied
  5   radioactive wastes disadvantage of using nuclear energy as a source of energy to produce electricity
  6   coal main source of energy early in the industrial revolution (18th and 19th centuries in Great Britain, America, Germany and Japan)
  7   wood major source of energy from when fire was discovered about 1.5 million years ago until the industrial revolution in the 18th Century
  8   slums overcrowded places resulting from poor working conditions and inadequate sanitation, in the early years of the industrial revolution
  9   Luigi Galvani person, 1780 conducted a series of experiments examining the effects of electricity on nerves and muscles of frogs
10   water wheel historical use of the energy in running water for grinding grains and other purposes
11   social implications term describing the generalised the effects of things like introduction of new energy sources (coal, electricity) on living standards and people in general
12   greenhouse gases disadvantage of burning fossil fuels to make electricity, carbon dioxide
13   remote locations places where it is economical to use portable generators and solar cells to produce electricity because of the cost of installing and maintaining a suitable power grid
14   efficient transmission advantage of being able to produce high voltage electricity at power stations
15   developed countries places where working conditions improved due to people becoming wealthier and able to buy products being manufactured
16   Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction in England in 1831
17   migration to cities caused by the demand for labour in new factories when the industrial revolution began
18   electricity energy sources running water, coal, oil, natural gas,solar energy, wind energy, nuclear energy



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Answers: Sheet   23   Electrical Energy 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   iron and brass two metals that produced electricity in Galvani's experiments
  2   electricity grid all the wires that connect power stations to all the consumers around Australia
  3   electromagnetic induction making electricity by moving wires through a magnetic field
  4   cottage industry situation where the manufacture of things like textiles is done in family homes in rural regions, the source of most manufacture prior to the middle of the 18th century
  5   transformer device used to convert high voltage (330 000 volts AC for long distance transmission) to lower voltages and finally 240 volts for domestic use
  6   active live wire that brings electricity to the household, 240 volts
  7   Egyptians first to use wind power, 5000 years ago, for sailing boats
  8   acid rain disadvantage of burning fossil fuels to make electricity, due to sulfur dioxide dissolved in water
  9   earth safety wire that conducts short circuited electricity safely away from the user of an appliance
10   sunlight and muscle main human energy sources for performing work originally
11   turbine device that converts kinetic energy in running water, wind or steam, into rotational kinetic energy, which is supplied to an alternator to produce electricity by electromagnetic induction
12   flooding lands disadvantage of using running water to make hydro-electricity, eg by building dams
13   amber first substance (petrified resin from trees) noted by the Greeks about 600 BC to attract dust and chaff after being rubbed with animal fur
14   electrons negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus of atoms
15   air insulating material which rubs on conducting metal bodies of planes and cars causing them to become charged
16   law of conservation of charge in a closed system the amount of charge is constant
17   protons positively charged particles in the nucleus of atoms



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Answers: Sheet   24   Electrical Energy 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   conductor material that allows the flow of electrons (metals) or ions (solutions) because they are free to move
  2   negative 1.602 x 10 -19 charge on an electron
  3   Alessandro Volta person, in 1794, said electric current is produced by moist contact between metals, not animal electricity as Galvani believed
  4   excess number of electrons on a negatively charged object compared to the number of protons in the object
  5   same charge charge that develops on an object that is being charged by contact with a charged body
  6   positive 1.602 x 10 -19 charge on a proton
  7   positive charge on perspex rubbed with silk due to a shortage of electrons
  8   deficiency electrons on a positively charged object compared to the number of protons in the object
  9   action at a distance force exerted when two bodies exert forces on each other even though they are not in contact (Newton's third law)
10   petrol vapour what substance could be ignited by static electric spark when refueling a car if the nozzle and inlet were not made of metal?
11   opposite charge charge on a body that develops when it is charged by induction with a charged body and being earthed before the charged body is taken away
12   electric fluid this is what Galvani believed to be in animals and causing the legs to twitch in his experiments
13   induced charge caused to be charged by having a charged body placed nearby
14   equal charge sharing this occurs when two identical objects come into contact if one or more of them is charged
15   electric field a region where a charged object experiences an electrical force
16   voltaic pile or battery pile of alternating copper and zinc discs separated by paper soaked in brine, 1800, Volta's invention
17   negative charge on ebonite rubbed with wool



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Answers: Sheet   25   Electrical Energy 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   insulator material that does not allow the passage of electrons because the electrons are held so tightly to atomic nuclei they are not free to move
  2   polarisation unequal charge distribution (charge separation) that occurs on a neutral body when a charged body is placed nearby
  3   charged condition of an object that is able to attract nearby light objects such as small pieces of paper or cork, without touching them
  4   neutral charge on an object when the number of protons equals the number of electrons
  5   repel like charges do this
  6   attract unlike charges do this
  7   rubbing method used to charge an insulator because the electrons can be removed but not replaced by conduction from "earth" ( which is you holding onto the insulator)
  8   induced charge reason why an uncharged body is attracted by a charged body
  9   one coulomb the charge of 6.25 x 1018 electrons, found by 1/(1.602 -19)
10   diode electronic device that converts AC to DC in computers, radios, TVs, rectifiers
11   electric field strength force per unit charge at a point near a charged body. E = F/q Newtons per coulomb
12   electron current flow of charge from negative to positive potential
13   low potential negative terminal
14   one ampere flow of one coulomb of charge past any point in one second
15   work force x distance moved in the direction of the force
16   one volt electric potential difference between two points when one joule of work is needed to move one coulomb of charge between the two points
17   electric field direction direction of a force acting on a positive charge placed in an electric field



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Answers: Sheet   26   Electrical Energy 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   radiate out directions in which field lines of force go from a point charge
  2   electromotive force (emf) (of a source) potential energy applied to each unit of charge as it passes through the source of electrical energy
  3   240 V AC equivalent AC voltage that will produce the same heating effect in a resistance as 240 V DC
  4   electric potential difference change in electric potential energy per unit charge
  5   positive charge where lines of electric force begin
  6   direct current net flow of charge occurs in one direction only
  7   50 Hz mains frequency for alternating current in Australia
  8   Newton per Coulomb unit of electric field intensity
  9   electric current flow of charge
10   conventional current flow of charge from a positive to a negative potential
11   high potential positive potential
12   lines of force lines that show the direction a mobile positive charge would move if placed in an electric field
13   cross field lines of force never do this because a charge cannot go in two directions at once
14   electron sea term describing the outer shell electrons of metals that are free to move when a potential difference is applied across the ends of a conductor
15   zero electric field value inside a solid or hollow charged conductor
16   drift velocity speed of the slow random, yet net movement of electrons from negative to positive potential in a conductor
17   work changing the kinetic energy of a body



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Answers: Sheet   27   Electrical Energy 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   right angles electric lines of force meet the surfaces of charged conductors at ....
  2   point site of greatest concentration of field and charge distribution on irregularly shaped charged conductors
  3   field electric, magnetic and gravitational sources all display a region of influence or ....
  4   current rate at which charge flows = q/t Coulombs per second, symbol I
  5   alternating current flow of charge periodically goes back and forth
  6   work changing the potential energy of a body
  7   potential difference expected energy released by an electric charge moved along an electric field (volts): (change in energy)/(charge) or Joules per Coulomb
  8   cross-sectional area resistance of a material is inversely proportional to the ..... The bigger this quantity becomes, the smaller the resistance.
  9   total resistance for a parallel circuit, this quantity is calculatede by finding the sum of the inverses of component resistances, and then inverting the answer: 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2
10   one ohm resistance of a conductor that allows one ampere of current to flow when there is a potential difference of one volt
11   series circuit a set of conductors and loads in which there is only one current pathway
12   resistance found from the slope (gradient) of a V vs I graph
13   temperature a factor that makes metal conductors non-ohmic
14   emf electromotive force: (energy supplied)/(charge). Units: volts
15   Ohm's Law the ratio of the potential difference (V) across a conductor to the current (I) through it is a constant (R or resistance): R = V/I
16   ohmic conductors conductors that have constant resistance over a reasonable range of values of V and I
17   load a device that consumes energy in the form of electrical energy such as a lamp, radio, TV



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Answers: Sheet   28   Electrical Energy 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   total voltage for a series circuit the sum of the emf's or the sum of the potential drops across each of the resistances or loads: V = V1 + V2
  2   very high resistance in a voltmeter
  3   parallel circuit a set of conductors and loads in which there is more than one current pathway
  4   voltage electrical quantity that is constant for a parallel circuit
  5   non-ohmic conductors conductors which have varying resistance, the resistance increasing as the current is increased
  6   temperature resistance of gases decreases as the ... increases, unlike with metal conductors
  7   very low resistance in an ammeter
  8   type of material one of the factors affecting resistance of conductors. Related to how tightly electrons are held by the atoms of the conductor
  9   current electrical quantity that is constant for all components of a series circuit
10   series where an ammeter is placed in a circuit to measure the current passing through a part of the circuit
11   total resistance for a series circuit, the sum of the resistances: R = R1 + R2
12   length resistance of a material is proportional to the .... (distance between the ends) of the conductor
13   total current for a parallel circuit, this is the sum of the individual currents in each parallel conducting (resistance) component: I = I1 + I2
14   Ohm's Law equation V = IR, or V/I = a constant = R
15   conductor substance that requires only a small potential difference to cause charges to move
16   temperature the resistance of a conductor increases in proportion to the ... of the conductor, the reason why light bulb resistance increases as the bulb gets brighter
17   parallel type of circuit used to wire houses so that each load will have a potential difference of 240 V across it



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Answers: Sheet   29   Electrical Energy 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   insulator substance that has little or no movement of charge when a high potential difference is applied
  2   power rate at with energy is transformed from one form to another. E/t, watts (Energy in Joules per time in seconds)
  3   parallel where a voltmeter is placed in a circuit to measure the potential between the ends of a resistance or load
  4   joules units for energy
  5   volts units for potential difference or emf, also joules per coulomb
  6   south seeking pole south pole of a magnet, a pole that points south when a magnet is suspended: hence Earth's magnetic south pole is a north pole
  7   north pole arrow heads on magnetic lines of force indicate the direction in which a hypothetical isolated .... .... would move
  8   x's method used to indicate that magnetic field lines, or alternatively current, is going into a page
  9   watts units for power, Joules per second
10   right hand grip hand rule to show the direction of magnetic field lines around a wire carrying a current, thumb pointing in the direction of conventional current, fingers for the magnetic field lines
11   coulombs units for elecricital charge
12   Chinese first people to make use of direction finding properties of magnetised iron rods in the eleventh century
13   north pole pole of a magnet from which magnetic lines of force radiate in diagrams
14   ampere units for electrical current, also coulombs per second
15   electric currents used to make most magnets by induction, using a conductor wound around a soft iron core, and DC
16   current loop electrons moving in a wire made into a circle (or solenoid) form this, and induce a magnetic field that acts like a magnet with a N and S pole
17   solenoid coil of wire for carrying a current to produce an electromagnetic



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Answers: Sheet   30   Electrical Energy 9

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   kilowatt hour energy used by a 1 kW appliance operating for one hour
  2   energy rating labels yellow and red stickers put onto appliances to indicate how much electricity the appliance uses when compared to similar appliances
  3   energy equation energy = volts x current x time or E = VIt. Energy = potential difference x current x time
  4   magnetism property of certain materials that allows them to attract small pieces of iron (filings)
  5   magnetic field region of influence around a magnetic material in which iron filings or compasses experience a force
  6   repel like magnetic poles do this
  7   magnetic field produced around a current in a wire
  8   fingers part of the right hand that indicates the direction of a field about a wire carrying a current, when using the right hand grip rule
  9   attract unlike magnetic poles do this
10   ohms units for electrical resistance
11   newtons per coulomb units for electric field intensity: E = F/q
12   kilowatt hour measurement of energy found by power in kilowatts multiplied by time in hours
13   lodestone naturally occurring rock with magnetic properties
14   north seeking pole north pole of a magnet, a pole that points north when a magnet is suspended: hence Earth's North Pole is a south magnetic pole.
15   power equation current (I) x volts (V), = IV = I2R = V2/R
16   temporary magnets magnets made from soft iron (pure iron or mild steel) which lose their magnetism easily
17   thumb part of a hand that indicates the direction of current when using the right hand grip rule



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Answers: Sheet   31   Electrical Energy 10

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   dots method used to indicate magnetic field lines, or alternatively current coming out of a page
  2   fires caused by overloaded circuits which result in heat
  3   electrocution death caused by electricity
  4   green earth wire colour
  5   brown active wire colour
  6   blue neutral wire colour
  7   voltage this provides the potential to cause the body to conduct currents that kill
  8   solenoid coil of wire used in loud speakers, washing machine taps, car starter motor starters, relay switches in headlights
  9   ventricular fibrillation quivering of the heart muscle preventing it from pumping blood properly, very difficult to resuscitate
10   fuse safety device: circuit breaker for overloaded circuits, a short piece of metal that melts when a predetermined current passes through it
11   electric generators devices that convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, using the motion of a conductor through a magnetic field to produce current
12   resistance human body is high in this electrical property, lowered by being wet and salty (sweat)
13   exposure to current the longer this occurs the greater the likelihood of death as the body's ability to conduct increases over time
14   magnetic disks hard disks or floppy disks that are used to store information in the form of magnetic 1's and 0's in a magnetisable coating
15   domain a tiny magnet made of the combined fields of adjoining atoms in a ferromagnetic substance
16   ferrite material made from barium oxide and iron oxide that can be powdered and incorporated into plastic to form flexible magnets such as fridge magnets (for advertising)
17   0.1 to 0.2 amps this amount of current causes death due to ventricular fibrillation because normal resuscitation wont help



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Answers: Sheet   32   Electrical Energy 11

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   align domains in a ferromagnetic substance do this to form the material into a magnet when the metal is placed in an external magnetic field
  2   electromagnets devices that use electric current to produce magnetic fields
  3   earth leakage device safety device that is used to monitor current entering and leaving an appliance, shutting down the appliance if there is a difference in as little as 0.3 seconds
  4   resistor a standardised piece of resistance wire
  5   100 to 500 ohm internal human resistance to current
  6   Ampere person who put forward the idea that magnets had current loops (now thought to be electrons orbiting atoms spinning on particular axes)
  7   magnetic relays devices that use an electromagnet to operate a switch, allowing a small current to control a larger current that goes directly to the device (eg car headlights)
  8   Oersted person who showed that an electric current in a wire produces a magnetic field about the wire
  9   > 0.2 amps this amount of current stops the heart and breathing, and causes severe burns
10   current this kills as the body has cells that rely on electrical signals
11   earth connection wire connected from the chassie of an electrical appliance to the ground to conduct current from any faults that occur in the appliance safely to earth
12   bimetallic strip material used in a circuit breaker to turn power off if current exceeds a predetermined amount. Heat causes it to bend away from a terminal
13   1 000 ohm wet skin resistance to current
14   < 0.1 amps this amount of current causes breathing difficulty, pain, being unable to let go of the source conductor
15   electric motors devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, using the magnetic effect of currents to cause motion
16   500 000 ohm dry skin resistance to current
17   Farraday person who showed that moving wires in a magnetic field produced current in the wires



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Answers: Sheet   33   Cosmic Engine 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   cosmic having to do with the whole universe, of the material of the universe
  2   universe the whole of existing things, everything there is
  3   astronomy the science of the sun, moon, stars and other heavenly bodies: their composition, motion, position
  4   prediction early use of astronomy by farmers so that they knew when to sow seeds and harvest crops
  5   big bang the theorised huge cosmic explosion that created the universe
  6   10-20 billion years hypothesised time back to when the Big Bang occurred
  7   4 500 million years time back to when the sun formed as a result of shock waves from a supernova causing condensation of dust and gas
  8   supernova a large explosion of a star
  9   thermal equilibrium earth temperatures being stable because input solar radiation = output earth heat radiation
10   Aristotle Greek philosopher, BC ~330 who put forward a model of the universe based on 55 concentric transparent spheres to explain the motions of objects in the universe
11   Thomas Aquinas medieval philosopher and theologian, AD ~1260 who influenced Roman Catholic thinking, linking Aristotle's science to church teachings
12   four elements earth, fire, air and water: the four items that Aristotle believed that the planets were made of
13   quintessence fifth element of which stars were believed to be made by Aristotle
14   perfect shapes circle and sphere are these according to Aristotelian philosophy, so heavenly bodies must follow their shapes
15   geocentric earth centred, idea that the earth is the centre of the universe and everything else revolves around the earth
16   Aristarchus Greek, BC ~240, proposed a heliocentric (sun centred) model of the universe
17   2000 years time over which Aristotles basic model of the universe was accepted



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Answers: Sheet   34   Cosmic Engine 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   heliocentric sun centred, idea that the earth and planets and possibly the stars revolve around the sun
  2   parallax the apparent movement of an object relative to the background when viewed from different positions
  3   no observable parallax main reason for rejecting the heliocentric model of the universe because to the naked eye objects in the universe do not appear to move against background stars
  4   philosophically unacceptable reason for rejecting heliocentric model of the universe because the earth is where people live, and the earth doesn't seem to move
  5   contradicting common sense reason for rejecting the heliocentric model because if earth moved around the sun then why don't we get swept away as we rush through space
  6   Ptolemy Alexandrian, AD ~120, who improved the accuracy of the geocentric model of the universe by use of epicycles and deferents to explain planet retrograde motion
  7   retrograde motion moving backwards, the planets appear to move backwards at times against background stars when observed over weeks and months
  8   deferent a circle around the earth on the circumference of which the orbits of other planets were supposed to rotate on an epicycle
  9   epicycle a small circle on which a planet is located. The centre of the small circle moves around the circumference of a larger circle (deferent)
10   Copernicus Polish astronomer, AD ~1540, proposed a heliocentric model of the universe based on circles, claiming that the observed motions of planets and stars were more simply explained by a change of reference frame (heliocentric, not geocentric) and earth rotating on an axis once every 24 hours
11   huge distances Copernicus' explanation as to why there was no observable parallax, immensity of the universe
12   Tycho Brahe Danish astronomer, AD ~1570, made accurate measurements of the positions of planets and stars, observed a supernova, provided a combined geocentric-heliocentric model of the universe based on circles
13   no more accurate reason for Copernicus' model not being widely accepted over Ptolemy's, the predictions of the positions of planets were not any better
14   Johannes Kepler German astronomer and mathematician, AD ~1600, used Brahe's observations to plot the elliptical orbit of Mars around the sun, put forward 3 laws of planetary motion (laws of ellipses, areas and periods)
15   Galileo Italian, AD ~1610, supported Copernicus, questioned Aristotelian philosophies, made a telescope, observed moons of Jupiter, phases of Venus, craters on the moon, sunspots, rotation of sun (universe not perfect as Ptolemy suggested)
16   Law of Ellipses Kepler's first law: each planet moves in an ellipse with the sun at one focus
17   Law of Areas Kepler's second law: the radius vector (an imaginary line joining the planet to the sun) sweeps out equal areas in equal times



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Answers: Sheet   35   Cosmic Engine 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Law of Periods Kepler's third law: the square of the period (T) of the planets is proportional to the cube of their average distance (Rav) from the sun: T2/R3 = k
  2   empirical based on practical experience (experiment) without regard to science or theory
  3   Isaac Newton Englishman, AD ~1665, put forward the law of universal gravitation and discovered calculus when forced to live in the country during bubonic plague
  4   Law of Universal Gravitation A gravitational force of attraction acts between any two objects in the universe. This force is proportional to the product of the masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres
  5   matter that which is composed of atoms, protons (+), neutrons, electrons (-)
  6   antimatter that which is composed of antiatoms: antiprotons (-), positrons (+), and antineutrons
  7   annihilate matter and antimatter do this to each other when they come together with the release of electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays)
  8   2 gamma rays 1 electron + 1 positron annihilate to produce these
  9   quarks fundamental particle from which matter is made, always combined in twos or threes
10   hadrons composite particles made of quarks (includes baryons and mesons)
11   baryons hadrons (a composite particle made of 2 or 3 quarks) composed of 3 quarks: protons and neutrons
12   mesons hadrons (composite particles of 2 or 3 quarks) composed of a quark and an antiquark eg pion
13   gluons gauge particle responsible for holding quarks together in hadrons (baryons and mesons)
14   photon gauge particle responsible for electromagnetic force
15   bosons particles carrying the weak nuclear force associated with beta decay
16   leptons particles with little or no mass and include electron, neutrino, muon
17   atomic and subatomic phenomena evidence used to corroborate the existence of quarks and other fundamental particles which compose matter



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Answers: Sheet   36   Cosmic Engine 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   created in the Big Bang fundamental sub-atomic particles, matter and energy, space and time
  2   Einstein's equation mass and energy are different forms of the same entity, indicated in the equation E = mc2
  3   Albert Einstein German physicist, AD ~1906, Special Theory of Relativity using time as a fourth dimension and explaining that gravity was the result of the curvature of four-dimensional space (the space-time continuum)
  4   cosmological constant a factor that Einstein used in his calculations because he was convinced of a static universe, even though his model suggested that the universe was either expanding or contracting
  5   Alexander Friedmann Russian mathematician, AD ~1920, used Einstein’s equations and omitted the cosmological constant to calculate that the universe is expanding
  6   open universe model after Friedmann: below a certain critical density of matter the universe will expand forever
  7   closed universe model after Friedmann: above a certain critical density of matter the universe will eventually contract and result in another Big Bang, a pulsating universe
  8   flat universe model after Friedmann: universe expands slowly until it stops for eternity on the verge of collapsing
  9   super force combination of strong and weak nuclear, electromagnetic and gravity forces in the hypothesised primeval atom before the Big Bang
10   primeval atom the totality of our universe was confined to this singularity before the Big Bang; and space and time did not exist
11   in 1st second after Big Bang annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs; separation of the 4 basic forces: strong and weak nuclear forces, electromagnetic and gravity; temperature drop; formation of protons, neutrons, electrons, positrons, photons, neutrinos
12   by 3 minutes after Big Bang protons and neutrons nucleosynthesise to form deuterium and then helium and some lithium nuclei
13   by 300 000 years after Big Bang atoms form as electrons combine with nuclei, light radiated (photons trapped inside universe to this point)
14   by 15 billion years after Big Bang galaxies, stars, planets formed from atoms of universe. The universe as we know it now which continues to evolve
15   line spectrum colours produced when the atoms of an element are heated so the electrons become excited and emit particular colours as they return to their stable position
16   Doppler effect change in pitch of sound depending on relative motion of the observer and the sound source. Light undergoes a similar change in frequency or colour
17   red shift evidence that the universe is expanding and must have once been more compact, related to longer wavelengths of light observed in characteristic line spectra for elements



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Answers: Sheet   37   Cosmic Engine 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Edwin Hubble American astronomer, AD ~1930, discovered cosmological red shift (due to an expanding universe), Andromeda galaxy, and more distant galaxies are moving away faster than closer galaxies
  2   Hubble constant a constant of proportionality: the recessional velocity of a galaxy is proportional to its distance from us. Value: 50 to 100 kms-1 MPc, eg a galaxy at 1 Mpc is moving away at 50 to 100 kms-1
  3   MPc mega parsec: a million parsecs, distance in space, about 3.262x106 light years, which is about 3.084x1019 km
  4   light year distance in space: the distance light can travel in one earth year at the speed of light, 9.461x1012 kilometres
  5   speeding up the rate of expansion of the universe appears to be doing this according to recent research (Brian Schmidt, 1998, NSW), ie open universe
  6   cosmic background radiation microwave radiation indicating a calculated, predicted, cooled universe of 3K, an afterglow, evidence of the Big Bang
  7   composition of old stars 25% Helium and 75% Hydrogen, calculated by Gamow using Einstein's equations in 1940's, evidence of the Big Bang
  8   accretion an increase in size by natural growth or outside addition, the method by which galaxies and stars formed as a result of small perturbations (variations) in the density of particles in the universe, resulting in the current universe
  9   star a huge mass of gas with a core temperature high enough to initiate nuclear fusion reaction resulting in the radiation of energy
10   luminosity a measure of the rate at which a star emits radiant energy, a measure of the total power emitted by a star
11   stellar remnants the remains of a star after it has completed its life cycle, including elements heavier than Helium, ultimately incorporated into new stars
12   size and surface temperature two properties of stars that luminosity depends on, ie the rate at which they emit radiant energy
13   brightness a measure of the intensity of radiation arriving at earth from a star, proportional to luminosity of the star and inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the star
14   black body an object that will absorb all the light falling on it. It is also a perfect radiator of energy
15   colour v temperature series red, orange, yellow, white-yellow, white, blue star colours as the star gets hotter: 3 000 K to 28 000 K surface temperature
16   Hertzsprung-Russell diagram a plot of star luminosity against temperature or spectral (colour) class



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Answers: Sheet   38   Cosmic Engine 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   main sequence a narrow band of stars diagonally across a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram: top left to bottom right, containing stable stars
  2   white dwarfs white hot remains of stars near the end of their cycle, located on the bottom left side of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
  3   red giants large diameter very luminous stars with relatively cool surfaces emitting red light, located just above the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
  4   supergiants very large diameter stars that are very luminous located in the middle at the top of the Hertzsprung Russell diagram
  5   globular cluster a group of stars of similar chemical composition, birth time, distance from the earth, but differing in mass so that the effect of mass on stellar evolution can be observed
  6   stellar evolution life cycle of a star from a cloud of gas and dust to accretion and commencement of nuclear fusion, to instability and expansion (red giant) and finally contraction to white dwarf stage for a star about the size of the sun
  7   90% portion of time stars life cycle spent on the main sequence
  8   10% portion of time a star spends as red giant or super giant before becoming a white dwarf ( for stars up to 8 solar masses)
  9   greater than 8 solar masses stars of this size end up as small very dense neutron stars or black holes at the end of their life cycle
10   gravitational potential energy initial source of energy producing heat during the accretion of dust and gas which occurs in the early stage of star formation
11   stellar equilibrium term describing the stability of a star's size, luminosity and surface temperature: determined by outward pressure of energy on hot plasma and inward force of gravity
12   plasma hot, completely ionised gases
13   nuclear fusion source of energy of stars in which hydrogen is converted to helium with the release of energy as a mass loss occurs, raising internal temperatures to 20 000 000 K
14   proton-proton chain a series of fusion reactions involving the production of helium from hydrogen, providing kinetic energy to the particles produced (alpha and beta particles and gamma rays)
15   alpha particle radiation with properties: helium nucleus, 2+ charge, 4 protons mass, composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, strongly ionising, absorbed by a sheet of paper, and have a small deflection in a magnetic field
16   beta particle radiation with properties: electron or positron, mass 1/1800 proton mass, weakly ionising, absorbed by 5 mm Al, large deflection in a magnetic field



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Answers: Sheet   39   Cosmic Engine 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   gamma ray radiation with properties: electromagnetic, neutral charge, zero mass, very weakly ionising, not fully absorbed though 25 mm lead halves intensity, zero deflection in a magnetic field
  2   carbon cycle thermonuclear reaction on hotter stars using heavier elements such as nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen as catalysts to convert hydrogen to helium
  3   thermonuclear reactions proton-proton chain and carbon cycle reactions in which helium is produced from 4 hydrogens with a release of energy on stars
  4   star cycle time this is longer for smaller stars and shorter for larger stars because it depends on how long the balance between energy released when hydrogen is used as a fuel, is able to balance the gravitational force from collapsing the star
  5   smaller stars these stars remain longer on the main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram due to slower rate of consumption of hydrogen fuel
  6   larger stars these stars remain a shorter period of time on the main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram due to the more rapid rate of consumption of hydrogen fuel owing to greater gravitational attraction
  7   helium burning this results in an increase in temperature which pushes the gases of a star outwards to form a red giant once the helium content of the core reaches 12% of the total mass
  8   degenerate matter matter in a highly dense form that can exert a pressure which stabilises it against further collapse, as in white dwarf
  9   planetary nebula a cloud of gas left around a star collapsing to form a white dwarf
10   brown dwarf cold dark dense body of matter that results when a white dwarf has cooled
11   supernovae stars that explode as a result of instabilities produced following exhaustion of the nuclear fuel, stars greater than 8 solar masses, resulting in heavier elements being produced
12   iron the most nuclear stable element requiring an input of energy to undergo nuclear reaction. This occurs when the star core diameter shrinks from 8000 km to 20 km in less than a second, producing heavier elements by neutron capture
13   solar system sun, nine planets, moons, asteroids, comets, dust
14   Rene Descartes French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist, AD ~1644 proposed that the planets condensed from a nebula (cloud of gas)
15   Laplace French, AD ~ 1796, nebula theory, solar system consisted of gaseous dust which threw off rings as it spun, the rings condensed to form planets and the central portion the sun
16   close encounter concept that an approaching star pulled matter out of the sun to form the planets



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Answers: Sheet   40   Cosmic Engine 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   modern theory solar formation was due to a collapsing gas and dust cloud, the collapse being triggered by a shock wave from a supernova explosion
  2   nebula cloud of dust and gas in space which may condense into a group of stars
  3   planetesimals objects a few kilometres in diameter formed by accretion in the early stages of the evolution of the solar system
  4   centripetal force force needed to keep a body moving in a circular path. By relating this force to universal gravity and using appropriate equations Newton was able to derive Kepler's Law of Periods
  5   inner planets low mass, high density rocky objects orbiting near the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
  6   outer planets high mass, low density gaseous objects orbiting a long way from the sun: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
  7   remelting process that enabled heavier elements such as iron to sink to the centre of the earth
  8   bombardment and radioactive decay sources of heat to allow remelting of substances in the earth so that they were able to form a dense core and lower density crust
  9   strong gravitational field reason why the large heavy gaseous planets have been able to retain lighter elements such as hydrogen and helium in their atmospheres
10   supernova explosions source of the elements heavier than iron
11   Henry Cavendish English physicist, AD ~1798, first to measure the value of the universal gravitational constant used in Newton's mathematical form of the law of universal gravitation
12   the sun a second generation main sequence star which is our source of energy, 4.5 billion years old
13   core part of the sun where hydrogen forms helium, producing energy in the form of X-rays and gamma rays, 16 million K, 25% of distance to surface, 150 g/mL
14   radiative zone part of sun, energy transmitted as radiation, a photon taking 1 million years to pass through, 7 to 2 million K, 20 to .2 g/mL,
15   interface zone part of the sun between radiative zone and convection zone, where the sun's magnetic field generated
16   convection zone part of sun, outermost layer, 2 million to 5700 K, 0.0000002 g/mL, H and He ions reduce transparency to heat and set up convection currents which rapidly carries heat to the surface



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Answers: Sheet   41   Cosmic Engine 9

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   photosphere visible surface of the sun, upper layer of the convection zone
  2   granules areas up to 2000 km across which are the tops of convection cells in the convection zone, hot fluid rises to the surface, spreads out, cools and sinks back inwards
  3   sunspots relatively cool areas at the sun's surface (4700 K) with high magnetic field strengths, 8000 km across, last for days to weeks, occur in pairs
  4   umbra dark inner region of a sunspot
  5   penumbra less dark outer region of a sunspot
  6   solar cycle regularly repeated variations in the number of sunspots every 11 years
  7   solar wind stream of ionised particles (protons and electrons) flowing from the sun in all directions up to 400 kms -1 from the sun's corona, sweeps comet tails away from the sun
  8   corona outer atmosphere of the sun extending a few solar radii into space
  9   solar flares vast arches of hot gases that are millions of kilometres in length and caused by the sun's magnetic field
10   coronal holes source of solar winds, cooler, less dense areas
11   magnetosphere region around the earth in which earth's magnetic field is located, this is made assymetrical and restricted in volume by the solar wind
12   magnetopause outer boundary of the earth's magnetosphere
13   magnetic storms fluctuations in the magnetic field surrounding the earth, due to changes in intensity of the solar wind caused by sun's rotation (27 days) and sunspot and solar flare activity
14   solar radiation infra red, mostly visible light 400 nm to 700 nm wavelengths and UV (<400 nm)
15   transmitted allowed to pass through without being absorbed, this happens to infra red and visible light
16   absorbed soaked up, this happens to most of the UV as it creates ozone in the stratosphere



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Answers: Sheet   42   Cosmic Engine 10

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   earth third planet, radius 6371 km, mean density 5.54 g/mL
  2   crust outer rocky layer of the earth, density 2.8 g/mL
  3   mantle layer of the earth between the crust and the outer core, 2900 km thick, composed of plastic rock
  4   core central part of the earth composed of iron or an iron-nickel alloy, two parts: a solid inner part due to pressure (1200 km radius), and a liquid outer part (next 2300 km) totalling about 3500 km
  5   dynamic theory the idea that the earth's magnetic field is caused by slow circulation of the earth's outer liquid core, an electric current in the molten material producing the magnetism
  6   van Allen radiation belts two belts of energetic charged particles (protons and electrons) from solar wind and interactions between earth's atmosphere, located above the equator
  7   exosphere hot outer layer of the earths atmosphere, from between 500 to 1,000 km extending up to between 100,000 to 190,000 km above the earth, 0 to 1700 oC
  8   thermosphere hottest, outer layer of the atmosphere from 90 to between 500 and 1,000 km about the surface, 200 to 2000 oC depending on altitude and time of day
  9   mesosphere layer of the atmosphere between the thermosphere and stratosphere, coldest layer, 50 to 80 km above the surface, -15 to -90 oC
10   stratosphere layer of the atmosphere between the mesosphere and troposphere, very stable layer, 10 to 50 km above the earth's surface, -50 to -15 oC
11   troposphere layer of the atmosphere closest to the earth, in which our weather is generated, 0 to 10 km above the earth's surface, 15 to -50 oC
12   radiation way in which energy is lost from the earth because earth is in empty space (can't conduct or convect heat away)
13   radiation budget the difference between the solar radiation absorbed by the earth and the thermal radiation emitted by the earth back into space
14   albedo the fraction of the energy reflected by land, ice, water, clouds. For the earth this is about 0.31 or 31% on average
15   long wavelength infra red radiation emitted by the earth because the average temperature of the earth is approximately 290 K (around 15 oC)
16   greenhouse effect increased average air temperatures as a result of absorption of extra longer wavelength infra red from the earth by gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, water vapour, CFC's, methane which are increasing in concentration at present resulting in global warming



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Answers: Sheet   43   Space 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   universal gravitation Law: the force between any two objects is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance of separation of their centres
  2   gravitational field strength this is proportional to the mass of the object producing gravitational force and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the centre of the object
  3   weight the force that an object experiences when the force of gravity is acting on it
  4   gravitational potential energy work done moving an object in a gravitational field: it is proportional to product of the masses and inversely proportional to the distance to the centre of gravity
  5   earth radius factor that must be taken into account when calculating gravitational force or change in gravitational potential energy when using universal gravitation law concepts
  6   projectile any moving object that has only the force of gravity applied at right angles to its direction during its motion
  7   projectile motion constants constant horizontal velocity and constant vertical acceleration due to gravity
  8   parabola shape of the path of a projectile because it moves with constant horizontal velocity and constant vertical acceleration
  9   trajectory the path taken by a projectile (a parabola)
10   vector sum method used to determine the location, motion and direction of motion of a projectile, using its horizontal and vertical components at particular instants of time
11   Galileo person who first deduced the parabolic shape of trajectories in the seventeenth century
12   reference frame the background of objects to which all measurements are compared
13   ship's crow's nest high point on a ship that Galileo used to show that objects dropped from buildings would always land at the base of the building even if the earth is moving
14   Galilean relativity the laws of mechanics are the same in a frame of reference that is at rest or one that moves with constant velocity
15   sharing earth's motion reason given by Galileo for a stone dropped from a building landing at the base of the building: the building and the stone both have the same horizontal velocity
16   escape velocity the velocity needed to leave the earth when projected vertically upwards (11.2 km s-1 for earth)



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Answers: Sheet   44   Space 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Newton person who first proposed the idea of artificial satellites of the earth, by launching from the top of a high mountain at sufficient speed to miss the earth as gravity pulled it back towards the earth
  2   uniform circular motion motion of an object in a circular path at a constant speed (a centripetal force is applied at right angles to the direction of the motion)
  3   centripetal acceleration acceleration directed towards the centre of the circular path of an object undergoing uniform (constant speed) circular motion
  4   acceleration stress effect of acceleration on the human body resulting in a black out or a red out during spacecraft launch or return to earth
  5   black out acceleration stress produced when the acceleration is in the the direction of the persons head; blood rushes to the feet
  6   red out acceleration stress produced when the acceleration is in the direction of the feet, causing blood to rush to the head and retina (resulting in a red sensation in the eyes)
  7   g-forces acceleration forces measured in units of gravitational acceleration (multiples of 9.8 ms-2)
  8   backwards way astronauts move to reduce the effect of g-forces on their bodies so that suitable accelerations can be achieved during launching and re-entry
  9   4g maximum g-forces the human body can tolerate in the normal position (upright)
10   10g maximum g-forces the human body can tolerate when the acceleration is directed parallel to a line drawn between a person's front and back
11   roller coaster theme park machine in which people can experience positive g-forces similar to those experienced by astronauts during lift-off
12   positive g-forces accelerations that make you feel heavier because they are directed towards the head
13   increased acceleration this happens because the total mass of the rocket and fuel decreases as a rocket continues to move, fatal g-forces can result unless the rocket is throttled back
14   orbiter part of the space shuttle that carries the crew and cargo
15   external tank part of the space shuttle containing liquid hydrogen and oxygen to power the orbiters 3 main engines
16   booster rockets part of the space shuttle used to propel it at first: two large solid propellant (aluminium powder, ammonium perchlorate powder and iron oxide catalyst, in polymer binder) engines



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Answers: Sheet   45   Space 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   zero total momentum of the space shuttle before and after the rockets begin firing, gases take momentum in one direction, the craft takes equal and opposite momentum in the opposite direction)
  2   jettisoned fate of the booster rockets of the space shuttle about 2 minutes after launch... they are parachuted back to the earth for re-use
  3   vertically direction in which the space shuttle is initially moving before tilting into a trajectory that is parallel to the earth's surface
  4   easterly direction in which the space shuttle is tilted so that the earth's rotation velocity can be used to assist in achieving orbital velocity (450 ms-1 at the equator)
  5   westerly if the space shuttle was tilted in this direction after take-off then an additional 600 ms-1 would need to be achieved by the craft in order to achieve orbital velocity
  6   apogee the point in the orbit of any satellite body at which it is farthest from the body about which it is in orbit (orbits are elliptical)
  7   perigee the point in the orbit of any satellite body at which it is closest to the body about which it is in orbit (orbits are elliptical)
  8   lower orbital speed effect of increasing the orbit altitude on the orbital velocity of a body
  9   geostationary orbit an orbit of a satellite that has a period of 24 hours enabling it to appear to stay above the same point on the earth
10   Kelper's third law the square of the period of orbit of a satellite is proportional to the cube of the radius of orbit T2 α R3
11   gravitational slingshot effect using the orbital velocity of planets to increase the speed of space craft that fly close to the planets
12   orbital decay gradual slowing of low altitude satellites because of friction with the very thin atmosphere encountered
13   ablative material substances that burn up as a space craft enters the atmosphere to prevent the craft from overheating
14   heat shields materials on the outside of spacecraft to prevent heat produced during re-entry from space from overheating the craft
15   re-entry window narrow corridor of 5.2o to 7.2o angle through which space craft can re-enter the earths atmosphere without causing the craft to skip back into space or dive too steeply cauing g-forces to be too high
16   Chinese armies people back in the 13th century who used rockets in warfare



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Answers: Sheet   46   Space 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Russian who in 1903 set out correctly for the first time the theory of rocket power, even suggested multistage rockets and liquid fuels
  2   Robert H. Goddard American who in 1919 proposed a rocket could reach the moon, analysed various fuels, used liquid fuel rockets
  3   Herman Oberth Austrian who in 1923 described the mathematics behind rockets reaching escape velocity
  4   Wernher von Braun German who in World War II developed the V-2 guided missile and later assisted with the further development of rockets in America after the war up to the Saturn rockets that carried men to the moon 1969
  5   Sputnik I first satellite launched by Russia 4th October, 1957
  6   Explorer I first satellite lauched by America 31st January, 1958
  7   Yuri Gagarin first person in orbit, 12th April, 1961
  8   Neil Armstrong first person to step onto an extra terrestrial object (moon), 20th July, 1969
  9   communication difficulty this results because of the vast distances spacecraft have to travel to reach other planets (related to inverse square law or radiation intensity), sunspot activity interference and Van Allen radiation belts that also interfere with radiowaves
10   uplink high frequency microwave signal that is used to communicate between earth and satellites, eg 6 GHz
11   downlink lower frequency microwave signal that is used to communicate between satellites and earth, eg 4 GHz
12   narrow beam method used to minimise the effect of distance on signal strength used for communication with satellites
13   attenuation loss of signal strength due to the atmosphere absorbing some of the energy in the transmission
14   sunspots areas on the surface of the sun where the temperature is relatively cool, and associated with strong magnetic field strengths, which interrupt communication on earth (has an 11 year cycle)
15   Van Allen radiation belts two belts of energetic charged particles, mainly electrons and protons, lying at right angles to the equator of the earth, can interfere with shortwave radio communication, once or twice a month
16   ring current movement of charged particles in the upper Van Allen radiation belt that results in an associated magnetic field that interfer with short wave radio communication once or twice a month



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Answers: Sheet   47   Space 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   ether the substance that was once believed to fill all space, including vacuum, providing a medium for the transmission of light
  2   ancient Greeks people who spoke of the earth as being surrounded by water, then air, then the ether, beyond which was nothing
  3   Rene Descartes Frenchman who in mid 17th century believed that motion could be carried from one piece of matter to another by contact with other matter; he reasoned planets move: therefore space must be full of an invisible substance, the ether
  4   Robert Hooke Englishman, 1667, proposed that luminous objects set up vibrations that were transmitted through ether like sound waves through air
  5   Christiaan Huygens Dutchman, 1678, proposed that luminous objects set up vibrations that were transmitted through ether like sound waves through air
  6   Isaac Newton Englishman, about 1700, spoke of ether waves in connection with light, although he is generally thought to have believed light to be particles
  7   transverse waves waves that cannot pass through a liquid. They can travel on the surface of a liquid (eg water ripples), but not through it
  8   longitudinal waves waves that can pass through both solids and liquids, compressional waves
  9   tenuous fluid thin consistency liquid or gas, the assumed composition of the ether until it was found that light was composed of transverse waves
10   solid state of the ether given that light travels through it and light is composed of transverse waves
11   Thomas Young person, about 1810, found light to be waves, by producing an interference pattern with light passing through a double slit
12   Augustin Fresnel person, about 1820, found light to be transverse waves, when he found that light in different planes could not form an interference pattern
13   George Stokes person, 1845, suggested that the ether must be like wax, rigid for rapidly changing forces, but fluid under the action of long continued forces, this would allow for movement of planets through the ether
14   ether wind hypothesised relative motion of the ether that would result from the earth moving at 30 kms-1 in orbit around the sun
15   wind this causes variations in the speed of sound in air. A similar effect was hypothesised for light transmitted through the ether, resulting in the Michelson-Morley experiment
16   independent not affected by. The speed of sound in air is .... of the speed of the source and the speed of the observer.



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Answers: Sheet   48   Space 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Michelson and Morley Americans, 1887, attempted to measure the motion of the earth relative to the motion of the ether by using transmitted and reflected light that travelled with or across the ether wind to form interference patterns
  2   no motion the Michelson and Morley experiment showed this with respect to the relative movement of the earth and the ether
  3   validation of hypotheses role of experimentation in science
  4   new hypothesis this has to be produced if an experiment does not validate an hypothesis so that a new experiments can be performed
  5   Einsteins relativity a new view of space and time that resulted from the null result obtained for the ether experiment carried out by Michelson and Morley
  6   frames of reference objects or coordinate systems with respect to which we take measurements
  7   Cartesian coordinate a method used in mathematics to locate the position of a point with respect to horizontal (x) and vertical (y) axes
  8   relative velocity the apparent velocity of an object; it depends on the velocity with which the reference frame of the observer is moving
  9   inertial frame of reference a reference frame that is moving with constant velocity or is at rest
10   fixed stars best example of an inertial frame of reference
11   non-inertial frame of reference a reference frame that is accelerating (its velocity is not constant)
12   inertial force a postulated force which is fictitious (pseudo) used to maintain the validity of Newton's laws in a non-inertial frame of reference, eg centrifugal force
13   Galilean relativity the laws of mechanics are the same for a body at rest and a body moving with constant velocity
14   Newtonian relativity it is impossible to do any mechanical experiment wholly within an inertial frame of reference that can tell you whether the frame is at rest or moving with constant velocity
15   absolute motion Newton's concept: the translation of a body from one absolute place to another
15   length contraction L = Lo(√(1 -v2/c2)) where L is observed from outside and Lo is length in the frame of reference of the object



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Answers: Sheet   49   Space 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   absolute time Newton's concept: absolute true and mathematical time, of itself, and from its own nature, flows equally without regard to anything external; it is independent of space
  2   earth carried the ether along a suggestion to account for the negative (null result) of the Michelson-Morley experiment, meaning there was no relative motion between earth and the ether
  3   apparatus contracted a suggestion to account for the negative (null result) of the Michelson-Morley experiment, that the equipment shortened in the direction of the motion
  4   Poincare's relativity the laws of physics are the same for a 'fixed' observer as for an observer who has a uniform motion of translation relative to him
  5   Einstein's law of light the speed of light is constant and is indepentent of the speed of the source or the observer
  6   all motion is relative consequence of law of light: no such thing as an abolute frame of reference, and all inertial reference frames are equivalent
  7   Einsteinian relativity effects the following only occur at speeds approaching the speed of light: length contraction, mass dilation, time dilation
  8   speed of light the reason why we are generally unaware of relativity effects such as length contraction is that they are only obvious at speeds approaching this speed
  9   length contraction the length of a "moving" rod appears to do this in the direction of motion relative to a stationary observer (as its speed approaches the speed of light)
10   time dilation the slowing of time in a "moving" frame relative to a "stationary" observer (as speed approaches the speed of light), this affects all types of clocks including atomic, mechanical and biological clocks
11   atomic clocks two of these were used after being synchronised, one was flown around the world, showing time dilation
12   muons subatomic particles formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic rays, they disintegrate after 2.2 microseconds (in their reference frame); moving at 0.999c velocity, time dilation enables them to reach the surface of the earth (49.2 µs relative to us)
13   mass dilation the mass of a "moving" object is greater than when it is "stationary"; most easily observed approaching the speed of light
14   maximum speed speed of light is hypothesised to be this because the resistance to acceleration (inertia) of a body increases as it approaches the speed of light
15   mass-energy law mass and energy are interchangeable, mass is converted to energy in nuclear fission and fusion: E = mc2
16   mass dilation m = mo/(√(1 -v2/c2)) where m is observed from outside and mo is mass in the frame of reference of the object



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Answers: Sheet   50   Space 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   old length definition one metre is the distance between two marks on a platimun-iridium bar, originally defined as one ten millionth of the distance between the North Pole and the equator on a meridian passing through Paris
  2   new length definition one metre is the distance travelled by light emitted by krypton-86 excited in a discharge tube, in a vacuum in the fraction 1/299 792 458 th of a second
  3   finite an actual value, not infinite, speed of light is this, resulting in problems of observers agreeing on simultaneity of events
  4   simultaneity the quality of occurring at exactly the same time. Because light has a finite speed two separate observers in different frames can have problems agreeing that two events occurred at the same time for the other observer
  5   finite speed of light because of this observers in relative motion will disagree on the simultaneity of events separated in space
  6   4 dimensional space time Minkowski's concept (1907) that events need 4 numbers to uniquely define them: x, y, z Cartesian coordinates and a number for when the event occurred (time)
  7   time fourth dimension in addition to x, y, and z Cartesian coordinates
  8   space-time the four dimensional continuum
  9   twin paradox because motion is relative, then applying the time dilation equation of special theory of relativity to two observers moving relative to each other results in both thinking that the other ages at a faster rate
10   inertial frames frames of reference to which the special theory of relativity applies (constant velocity)
11   non-inertial frames frames of reference to which the general theory of relativity applies (during acceleration)
12   slower aging rate this happens to a body in a non-inertial frame of reference when observed by another in an inertial frame of reference who ages at a faster rate
13   time dilation this effect of relativity may make it possible to travel to other stars if the speed of travel is close to the speed of light because of the slowing of the biological clock that results
14   future the relativity of time allows for this to be investigated by travelling at close to the speed of light, but many earth years will have elapsed by the time such a traveller returns
15   past the relativity of time does not allow for this to be investigated by travelling at close to the speed of light. It may be possible if travel faster than speed of light is possible
16   time dilation t = to/(√(1 -v2/c2)) where t is observed from outside and to is time in the frame of reference of the clock



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Answers: Sheet   51   Motors and Generators 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   electric motor device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
  2   generator device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy
  3   electric force this type of force is exerted by stationary electric charges upon each other
  4   magnetic force this type of force is exerted on moving charges in a magnetic field or when moving charges interact
  5   Van Allen donut shaped radiation belts around the earth that contain charged particles such as high energy protons formed when cosmic rays collide with atoms in the atmosphere
  6   earths magnetic field lines force field lines that charged particles follow in a spiral motion within the Van Allen radiation belts
  7   strong magnetism this feature of the poles of the earth bounce the charged particles in the Van Allen radiation belt back and forth between the poles
  8   ring current movement of charged particles in the Van Allen radiation belts around the earth (changing field lines) causing magnetic storms
  9   aurora lights associated with ions and electrons encountering the atmosphere at the poles: ....... Australis and ..... Borealis
10   current balance a device used to measure the magnetic force between two parallel wires carrying current, knowing the weight of the suspended wire
11   motor effect a current carrying wire in a magnetic field experiences a force. Lorentz force.
12   right palm rule using the fingers of the right hand to show magnetic field direction, and thumb to show conventional current direction: force is perpendicular to the palm
13   catapult forcing a wire in a magnetic field to move suddenly (jump) due to interaction between the magnetic field and another magnetic field set up by a current in the wire
14   right thumb screw rule using the right hand to grip a wire carrying current with thumb in the direction of conventional current, fingers in the direction of the induced magnetic field
15   tesla magnetic induction that results in a force of one newton acting on a one metre length of wire carrying a current of one ampere (B in the formula F=BIl)
16   current force rule like currents attract, unlike currents repel



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Answers: Sheet   52   Motors and Generators 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   magnetic force rule like poles repel, unlike poles attract
  2   Ampere's Law the force per metre of two parallel wires is proportional to the products of the currents they carry and inversely proportion to the distance between the wires
  3   one ampere the amount of current flowing in each of two parallel wire separated by 1 m in a vacuum, and exerting a force of 2 x 10 N per metre of wire
  4   torque product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the axis to the line of action of the force; the turning effect of a force, τ = Fd, units: Nm,
  5   torque on a coil quantity found by finding the product of magnetic field intensity, current, coil area, number of turns, and cos of the angle the coil makes with the magnetic field lines: τ = BIAn cos Θ, units: Nm
  6   radial magnetic fields result of making magnetic poles circular so that a coil conducting a current in the magnetic field experiences maximum torque at all positions,Θ = 0o
  7   rotor part of an electric motor or generator that turns, rotates
  8   stator part of an electric motor or generator that remains stationary
  9   armature part of a commutator DC motor that turns (rotates), the rotor, made of coils of wire on an iron core that is free to rotate
10   field structure part of a commutator DC motor that is stationary (a stator), made of either permanent magnets or electromagnets
11   commutator part of a commutator DC motor that can reverse the direction of current through the armature (rotor) to maintain one current direction past the magnets of the field structure
12   split-ring commutator a commutator consisting of a copper cylinder divided into two electrically separated halves, each half being connected to one side of the armature
13   brushes spring loaded graphite blocks that make contact with the commutator as it rotates in a commutator DC motor
14   galvanometer sensitive electric meter that is the basis of most electric meters (ammeters and voltmeters)
15   moving coil meter ammeters, voltmeters, and galvanometers, which are basically made from a coil of conducting wire between radial magnets, and a restoring torque spring
16   restoring torque spring a delicate coiled spring attached to a coil of conducting wire in a galvanometer so that the angle turned by the meter pointer is proportional to the current in the coil



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Answers: Sheet   53   Motors and Generators 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   shunt resistance a wire of very low resistance that is used to convert a galvanometer into an ammeter. The wire is parallel to the galvanometer
  2   series resistance a very high resistance that is used to convert a galvanometer into a voltmeter. This resistance is wired in series with the galvanometer
  3   moving coil loudspeaker a use of the motor effect in amplification of sound: a conducting coil carrying a varied current attached to a stiff plastic or paper cone, and surrounding a strong permanent magnetic pole (about which it is able to move in relation to the pole)
  4   electromagnetic induction the conversion of mechanical energy (kinetic energy) into electrical energy by moving a conductor in relation to a magnetic field
  5   Michael Faraday person who noticed that a changing magnetic field is needed to produce electricity (Joseph Henry was the first, but this person published the findings first)
  6   electromagnetic induction Faraday said: wherever there is relative motion between a conductor and a magnetic field such that field lines are "cut", and emf (voltage) is induced between the ends of the conductor, and if a circuit is provided, a current will flow
  7   magnetic flux the number of magnetic lines of force emerging through an imaginary surface in a magnetic field: units of Webers (Wb)
  8   magnetic flux density the magnetic field strength, or the magnetic induction, or magnetic flux per unit area: units of Webers per metre squared (Wb.m-2) or Teslas (T)
  9   emf electromotive force: this is the energy supplied to each unit of charge that passes through a source of electical energy. Units: J.C-1 or V
10   potential difference a measure of the energy released by an electric chrage per unit of charge, V=W/q, units: J.C-1 or V
11   Faraday's law the induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of flux through the circuit
12   electrons these subatomic particles experience a force when a conductor is moved in relation to a magnetic field, causing them to move and create a potential difference between the ends of the conductor
13   Lenz's Law the direction of the induced emf is such that the current it produces creates a magnetic field opposing the change that produced this emf
14   energy conservation reason why the induced current in a wire moving in relation to a magnetic field must oppose the motion that gives rise to it
15   back emf a form of resistance that develops in electric motors because they contain wire moving in relation to magnetic fields
16   self-inductance a back emf produced in solenoids carrying A.C. because the changing current produces a changing magnetic field around the wires resulting in an induced current to oppose the changing magnetic field



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Answers: Sheet   54   Motors and Generators 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   eddy currents circular currents produced in solid conductors such as a metal sheet when it moved in relation to a magnetic field, can be used as a brake as the current opposes the motion
  2   induction cookers a use of eddy currents caused by AC in an induction coil under a metal sauspan resulting in heat production because of resistance in the sauspan metal
  3   generator a device for producing electrical energy from mechanical energy
  4   prime mover mechanical device that is used to drive a generator, eg steam turbine, water turbine; allows an input of kinetic energy
  5   armature coils of wire in a generator in which a current is induced by moving the wires in relation to a magnetic field or vice versa
  6   field structure magnets of a generator that form the magnetic field for induction of current in wires that move in relation to the magnetic field or vice versa
  7   slip rings two conducting rings connected to the rotor wires of a gnerator so that the induced alternating potential can be used in an external circuit (rotor armature generators)
  8   brushes spring loaded graphite blocks that make contact with slip rings attached to the wires of the rotor of a generator
  9   exciter an auxillary DC generator attached to an AC generator to provide current to electromagnets to form field structure for the AC generator
10   magnetos permanent magnets used to provide field structure in small generators
11   AC generator arrangement stator as armature and rotor as field structure, to reduce the amount of current flowing through the moving slip rings and rotating wires (they are being used to produce the field structure rather than potentially damaging high current electricity)
12   3-phase generators generators that have 3 sets of armature wires at 120o to each other to more efficiently produce electricity
13   DC generator arrangement rotor as armature to enable a split ring to draw direct current, stator as field structure
14   alternators generators used in cars to produce AC which is converted to DC by rectifiers because of problems that can arise with split ring commutators (sparking, damage at high speed)
15   rectifiers solid state electronic devices that convert AC to DC, used in conjunction with alternators in cars



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Answers: Sheet   55   Motors and Generators 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   separately excited DC generators that use external DC current to produce the field structure
  2   self-excited DC generators that use residual magnetism in the electromagnets to generate DC current, some of which is used to excite the electromagnets of the field structure
  3   heat form of energy lost from generators reducing their efficiency due to: friction in bearings of the rotor, wire resistance to current, and hysteresis magnetic properties of iron cores of electromagnets (being used as field structure)
  4   hysteresis a lagging of the production and breakdown of a magnetic field about an iron core of an electromagnet which results in energy losses by heat production
  5   minimise energy loss reason for transmitting electricity through wires at high voltages and low current, because the energy loss is proportional to current due to resistance in conduction wires
  6   pylons metal towers used to support high voltage transmission wires
  7   porcelain material that is commonly used as an insulator to prevent current from transmission wires short circuiting with metal pylons, and posts, because it is unaffected by weather
  8   shield wire a protective wire strung above the conducting cables to protect the transmission lines from lightning strike by intercepting it and diverting it to earth, also called overhead ground wire
  9   fibre optic a core sometimes used in a shield wire (or overhead ground wire) to use the "right of way" given to power companies in some countries for communication purposes
10   primary energy source the place of electricity in modern industry and domestic energy use in modern industrial societies
11   Thomas Edison inventor of the incandescent light bulb 1879, leading to installation of lighting systems in homes after 1882
12   Zenobe-Theoplie Gramme inventor of a continuous current generator in 1860's leading to acceptance of electric power generation
13   electric motor device accidently invented when two Gramme generators were connected together in 1873
14   Faraday and Henry discoverers of electromagnetic induction in 1831, leading to production of continuous current
15   early power sources burning of wood for domestic 'power' prior to the industrial revolution, and then burning of coal to run steam engines from 18th century to drive industrial machines



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Answers: Sheet   56   Motors and Generators 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   cottage industry the weaving industry wiped out by the development of steam engine powered looms at the beginning of the industrial revolution
  2   social problems poor working condions, overcrowding, slums, inadequate sanitation in early industrialised towns and cities, even before invention of electric light
  3   electric lighting this invention lead to greater social problems in industrial areas because it enabled workers to work longer hours
  4   environmental costs effect of power stations burning fossil fuels and adding to problems of global warming and acid rain, wastes from nuclear power stations, habitat destruction by building dams to provide water for hydroelectricity generation
  5   acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cancer linked to living near high voltage power lines, in 50% of studies into the effects of living near high voltage power lines (evidence is still inconclusive)
  6   transformers devices for transferring electrical energy from one circuit to another while changing the size of an alternating (AC) voltage
  7   primary coil coil of wires wrapped around an iron core for input of electical energy in a transformer
  8   secondary coil coil of wires wrapped around an iron core for output of electrical energy in a transformer
  9   step-up transformer that produces a greater voltage in the secondary coil compared to the primary coil. The current in the secondary coil is reduced compared to the primary coil
10   step-down transformer that produces a lower voltage in the secondary coil compared to the primary coil. The current in the secondary coil is increased compared to the primary coil
11   turns ratio the ratio of the voltages in primary to secondary coils = the ratio of the number of turns of wires in primary to secondary coils (= the ratio of the currents in the secondary to primary coils): np/ns = Vp/Vs = Is/Ip
12   energy conservation reason for the ratios of voltages, turns and currents in the primary and secondary transformer coils, power in primary coil = power in secondary coil in an ideal transformer
13   transformer rectifier school power packs that convert 240V AC to 12 V AC or 12 V DC using diodes
14   tapping technique used to obtain a variety of voltages from the secondary coil of a transfomer by placing connections at various points of the secondary coil to provide different turns ratios
15   solar energy least environmentally damaging method of obtaining electrical



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Answers: Sheet   57   Motors and Generators 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   supply voltage sequence 20 kV at power station to 500 kV to distribute at high voltage to district transformer to 132 kV to local transformer station, to 66 kV for substation to 11 kV to supply transformer near users to 240V to supply to consumer
  2   infrastructure equipment needed to supply consmers with electricity: power stations, sub-stations, power lines, towers: all expensive to set up and maintain
  3   transformer uses computers, CD players, fluorescent lights, battery chargers, TV's, radios. Any appliance that relies on a voltage other than 240V
  4   laminated yoke soft iron metal core that is common to primary and secondary coils being made of thin insulated sheets to reduce the size of eddy currents, making transformers more efficient (less heat produced)
  5   AC advantages transformers make AC voltage conversion simple, commutators in DC motors fail at high speeds, DC voltage conversion requires moving parts in an induction coil
  6   synchronise frequency a problem associated with using AC on a national grid supplying electricity from more than one power station. DC supply eliminates this problem
  7   skin effect a problem of AC transmission, in which only the outer portion of a conductor is used, reducing the effective cross-sectional area, and increasing resistance and heat loss. DC uses the entire conductor
  8   transmission conductor comparison 3 phase AC requires 3 conductors for transmission whereas DC only requires 2. The low cost of conversion from AC to DC negates the advantage of DC in this case
  9   AC motor parts armature, field structure, and sometimes a slip ring; rotor rotates, stator is stationary
10   induction motor principle AC motor that works on the principle that a rotating magnetic field will exert a torque on a stationary coil.
11   induction motor functioning the stator field coils have AC applied to produce the rotating magnetic field and induce current in the rotor. This results in an interaction between the field structure and the magnetic field of the induced current in the rotor
12   synchronous motor AC motor that uses slip rings to feed current into the rotor to interact with the rotating magnetic field produced by the stator.
13   synchronous motor advantages constant speed, for a fixed AC frequency, used in clocks and other devices requiring a constant rate of rotation
14   synchronous motor limitations not self-starting, if slowed by a heavy load they may stop completely
15   induction motor advantages simple design, high efficiency, no bushes or brushes to wear out (low maintenance costs), relatively low cost; used in power tools, up to 1 kW output
16   induction motor disadvantages must have AC supply, maximum speed is limited by the supply frequency (50 Hz limits the motor to about 3000 rpm)



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Answers: Sheet   58   Ideas to Implementation 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   cathode rays electrons ejected from a negative high voltage electrode in a glass tube with a very low air pressure
  2   Heinrich Geissler German glass blower who in 1885 invented a vacuum pump to reduce pressure inside a strong glass tube to 0.01% of normal atmospheric pressure
  3   insulator term describing the ability of air to prevent the conduction of electicity at normal temperature and pressure
  4   Julius Plucker German, 1862 found that electrodes with high voltage could result in conduction through low air pressure inside Geissler's glass tubes
  5   luminous glow coloured 'streamers' that appear at both the anode and cathode in a discharge tube containing some air
  6   Faraday dark space region between negative glow and positive column striations in in a discharge tube at 0.1 to 0.2 kPa
  7   striations a series of bright and darker bands that occurs in the positive column of a discharge tube when the pressure is reduced below 0.1 kPa
  8   Crookes' dark space region in a discharge tube filling the entire tube (from cathode to anode) at air pressures below 0.01 kPa
  9   green glow this appears in the glass at the end of the discharge tube opposite the cathode when the air pressure is below 0.01 kPa
10   discharge the formation of a current flowing through a cathode ray tube as the air pressure in the tube is being reduced from normal atmospheric air pressure (101 kPa)
11   electrons subatomic particles released from a cathode in a cathode ray tube exciting electrons in the atoms of gas present in the tube as they collide
12   fluorescence a visible light glow produced when certain materials have absorbed invisible light such as ultraviolet; the glow stops immediately the external source is removed
13   phosphorescence a visible light glow produced when certain materials have absorbed invisible light such as ultraviolet; the glow continues after the external source is removed
14   cathode ray properties identical regardless of cathode material, travel in straight lines, cause glass to fluoresce, deflected by magnetic fields, carry energy and momentum, cause chemical reaction (in photographic plates), deflected by electric fields
15   William Crookes person, 1875, made a number of discoveries about cathode rays including their nature and the way they moved (except that they are affected by charged plates)
16   straight lines property of cathode rays shown by the Maltese Cross experiment
17   deflected by magnetic fields property of cathode rays shown by holding a magnet near a Crookes tube
18   energy and momentum property of cathode rays shown by the 'paddle wheel experiment' in a Crookes tube



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Answers: Sheet   59   Ideas to Implementation 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   light features travel in straight lines, cause fluorescence, cause chemical reactions
  2   Heinrich Hertz person, 1883, incorrectly showed that cathode rays are not deflected by electric fields, concluded they were light like
  3   Heinrich Hertz person, 1892, showed cathode rays could penetrate thin metal foils, supporting his proposed wave nature of the cathode rays
  4   Jean-Baptise Perrin person, 1895, showed that cathode rays deposited negative charges on impact with an object, suggesting a particle nature
  5   J.J. Thomson person, 1897, showed cathode rays to be electrons by using a balance of electric and magnetic fields to determine their q/m ratio
  6   V = Ed equation relating electic field intensity and voltage in a parallel plate capacitor
  7   F = qE equation relating the force on a charge in an electric field
  8   capacitor parallel plates that have a potential difference applied and which have a uniform electric field between them
  9   F = qvBsin Θ equation relating force on a charge moving through a magnetic field
10   balanced forces in Thomson's experiment he adjusted electric and magnetic fields so that this occurred to cause the electrons to move in straight lines
11   collimator slotted cylinders used to allow a near parallel beam of cathode rays to move through the evacuated tube used by Thomson
12   electron gun source of electrons in a cathode ray tube that beams the electons in one direction only, made of a cathode and two open cylinder anodes
13   fluorescent screen material used to detect where cathode rays are travelling because it gives off a glow when struck by the cathode rays
14   Thomson's conclusions cathode rays are constituents of all atoms, and that they are the same charge as hydrogen ions but approximtely 1/1800th the mass (determined from q/m ratios)
15   zinc sulfide a commonly used fluorescent substance
16   deflection system two sets of parallel plates in a cathode ray tube that have electric fields and cause electrons to move either in the X or the Y direction, movement of the beam is brought about by altering their polarity
17   grid a ring shaped electrode that controls the brightness of a fluorescent spot on the screen of a CRO by controlling the number of electrons emited by the electron gun: more negative reduces the number of electrons
18   accelerating anodes positively charged rings that are used to bring electrons up to a suitable speed in a cathode ray tube



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Answers: Sheet   60   Ideas to Implementation 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   CRO cathode ray oscilloscope, an electronic device used to view various phenomena as electrical signals in waveform, eg sound, heart monitoring, electronics
  2   time base control the adjustment of this variable on a CRO allows each waveform to be drawn over the previous one resulting in a stationary image
  3   volts/cm variable used on the verticle grid of a CRO to provide a vertical deflection so that amplitude of waveform can be related to volts
  4   time/cm variable used on the horizontal grid of a CRO so that the period, and hence the frequency of the wave form can be calculated by measuring wavelength
  5   electron microscope a device that uses beams of cathode rays (electrons) to obtain magnified details of very fine cell structure
  6   television a device that previously used cathode ray tube technology for communication involving the transmission of pictures, used magnetic fields instead of electric fields to deflect beams of electrons
  7   red green blue the 3 colours used to produce all the colours observable with a coloured TV screen as a result of electrons striking dots of fluorescent material
  8   shadow mask a grid that is used to prevent electrons from hitting the wrong fluorescent spot on a colour TV screen that uses cathode ray tube technology
  9   corona discharge an ion wind produced near a positively charged point due to high charge density at the point, used in lightning rods and photocopiers, can produce a glow
10   lightning rod structure used to protect buildings from lightning strike by allowing corona discharge to occur, resulting in positive ions spraying off the building and electrons being conducted to earth
11   photocopier machine that uses a corona wire to apply negative charges to a selenium coating on an aluminium drum so that positively charged toner can be attracted
12   photoconductive term describing the increase in conductivity of selenium in the presence of light. This allows an applied negative charge to leak away where there is light present, resulting in attraction of positive toner to places not thus affected
13   negative charge applied to selenium on an aluminium drum and also paper in a photocopier so that positive toner will be attracted
14   heat form of energy that sets toner onto paper in a photocopier as it passes between hot rollers
15   James Clerk Maxwell person, 1865, postulated the existence of electromagnetic waves
16   Heinrich Hertz person, 1887, provided experimental evidence of the existence of electromagnetic waves, by inducing a spark in a detecting loop
17   Hertz hypothesis changing electric and magnetic fields are propagated as an electromagnetic wave
18   ultraviolet radiation that allowed a larger detector gap to be used in Hertz experiment, an example of photoelectric effect



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Answers: Sheet   61   Ideas to Implementation 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   features of Hertz's waves reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, polarisation, travel at c: properties of the electromagnetic waves
  2   radio waves what we call Hertz's waves today
  3   electromagnetic waves these are produced by accelerated charges such as electrons oscillating in a wire
  4   changing magnetic field this is produced by changing electric fields as a result of oscillation of electrons in conductors, in turn forming electromagnetic waves
  5   classical physics the physics of Newton and Maxwell (prior to 1900), found to be unable to explain black body absorption and radiation because radiation was in bursts or packets of energy rather than continuous waves
  6   quantum physics the physics used to explain black body absorption and radiation because energy was emitted or absorbed in little bursts or packets of energy
  7   quantum the basic unit of radiant energy, the smallest amount of energy capable of existing independently
  8   E = hf equation showing the relationship between energy and the frequency of electromagnetic radiation (and Plank's constant)
  9   photoelectric effect the emission of electrons from substances (metals) when they are bombarded with high frequency light
10   Philipp Lenard person, 1900, showed that charges emitted in the photoelectric effect were similar to cathode rays, and also the energy relationship between the emitted electrons and the intensity and frequency of the incident light
11   stopping voltage voltage needed to stop the flow of electons in photoelectric effect; related to the work done in stopping the flow of current: qV = work done = change in KE = maximum KE of the emitted electrons
12   Max Planck person, 1900, put forward the theory that an object that can completely absorb all the energy (a black body) can only absorb or emit energy in tiny irreducible bits or quanta
13   Albert Einstein person, 1905, proposed that light behaved as particles with a wave nature called photons
14   photon bundles or packets of concentrated energy resulting in the energy of light not being spread out evenly over its wavefront
15   all or nothing principle by which a photon can give up its energy to one electron, but could not give up part of it
16   maximum kinetic energy in the photoelectric effect, this is found by subtracting the work done in overcoming attractive forces between a metal and its electrons at the surface from the initial photon energy Ekmax = hf - Φ = qVstop (Φ = work function)
17   threshold frequency the minimum photon frequency that will cause photoemission of electrons from the surface of a metal to occur (also called critical frequency)
18   intensity number of photons per unit area, as this increases the photocurrent also increases in both classical predictions and experimental results of photoelectric effect



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Answers: Sheet   62   Ideas to Implementation 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   emission time time taken for photocurrent to commence flowing: classical prediction: a long time for low intensity light, experimental results: instantaneous, if it did occur
  2   frequency light waves per second, classical prediction: emission is independent of this light wave property; experimental results: emission is dependent, and below a critical or threshold value no emission occurred
  3   photoelectron energy energy possessed by electrons emitted as a result of photoelectric effect. Classical prediction: increases with light intensity; experimental results: maximum kinetic energy remains constant with increases in light intensity but increases with frequency of light
  4   Ekmax = h(f - fo) equation linking maximum photoelectron kinetic energy to the frequency of incident light and threshold frequency
  5   Albert Einstein person, 1905, explained the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, and put forward the theory of Special Relativity
  6   Brownian motion the random and rapid motion of tiny particles suspended in air or liquids
  7   photocells devices in which the electons initiating an electric current are produced by the photoelectric effect, the cathode is coated with a metal that emits electrons when light falls on it, current is proportional to light intensity
  8   more electrons emitted reason for photocurrent in a photocell or photoelectric cell being proportional to the intensity of light falling on the cathode
  9   photocell uses electric 'eyes', radiation detectors, light meters, sound track readers in film projectors
10   solar cell photovoltaic devices, use layers of doped silicon to convert sunlight energy into electrical energy
11   breathalyzer device that uses photsensitive devices to detect the change in colour of a solution in the presence of alcohol
12   Bohr atom model of atom in which the electrons travel in definite orbits around the nucleus in discrete energy states (or levels)
13   de Broglie atom model of the atom in which electrons move in matter waves around the nucleus, in discrete energy states
14   ground state the lowest possible energy state for an electron.
15   valence electrons electrons in the upper energy level, and which 'feel' attraction of surrounding nuclei, resulting in the energy levels of these being split
16   two closely spaced energy levels this is the result of two atoms brought close enough to each other to interact in a two atom system
17   energy bands the combination of individual energy levels in a crystal of millions of atoms



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Answers: Sheet   63   Ideas to Implementation 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   valence band the highest electron energy band of an atom, and can be partly or completely filled
  2   conduction band an electron energy band that lays above the valence band corresponding to the higher energy levels in isolated atoms, and which is empty
  3   forbidden energy gap this lies between the valence and conduction bands of atoms, and corresponds to the gap between the energy levels in the isolated atom
  4   conductors substances that have an overlap of the conduction band and the valence band, metals, have electrons available for conduction, have low resistance
  5   semiconductors substances with a narrow forbidden energy gap enabling electrons to jump the gap from the valence band to the conduction band when the material is heated
  6   doping adding substances to semiconductors so that electrons can jump the forbidden energy gap at room temperature
  7   silicon semiconductor with a forbidden energy gap of 1.1 eV (1.1x1.602x10-19 J)
  8   germanium semiconductor with a forbidden energy gap of 0.7 eV (0.7x1.602x10-19 J)
  9   insulators substances with a large forbidden energy gap resulting no electrons being available for conduction and a high electrical resistance
10   information age late 20th century, made possible by the semiconducting properties of silicon and germanium and their use in making computers
11   germanium silvery-grey metalloid, discovered 1886, rare element, brittle, doped with arsenic or gallium
12   germanium production ore dissolved in HCl, converted to oxide, reduced with hydrogen, melted and cast into ingots before purifying and doping and growing crystals
13   silicon second most abundant element in the earths crust, present in sand as SiO2, extraced by reduction with coke, doped crystals are grown
14   one part per billion amount of impurity that affects the conduction properties of semiconductors making then unsuitable for use
15   silicon advantages after 1960 silicon was preferred to germanium because it is more abundant (hence cheaper), works better at higher temperatures, forms an insulating oxide protective oxide layer when heated in oxygen
16   tetrahedral group IV element crystal structure that results from each atom sharing one valence electron with each of its neighbours; carbon, silicon, germanium
17   electron-hole pairs this results when an electron in a semiconductor moves, allowing another electron to take its place and leave a hole behind; this effect increases from absolute zero up



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Answers: Sheet   64   Ideas to Implementation 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   absolute zero temperature at which a semiconductor behaves as an insulator because electrons do not have enough energy to bridge the forbidden energy gap
  2   intrinsic semiconduction situation where conduction occurs by the formation of electron-holes and the movement of electrons to fill the electron-holes, in pure semiconductors
  3   doping the addition of group III (aluminium) or group V (phosphorus) atoms to atoms of a group IV (silicon) element
  4   group III element boron, aluminium, gallium, indium; elements that readily provide electron-holes when used as doping agents of group IV (silicon) elements
  5   group V element nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony; elements that readily provide an excess of electrons when used as doping agents of group IV (silicon) elements
  6   acceptor atoms group III atoms can be called this when used to dope silicon because an electron-hole results which can accept an electron (p-type semiconductor)
  7   p-type material substances with positive holes constituting the majority current carriers in Group IV substances doped with Group III substances
  8   donor atoms group V atoms can be called this when used to dope silicon because an excess electron results which can be given away (n-type)
  9   n-type material substances with excessive electrons which constitute the majority current carriers in Group IV substances doped with Group V substances
10   extrinsic semiconduction conduction in doped semiconductors resulting from movement of excess electrons from n-type material to p-type material
11   thermionic emission spontaneous emission of electrons from solids and liquids when heated to high temperatures, used in vacuum tubes (valves)
12   diode vacuum tube using thermionic emission to allow current to flow in one direction only, used as a rectifier, has two electrodes, cathode to emit electrons and an anode to accept electrons
13   triode vacuum tube using thermionic emission to amplify current, has 3 electrodes
14   thermionic valve disadvantages bigger than solid state devices, consume more electricity, make more heat, slower reaction time, take time to start up as the electrodes need heating up, fragile
15   positive ions these form in the n-type material of a solar cell when electrons diffuse from the n-type material to the p-type material when exposed to light
16   negative ions these form in the p-type material of a solar cell when electron-holes diffuse from the p-type material to the n-type material when exposed to light
17   potential barrier electric field set up that opposes further movement (diffusion) of electrons and electron holes once a solar cell has been exposed to light



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Answers: Sheet   65   Ideas to Implementation 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   emf this is set up as a result of photovoltaic effect that creates electron-hole pairs when a solar cell is exposed to light: electromotive force, a voltage
  2   electrical energy once an emf has been set up it acts as a source of this, which means that light has been directly converted into it by a solar cell
  3   transistor a semiconductor device with three terminals, used as an amplifier in circuits, made of either 2 n-type and 1 p-type layers or, alternatively, 2 p-type and 1 n-type layer of doped silicon
  4   integrated circuits silicon chips containing throusands or millions of transistors, used in modern computers
  5   Bell laboratories facility in which Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley invented the transistor in 1947 in search for a replacement for vacuum tubes whose technology was limiting long distance telephone calls
  6   microprocessor an integrated circuit that contains the entire central processing unit of a computer on a single chip: possesses arithmetic, logic, and control circuits
  7   rectifier (diode) functioning an n-p junction that allows current to flow only when negative is applied at the n-type side, and blocks current when positive is applied to the n-type side
  8   transistor functioning for n-p-n transistor, a small potential across the first n-p junction (emitter to base) results in a 10 to 1000 fold increase in current between the n- -n layers (emitter to collector)
  9   transistor layers emitter-base-collector: either n-p-n or p-n-p transistors, wired up appropriately these layers can amplify current flowing between
10   photoionization alternative name for photoelectric effect in gases in which photons detach outer electrons from the gas atoms
11   photoconduction alternative name for photoelectric effect in which electrons in crystalline matter are given enough energy to enable them to conduct a current
12   photovoltaic effect alternative name for photoelectric effect in which photons create electron-hole pairs in semiconductors
13   X-ray diffraction the pattern formed by this physical process enabled the calculation of interatomic spacing to be made, and this is related to ability of metals to conduct because the valence band and conduction band overlap
14   Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen person, 1895, discovered X-rays; but it wasn't until 1913 that their wavelength was determined to be of the order of 10-10 m
15   Max von Laue person, 1912, hypothesised that atoms in crystals could be used as a diffraction grating for X-rays because they would be close enough together
16   Friedrich and Knipping persons, 1913, tested Max von Laue's hypothesis with copper sulfate crystals to show the X-ray diffraction pattern
17   William Bragg person, 1913, who devised a formula for X-ray diffraction: nλ = d sinθ, where d is the distance between atoms in a crystal, n is the order of the diffraction pattern and θ is the angle of reflection



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Answers: Sheet   66   Ideas to Implementation 9

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   crystal substance composed of an orderly 3-D arrange of atoms
  2   unit cell fundamental grouping of atoms which is repeated indefinitely in 3 dimensions in a crystal
  3   crystal types molecular crystals and infinite arrays
  4   infinite array type of crystal such as metallic crystal, ionic crystal and continuous covalent crystal (diamond)
  5   electron sea model a model of metal crystal structure to account for loosely bound valence electrons (in the outer energy shells) amongst regularly placed positive ions
  6   drift velocity average rate of movement of electrons through a conductor that has a potential difference applied across its ends, approximately 10-4 m.s-1
  7   random movement way in which valence electrons move amongst cations in a metal with or without the application of a potential difference
  8   Q = It equation linking total charge being moved to current and time the current is flowing
  9   I = nevA equation linking current to electron density (n), electronic charge (e), drift velocity (v) and the cross sectional area (A) of a conductor
10   electron density number of free electrons per unit volume, copper, 1 per atom, 8.46x1028 m-3
11   resistance this property of conductors is the result of collisions of electrons with impurity ions or imperfections in the metal
12   metal resistance this increases as the temperature of a substance increases because ions in the lattice vibrate more increasing the chance of drifting valence electrons colliding with atoms
13   semiconductor resistance this decreases as the temperature of a substance increases because the heat gives valence electrons enough energy to jump the forbidden energy gap into the conduction band between atoms in the crystal lattice
14   Heike Onnes person, 1911, who found that the resistance of mercury to electrical conduction dropped to zero when it was cooled to a temperature below 4.2 K
15   superconductivity a property exhibited by certain conductors where they have no resistance to current
16   critical temperature also called transitional temperature: the temperature at which there is a transition from a conductor having resistance to a superconductor having no resistance
17   Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu oxide compound that has the highest critical temperature below which it is a super conductor, 2001, 134 K



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Answers: Sheet   67   Ideas to Implementation 10

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Meissner effect the exclusion of a magnetic field by a superconductor, preventing a magnetic field from entering the material of the super conductor
  2   Meissner and Ochsenfeld persons, 1933, discovered that super conductors to not allow a magnetic field to penetrate their interior, for relatively small values of magnetic field
  3   rare-earth elements substances that can be used to produce superconducting ceramics with a critical temperature of about 35 K, including Yttrium and Lanthanum
  4   BSC theory theory put forward by John Bardeen, Leon Cooper and J Robert Schrieffer in 1957 to explain how superconductivity works
  5   unimpeded electrons in a superconductor pass amongst atoms in the crystal lattice in this fashion, and so do not interact with lattice atoms and so do not lose energy
  6   vibration of lattice according to BCS theory, this is what results in superconductivity because moving electrons cause the lattice to distort, increasing positive charge density and attracting electrons into Cooper pairs
  7   Cooper pair two electrons that pass easily through the lattice of a superconductor. These are continually being formed and broken up
  8   break apart this is what happens to Cooper pairs of electrons as the temperature of a superconductor rises, causing super conductivity to diminish
  9   potential superconductor uses electronic switches 10 times faster than semiconductor switches used in computers, electricity transmission reducing energy losses due to resistance, magnetic levitation
10   super conductor limitiations brittle, difficult to manufacture, difficult to make into wires, chemically unstable in some environments
11   liquid nitrogen material that can be used to cool high temperature superconductors below their critical temperature (relatively cheap and readily available)
12   liquid helium material that has to be used to cool low temperature superconductors below their critical temperature (expensive) and a scarce resource
13   magnetic levitation phenomen in which superconductors can hold up magnets, could possibly be used in maglev trains, but limited because magnetism above a critical value penetrates the superconductor and stops current flow
14   maglev train advantages high speed, reliability about 500 kmhr-1, safety, minimum maintenance, low environmental impact
15   German maglev train attraction between steel rails and electromagnets in wrap around skirts used to lift the vehicle
16   Japan maglev train repulsion between helium-cooled super conductors on the vehicle interacting with coils in the guideway
17   magnetic wave phenomenon used to propel maglev trains along the track, linear electric motor technology



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Answers: Sheet   68   Astrophysics 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   absorption fate of most of the diffrerent wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation as it passes through the atmosphere except for visible light and some infra red
  2   ground based astronomy viewing the heavens from earth, restricted to visible light and radio waves and some narrow 'windows' in the near infrared
  3   refracting telescope telescopes that use lenses to focus the light from distant objects, maximum size 1.02 m
  4   disadvantages: refracting telescope large lenses distort under their weight and absorb significant amounts of light
  5   reflecting telescope telescopes that use mirrors to collect and focus light, maximum size 10 m due to difficulties in manufacture
  6   radio telescope telescopes that use a wire mesh bowl shaped dish to collect and focus incoming radio waves
  7   Galileo person, 1609, made a telescope and observed moons of Jupiter, phases of Venus, rough features on the moon, sunspots, 'new' stars
  8   orbit the sun this is what phases of Venus indicated
  9   moons of jupiter these looked like a Copernican system, Galileo observation
10   Ptolemy person whose geocentric model of the solar system was used until Galileo obtained evidence to support the Copernican system (heliocentric)
11   sensitivity the light gathering power of a telescope, depends on the size of the aperture (lens or mirror diameter)
12   resolution the ability of a telescope to distinguish clearly between two very close objects, limited by aberrations, and diffraction, also improved by aperture size
13   aberrations features of lenses and mirrors that prevent a point object appearing as a point, eg spherical (shape) or chromatic (colour fringes, due to dispersion of light during refraction) ....
14   diffraction bending of waves around objects, causes fringes around point sources of light, and if the fringes of two overlap then they cannot be distinguished
15   angular resolution method of measuring the resolution of a telescope based on the angle subtended by the mirror or lens, measured in seconds of arc
16   arc second the angle subtended by 1/360 degree of a circle x 1/60 of a degree x 1/60 of a minute



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Answers: Sheet   69   Astrophysics 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   resolution limits wavelength of electromagnetic radiation, shorter is better, and size of aperture (mirror or lens)
  2   aperture size the size of the the lens or mirror collecting light
  3   seeing the twinkling of stars when viewed with the unaided eye from the ground, the distortion of the image of a distant light source by earth's atmosphere
  4   speckles parts of the unresolved star image that break away, dissolves, reforms and moves at random causing a twinkling effect, due to constant atmospheric movement
  5   adaptive optics a technique used with telescopy that involves measuring and compensating for the effect of the atmosphere on the image of a star, involves sampling an image up to 1000 times per second and altering an adjustable flexible mirror
  6   wavefront sensor part of adaptive optics device that detects variations in the atmosphere above a telescope by sampling light from a nearby bright star or laser light bounced off sodium in the upper atmosphere
  7   wavefront correction device part of an adaptive optics device that alters mirror shape, using piezoelectric actuators and signals from a computer analysing a wavefront sensor on a telescope
  8   interferometry a technique used to study optical or radio-wave interference so that images from more than one telescope can be used to provide a high resolution image of a star
  9   optical interferometer pairs of telescopes receiving light from one star, images being super-imposed resulting in constructive interference if the light path difference is multiples of whole wavelengths
10   destructive interference problem that occurs with optical interferometers as the earth rotates on its axis, to destroy the image of the star being viewed (wave troughs align with wave crests)
11   radio interferometers arrays of radio telescopes making use of constructive interference to improve the resolution of images of stars
12   VLA very large array, composed of many movable radio dishes used to simulate one large radio telescope
13   VLBI very large baseline interferometry, radio telescopes thousands of kilometres apart to provide a high resolution image, achieving angular resolutions as high as one arc second
14   lightweight mirrors reflective surfaces attached to a honeycomb backing, or the backing dug out
15   spin casting mirror made by spinning molten glass as it solidifies, the depression in the centre can be ground to the necessary hyperbolic shape
16   rotating mercury mirror formed into shape by rotating a surface with 2 mm mercury cover



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Answers: Sheet   70   Astrophysics 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   thin mirror mirror made from 1 mm thick curved glass face sheet attached to a honeycomb composite backing structure
  2   replica mirror mirror made by replicating existing mirrors by applying reinforced graphite to the mirror to form a shell in the shape of the mirror
  3   active optics mirrors that use actuators to control the shape of the mirror so that any imperfections can be compensated for, similar in function to adaptive optics but much slower, every minute or so
  4   astrometry the measure of the positions, motions, and magnitudes of the stars
  5   parallax the difference in direction of a star when viewed by an observer from two widely separated points, this means that it appears to have moved against background stars
  6   parsec the distance at which the radius of the Earth's orbit substends an angle of one second of arc
  7   d = 1/p equation relating distance to stars in parsecs to angle subtended by earth radius in arc seconds
  8   light year distance light travels in one year, 9.47 x 1015
  9   one parsec this is a distance of 3.26 light years
10   hipparcos satellite placed in orbit 1989, to accurately measure distances to nearby stars, allowing more accurate calculation of the age of the universe: about 12 billion years instead of the 15 ± 5 billion years used previously
11   spectroscopy spectral analysis; the study of electromagnetic spectra emitted by heated atoms to use characteristic spectra for identification of particular elements
12   spectra uses determination of a stars surface temperature, speed of translation (movement through space) and rotation, density and chemical composition
13   emission spectra spectrum produced by an incandescent (light producing) solid, liquid or gas after dispersion of the light by a triangular prism or a diffraction grating
14   absorption spectra spectrum produced when electromagnetic radiation (light) has been absorbed by relatively cool matter as the radiation is being transmitted by the matter
15   continuous spectra a spectrum in which all of the colours of the rainbow are present, produced when matter is heated
16   line emission spectra light of definite wavelengths emitted by atoms of a hot elements, or when an electrical discharge passes through a vapour of the element, observed as distinct lines in a spectroscope



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Answers: Sheet   71   Astrophysics 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   band emission spectra spectrum emitted by molecules due to interactions between the atoms of the molecules
  2   ground state the normal energy level of electrons orbiting the nucleus of an atom
  3   discrete energy levels the electrons around the nucleus of an atoms are arranged into these stable energy levels
  4   higher energy level energy level of an atomic electron excited by heat, or an incoming photon, or collision with an electron in a discharge tube
  5   distinct photon this is released when an excited electron falls back to a lower energy level resulting in particular wavelengths of light being produced because each element has a discrete set of higher energy levels
  6   E = hf equation relating energy of a photon to its frequency with a proportionality factor of Plank's constant
  7   spectra types continuous, line and band are the three …
  8   relatively dark absorption spectra of elements in stars are this because, even though they emit the same coloured light that they absorb from the continuous spectrum of hot material underneath, they emit it in all directions (scattering)
  9   spectroscopy uses identifying elements in the atmosphere of stars and galaxies, finding expansion of the universe and detection of invisible members of binary stars by Doppler effect, temperature of stars
10   spectroscope a device for observing spectra, also called a spectrometer, based either on a triangular prism or a diffraction grating
11   dispersion the spreading of colours of light into a spectrum by refraction through a triangular prism or diffraction by a grating
12   diffraction gratings component of a spectroscope that produces spectral dispersions by reflecting light from a grating or transmitting light through a grating
13   stellar spectra sources electromagnetic radiation from stars, emission nebulae, galaxies, and quasars
14   star spectra an absorption spectrum depending on the temperature of the star according to Planck's black body radiation producing a continuous spectrum
15   emission nebulae spectra an emission spectrum produced by gas clouds surrounding hot stars releasing UV which excites atomic electrons, usually hydrogen, can be nitrogen and oxygen
16   galaxy spectra electromagnetic radiation from all parts of the spectrum, red shifted indicating that systems of stars are moving away from us



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Answers: Sheet   72   Astrophysics 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   galaxy hundreds to millions of stars gravitationally bound together and circling a common centre, eg Milky Way
  2   quasar spectra strongly red shifted spectra from relatively small bodies (1 to 2 light years across) emitting enormous amounds of energy
  3   quasar quasi-stellar radio sources, starlike sources, points of light/energy, possibly based on a black hole swallowing up surrounding gas, enormous amounts of energy produced
  4   no absorption spectrum this is the result of a gas such as hydrogen being too cold to have its electron in a suitable originating energy level before being excited by a photon, or... so hot that it has had its electron stripped off
  5   hydrogen absorption lines this stellar spectrum occurs at temperatures between 4000 K and 12000 K
  6   helium absorption lines this stellar spectrum occurs at temperatures between 15000 K to 30000K
  7   spectral class classification of stars based on the spectrum of the stars, goes from hot blue O to cool red M
  8   spectral classes O blue, B blue-white, A white, F white-yellow, G yellow, K Orange, M red, each of which is divided into 10 subdivisions from 0 to 9, eg our sun is G2
  9   star temperatures O: 30000K, B: 30000 to 15000 K, A: 15000 to 10000 K, F: 10000 to 7000 K, G: 7000 to 5000 K, K: 5000 to 4000 K, M: 4000 to 3000 K
10   star colour indexes O: -0.30, B: -0.15, A: 0.00, F: +0.40, G: +0.80, K: +1.20, M: +1.80
11   titanium oxide molecule producing spectral bands prominent in class M stars
12   ionised calcium spectral lines of this species are strongly represented in class G star spectra
13   ionised helium spectral lines of this species are strong in class O stars along with doubly ionised oxygen, nitrogen and carbon
14   hydrogen spectral lines of this element are strongly represented in stars of classes B, A and F, and weakly in classes G and O
15   star structure deduced from spectra: hot and dense inner part producing a continous spectrum and cooler less dense outer layer
16   star composition deduced from spectra: elements and ions present in stars found by comparing stella spectra with the spectra of elements on earth



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Answers: Sheet   73   Astrophysics 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   star velocity deduced from spectra: using red shift (going away) and blue shift (approaching) to find stellar speed, and also the rotational speed of the sun
  2   star density deduced from spectra: the spreading of the spectral lines due to the the amount of gas present to absorb light, super giants have narrow spectral lines due to low density
  3   Wien's Law the wavelength of light carrying the maximum intensity of radiation in a spectrum emitted by a hot body is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of the body λ = W/T, the constant, W = 2.89 x 10-3 m.K
  4   Stefan-Boltzmann Law the total amount of energy emitted by a hot body per unit surface area per unit time is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature: E = σT4, where the constant σ = 5.67x10-8 W.m-2.K-4
  5   luminosity equation L = 4πR2σT4, used to find the brightness of a star knowing its radius and absolute temperature,the constant σ = 5.67x10-8 W.m-2.K-4
  6   photometry the measurement of the brightness of stars and other celestial objects, differences being caused by stars being at different distances and having different intrinsic brightnesses
  7   luminosity (L) a measure of the rate at which a star emits radiant energy, a measure of the total power emitted by a star, depends on radius and surface temperature, the intrinsic brightness of a star
  8   brightness (I) a measure of the intensity of radiation arriving at the earth from a star, depends on intrinsic luminosity (L) and distance (d): I = L/(4πd2)
  9   star magnitude a measure of star brightness based on a first-magnitude star being 100 times brighter than a sixth-magnitude star, brighter stars are lower on this scale, and a difference of 1 magnitude is the factor: ∜100 or 2.512 times brighter or duller
10   apparent magnitude (m) the brightness of a star in magnitudes, as measured by an observer on earth
11   inverse square law for light the intensity of light from a source is inversely proportional to the square of the distance to the source, this is the reason for distance affecting apparent magnitude and brightness of stars
12   apparent magnitude equations mA - mB = 2.5 log10 (IB/IA), or IA/IB = 2.5(mB-mA), or IA/IB = 100(mB-mA) x (1/5)
13   absolute magnitude (M) a measure of the brightness of a star in magnitudes of brightness if it was a standard distance of 10 parsecs from us
14   absolute magnitude equation MA - MB = 2.5 log10 (IB/IA), or IA/IB = 2.5(MB-MA), or IA/IB = 100(MB-MA) x (1/5)
15   distance modulus equation m - M = 5 log10(d/10), where m is apparent magnitude, M is absolute magnitude, and d is distance in parsecs to the star
16   spectroscopic parallax a method using spectra to determine distance to stellar objects: spectral class on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is related to absolute brightness, and this is used in conjuction with apparent magnitude to determine distance using the distance modulus equation



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Answers: Sheet   74   Astrophysics 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   colour index CI = B - V where B (blue filter) is the magnitude of a star determined by photographic response and V (visual, yellow filter) is the magnitude of a star that approximates the visual response (human eye)
  2   light filters devices used to determine the magnitudes of stars for calculating colour index, these are blue (allowing blue light through) or yellow (allowing yellow light through)
  3   smaller number for star magnitudes, a …... ...... means a brighter star, similarly for colour index, a …... …... Means a bluer star
  4   photoelectric photometry a technique for measuing star brightness with a photoelectric cell that has a system for amplifying the current produced to measureable amounts. More accurate than photographic photometry
  5   photographic photometry a technique for measuring star brightness using photographs of the star and making visual comparisons. Less accurate than photoelectric photometry
  6   star masses information that can be calculated from study of binary star systems
  7   stellar distances information that can be calculated from study of the periodicity of cepheid variable stars
  8   binary stars two stars orbiting about their common centre of mass and obeying the Law of Universal Gravitation
  9   visual binary star type that can be observed directly as their orbits trace out ellipses relative to background stars
10   eclipsing binary star type where one of the pair eclipses the other at regular intervals leading the changes in brightness of the light from the other star
11   primary eclipse duller star eclipsing a brighter star
12   secondary eclipse brighter star eclipsing a duller star
13   partial eclipse a rounded 'v' shape dip in a magnitude graph for a binary star system
14   total eclipse a flat bottomed dip in the magnitude graph for a binar star system
15   spectroscopic binary star type that can be detected by a Doppler shift in spectral lines, producing red shift when one star is receding and a blue shift when one star is approaching earth, resulting in a periodic doubling of the spectral lines
16   astrometric binary star type in which only one star is visible but it undergoes perturbations in its motion



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Answers: Sheet   75   Astrophysics 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   star mass equations m1r1 = m2r2, m1 + m2 = a3/T2, and r1/r2 = v1/v2 = m2/m1, where m is the mass of the stars in solar masses, r is the distance from the centre of mass of the binary system in AU, T is the period in years, and v is the velocity measured using Doppler shift
  2   intrinsic variable stars stars that vary in brightness or other respects, and may be periodic (pulsating stars such as cepheid stars) or non-periodic
  3   pulsating stars stars that brighten and fade due to cyclic contraction and expansion of the gases they are composed of, vibrating in harmonic mode
  4   cepheid variables supergiant yellow stars which vary in brightness with an amplitude of about one magnitude and with absolutely regular periods
  5   cepheid type I cepheids with a relatively high metal content, brighter of the two types (that is, lower abolute magnitude)
  6   cepheid type II cepheids with a relatively lower metal content, younger of the two types, not as bright (less negative absolute magnitude)
  7   period-luminosity curve graph used to determine the absolute magnitude of cepheid variables from their period of pulsation (variations in magnitude)
  8   log scale period of pulsation is plotted using this scale on a period-luminosity curve to obtain a straight-line relationship between cepheid absolute magnitude and period of pulsation in magnitude
  9   distance modulus equation equation used to calculate distance to a cepheid variable from observed magnitude and absolute magnitude obtained from period-luminosity curve: m - M = 5 log (d/10)
10   stellar evolution the changes in a star as it goes through its life cycle: from birth, to maturity, to death, changes include chemical composition, size, luminosity
11   star clusters groups of stars that are all a similar distance from the earth, formed from the same initial chemicals, born at about the same time, useful in determining the evolution of stars of different masses
12   open (galactic) clusters loose irregular aggregations of stars, a few hundred to a few thousand stars, young stars (population I), with relatively high percentages of metals, found close to the equatorial plane of the Milky Way
13   globular clusters tightly packed collections of hundreds of thousand or even millions of stars, found throughout the entire galaxy in a sphere called the halo, population II, old stars, red giants and white dwarfs present, small percentage of several metals, little or no gas or dust
14   Hertzsprung-Russell diagram a plot of star luminosity (absolute magnitude and/or luminosity relative to the sun) against temperature or spectral (colour) class
15   not random type of distribution of stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
16   main sequence the position of 90% of stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a narrow band from bottom right to top left corner



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Answers: Sheet   76   Astrophysics 9

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   big hot stars type of star located on the top left side of a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, bluer, hotter, brighter than those on the bottom right side
  2   Hertzsprung gap the space between the main sequence and the location of giant and super giant stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
  3   white dwarfs stars that lie in the bottom left corner of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram because they are the very hot remains of stars and not very bright (due to their small size)
  4   giant molecular clouds material containing rarefied gases and dust globules made of molecules from 60 to 300 light years diameter and up to a million solar masses, located on the spiral arms of galaxies, which condense to form stars
  5   protostars glowing mass of gas formed by condensation producing infra red and then red light as a result of gravitational potential energy being converted to heat. Large in size and thus bright: top right corner of Hertzsprung diagram, one solar mass takes 100 000 years in this stage
  6   pre-main sequence stars protostar gravity causes a contraction and reduction in brightness, and a rise in core temperature prior to commencement of nuclear fusion, a star of one solar mass follows above the main sequence for 10 million year
  7   stellar equilibrium stability of star size, luminosity and surface temperature, being determined by outward pressure of energy on hot plasma, and the inward force of gravity
  8   zero age main sequence point at which a protostar becomes a main sequence star, acronym: ZAMS, depends on the mass of the star, the more massive, the further to the upper left side of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram the star enters the main sequence
  9   gestation period time taken to reach true star status; dust cloud to protostar to pre-main sequence to main sequence
10   super nova explosion of a star, which can cause chance eddies in giant molecular gas and dust clouds leading to condensation and the formation of protostars
11   main sequence star a star in which hydrogen is fused to form helium in its core
12   main sequence time in relation to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, this is proportional to the mass and inversely proportional to the luminosity of a star, massive, bright and hot stars consume fuel faster and have a shorter life cycle: Time α (mass/luminosity)
13   proton-proton chain a series of fusion reactions involving the production of helium from hydrogen, providing kinetic energy to the particles produced (alpha and beta particles and gamma rays), predominates in cooler stars
14   nuclear fusion source of energy of stars, converting hydrogen to helium with the release of energy as a mass loss occurs, raising internal temperatures to 20 000 000 K
15   carbon cycle thermonuclear reaction on hotter stars using heavier elements such as nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen as catalysts to convert hydrogen to helium
16   thermonuclear reactions proton-proton chain and carbon cycle reactions in which helium is produced from 4 hydrogens with a release of energy on stars



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Answers: Sheet   77   Astrophysics 10

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   nucleosynthesis creation of the chemical elements by nuclear reactions
  2   stellar evolution life cycle of a star from a cloud of gas and dust to accretion and commencement of nuclear fusion, to instability and expansion (red giant) and finally contraction to white dwarf stage for a star about the size of the sun
  3   90% portion of time stars life cycle spend on the main sequence
  4   10% portion of time a star spends as red giant or super giant before becoming a white dwarf (for stars up to 8 solar masses)
  5   greater than 8 solar masses stars of this size end up as small very dense neutron stars or black holes at the end of their life cycle
  6   red giants large diameter stars, very luminous due to their size, but their surfaces are relatively cool resulting in the emission of red light, evolved from stars of less than 8 solar masses
  7   star cycle time this is longer for smaller stars and shorter for larger stars because it depends on how long the balance between energy released as hydrogen is used as a fuel, is able to balance the gravitational force from collapsing the star
  8   smaller stars these stars remain longer on the main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram due to the slower rate of consumption of hydrogen fuel
  9   larger stars these stars remain a shorter period of time on the main sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram due to the more rapid rate of consumption of hydrogen fuel owing to greater gravitational attraction
10   helium burning this results in an increase in temperature which pushes the gases of a star outwards to form a red giant once the helium content of the core reaches 12% of the total mass
11   degenerate matter matter in a highly desnse form that can exert a pressure which stabilises it against further collapse, as in a white dwarf
12   planetary nebula a cloud of gas left around a star collapsing to form a white dwarf, up to 1/5 of the original mass of the collapsing star
13   brown dwarf cold dark dense body of matter that results when a white dwarf has cooled
14   supernovae stars that explode as a result of instabilities produced following exhaustion of the nuclear fuel, stars greater than 8 solar masses, resulting in heavier elements being produced
15   iron the most nuclear stable element which requires an input of energy to react. This occurs when the core diameter shrinks from 8000 km to 20 km in less than a second, producing heavier elements by neutron capture
16   helium flash the explosive commencement of helium fusion to form carbon when a red giant collapses, increasing the gravitational energy release to raise core temperature to a level where helium fusion can occur



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Answers: Sheet   78   Astrophysics 11

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   horizontal branch path followed on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram by a red giant after its helium flash as the surface temperature rises during contraction of the size of the star
  2   asymptotic giant branch path followed on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram by a dying red giant because a reduction of energy production occurs as carbon forms from helium allowing the outer layers to shrink and become brighter, forming an extremely bright red supergiant
  3   red giant evolutionary sequence main sequence to super giant to helium flash to horizontal branch to asymptotic giant branch to white dwarf
  4   white dwarf low mass (less than 1.4 solar masses) high density faint stars in the last stage of stellar evolution, formed from stars up to 8 solar masses, surrounded by a planetary nebula of gas
  5   neutron star pulsar, a star formed when a large star (greater than 8 solar masses) collapses into a very dense sphere of 20 km diameter, gives out pulses of X-radiation as its rotates
  6   black hole the result of extremely heavy stars with cores exceeding 3 solar masses exploding and the core collapsing to a few km diameter, light cannot escape from the surface due to extreme gravity
  7   open cluster a type of star cluster that has a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of the plot of its component stars just like the standard plot for all stars
  8   closed cluster a type of star cluster that has a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of the plot of its component stars with a turn-off point from the main sequence because there are red giants present
  9   < 10 million years age of a cluster that contains O-type stars because this is the time it takes for an O-type star to use up its core nuclear fuel of hydrogen
10   > 10 million years age of a cluster that contains A-type or B-type main sequence stars
11   turn-off point place on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram plot of stars in a cluster of stars beyond which few massive, luminous main stars exist in the cluster, an indication of the age of the cluster
12   low turn-off point indicates old clusters because all of the larger stars have had time to burn out, a feature of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram plot of globular clusters
13   open cluster H-R diagrams each cluster H-R diagram is different and giants and super giants are present, the giant branch occurs at zero absolute magnitude, giant branch is separate from main sequence, some young and others old
14   closed cluster H-R diagrams H-R diagrams all similar with no super giants present, the giant branch occurs at about -3.5 absolute magnitude, a narrow band connects the giant branch to the main sequence, all are old
15   low turn-off point on a Hurtzsprung-Russell diagram, this is an indication that the cluster concerned is old



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Answers: Sheet   79   Quanta to Quarks 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   atoms particles composed of fundamental particles such as protons, neutrons and electrons.
  2   fundamental particles subatomic particles composed of quarks, protons, electrons, neutrons
  3   classical physics Newton's physics, physics prior to 1900, the physics that could explain motion, waves, electrical and magnetic effects, but not behaviour of subatomic matter, photoelectric effect, line emission spectra, black body radiation
  4   quantum mechanics and relativity physics developed in the first 3 decades of last century, to explain behaviour of matter at subatomic and atomic scale, photoelectric effect, black body radiation, line emission spectra
  5   Democritus greek philosopher, 2400 years ago proposed that there was a limit to how small matter could be divided, smallest indivisible particle called the atom
  6   Aristotle greek philosopher, 2360 years ago proposed a model of matter based on four 'elements' earth, air, fire and water
  7   religious beliefs concepts firmly held by people about the origins of earth, people, nature, the universe, spiritual beings, after life; and which also incorporated Artistotle's model of matter for 2000 years
  8   Dalton Scottish, 1801: model of matter: small indivisible atoms, elements are of one type of atom, compounds with more than one type of atom
  9   Thomson British 1904: electrons in all matter, matter composed of spheres of positive charge with embedded electrons (negative) like plum puddings
10   Henri Becquerel French 1896: discovered radiation being emitted from a mineral ore of uranium (and affecting photographic plates)
11   atoms divisible this was proven by the discovery of radiation being emitted from uranium ores by Becquerel, 1896
12   alpha particles radiation particles suggested by Rutherford as a tool to probe the internal structure of the atom in 1911
13   radiation alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays, being emitted by uranium ores, proving that atoms are divisible, enabling other experiments to be done, eg Rutherford's alpha particle scattering experiment
14   Geiger and Marsden physicists, 1911, performed Rutherford's alpha particle scattering experiment by firing alpha particles at thin gold foil, showing atoms to have a small dense positively charged nucleus
15   nucleus part of the atoms that is 1/10 000 th of the diameter of the whole atom, and is positively charged
16   1 in 8000 proportion of alpha particles that deflected through angles greater than 90o in Rutherford's scattering experiment (the rest passed through with only small deflections)



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Answers: Sheet   80   Quanta to Quarks 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   gold foil metal used to deflect alpha particles in the scattering experiment
  2   helium nuclei composition of alpha particles, which means that they are positively charged and dense, enabling them to be used successfully in Rutherford's alpha particle scatting experiment
  3   empty space this is what occupies the most of the volume of atoms
  4   electrons subatomic particles that orbit the small dense positive nucleus of atoms at some distance from the nucleus
  5   unanswered questions nucleus composition, why electrons were not attracted into the positive nucleus, and arrangement of electrons around the nucleus: ….... raised by Rutherford's model of the atom
  6   continuous the way in which the electrons should lose energy on a continuous basis, if they are orbiting the nucleus like planets, because accelerated particles give off energy
  7   line spectra the way in which stable atoms emit spectra
  8   lose energy electrons were expected to do this and spiral into the nucleus because they are orbiting and hence accelerating: a problem with Rutherford's model of the atom
  9   continuous spectrum term describing the range of colours of a rainbow that are produced when white light is dispersed by a prism
10   spectroscope a device consisting of a tube with a slit at one end and a prism or diffraction grating that splits light into its constituent parts, used to examine spectra
11   emission spectra colours produced when gases are heated to high temperatures, or an electric current is passed through a gas at very low pressure
12   line emission spectrum term describing the nature of spectra produced by hot gasses or current through gas at low pressure because the light forms bright lines when viewed with a spectroscope
13   unique line emission spectra for each element is this, enabling them to be identified
14   Rydberg constant constant of proportionality used in the Balmer formula which relates wavelength to spectral lines, 1.097 x 107 m-1
15   Balmer Swiss 1885, found an empirical formula relating wavelength of emission lines for hydrogen to the line number
16   longer wavelengths these are related to higher numbers in the empirical Balmer formula



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Answers: Sheet   81   Quanta to Quarks 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   1/λ = R {1/(nf)2 - 1/(ni)2} modern version of the Balmer formula for relating the wavelengths of line spectra to an integer nf (series integer) and ni (line integer: n(f+1), n(f+2), n(f+2)), R is the Rydberg constant and has a value of 10,973,731.56816 per metre
  2   Lyman series ultraviolet emission spectral lines, series integer of 1, and line integers of 2, 3, 4 ...
  3   Balmer series ultraviolet and visible emission spectral lines, series integer of 2, and line integers of 3, 4, 5 …...
  4   infrared spectral lines associated with series integers of 3, 4, and 5, found using the Balmer equation, series called: Paschen, Brackett, and Pfund respectively
  5   absorption spectrum a series of dark lines in a spectrum caused by matter absorbing particular wavelengths of light as the light passes through the matter
  6   Kirchoff German, 1859, passed white light through cool gas and produced an absorption spectrum matching exactly the line emission spectrum of the same gas when hot
  7   photosphere the part of a star whose composition can be determined by using absorption spectrum analysis because elements absorb characteristic wavelengths of light
  8   black body a perfect emitter or absorber of energy, the radiation of which was studied by Planck
  9   Planck German, 1900, studied black body radiation and concluded that energy is not emitted by a hot body continuously as predicted by classical physics, but rather as little bursts or packets of energy, or quanta
10   temperature vs radiation the hotter a black body the shorter the dominant wavelength of radiation emitted
11   Plank's proposal energy is not emitted by a hot object continuously as classical physics said it should be, but rather it is emitted in little 'bursts' or 'packets of energy' - quanta (photons) of energy
12   photon a quanta of energy in which electromagnetic radiation is emitted from hot matter
13   E = hf equation linking photon energy to its frequency using a constant of proportionality called Planck's constant: 6.6 x 10-34 J.s
14   Maxwell and Newton classical physicists, whose theories predicted that the spectra emitted by hot bodies would be continuous
15   Bohr Danish, 1913, postulated (proposed) ideas that could account for discrepancies between Rutherford's model of the atom and the experimentally determined emission spectra of hydrogen
16   stationary states the energy states that Bohr proposed: electrons could exists in atoms without radiating energy and allowable orbits accounts for observed atomic stability



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Answers: Sheet   82   Quanta to Quarks 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   emit energy this is what an electron does when it falls from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, first proposed by Bohr, 1913, accounts for line spectra
  2   quantised term describing a particular amount, related to the energy emitted when an electron falls to a lower energy level, E2 -E1 = hf, accounts for line spectra
  3   principal quantum number the n in the formula nh/2π, which is the angular momentums allowable for electrons orbiting the hydrogen nuclei, according to Bohr, 1913
  4   Bohr’s postulates atomic electrons revolve in certain allowable orbits without emitting energy (stationary or energy state), energy is emitted when an electron falls from a higher energy state to a lower one (quantised by Δ E = hf), AND angular momentum is quantised and only takes values of nh/2π (n is the principal quantum number)
  5   empirical term describing rules or laws that have been determined by experiment and observation, but for which the actual reason is not know, eg, when Balmer equation and Bohr postulates were first produced
  6   angular momentum quantity obtained from mvr (mass x velocity x orbital radius) and which according to Bohr has only certain allowable values for electron orbits, nh/2π
  7   quantum numbers one of four numbers given to electrons to define their energy in terms of orbit distance from the nucleus, orbit shape, orientation of orbit axis, and electron's spin on its own axis
  8   ad hoc limitation of the Bohr model of the atom: it is a mixture of classical and quantum physics, assuming some laws of classical physics holds, and others do not
  9   hydrogen only limitation of the Bohr model of the atom: it does not work for multi-electron atoms
10   relative intensity limitation of the Bohr model of the atom: could not explain why some spectral lines are more intense than others
11   hyperfine spectral lines limitation of the Bohr model of the atom: could not explain why some spectral lines consist of very fine and close lines
12   Zeeman effect limitation of the Bohr model of the atom: could not explain why spectral lines are split when the sample is placed in a magnetic field
13   Zeeman effect the splitting of spectral lines when a sample is placed in a magnetic field
14   particle nature the way in which light behaves when it causes the photoelectric electric effect
15   wave nature the way in which light behaves when it is undergoing interference
16   wave-particle duality in some situations light acts as a wave, in other situations it acts as a particle



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Answers: Sheet   83   Quanta to Quarks 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   wave packet or photon, a model used to explain wave-particle duality of light showing it has finite size (particle) and varying amplitude (wave)
  2   photon a wave packet, a model used to explain wave-particle duality of light showing finite size (particle) and varying amplitude (wave)
  3   probability expression of chance of finding a photon, high where the wave-packet has a large amplitude
  4   small probability of finding a photon is this where the wave-packet has a small amplitude
  5   E = mc2 Einsteins mass-energy equivalence formula
  6   E = hf Planck's equation, converted to E = h/c and used with Einsteins mass energy equivalence formula, E = mc2, to find photon momentum (a particle feature of light related to its wavelength)
  7   p = hλ photon momentum equation derived from Planck's and Einstein's equations
  8   de Broglie Frenchman, 1924, proposed that if light (once considered to be waves) has momentum, then particulate matter (eg electrons) has a wave nature, according to λ = (mv)/h
  9   matter waves the waves with which particles like electrons move, according to de Broglie
10   diffraction bending of waves around a corner, or spreading of waves after passing through a narrow slit, which acts as a point source, proof that electrons move in matter waves
11   interference interaction between waves either constructively or destructively, resulting in bright and dark lines forming where sets of waves intersect, a proof that electrons move in matter waves
12   electron microscope practical use of the wave nature of electrons, allowing for millions of magnifications of tiny objects
13   gold foil metal used to demonstrate the diffraction and interference of electron matter waves
14   Davisson and Germer Americans, 1923, found that electrons fired at a nickel crystal were scattered in a manner that showed diffraction effects, and hence wave characteristics
15   Thomson British, 1928 (son of plum pudding guy), obtained an interference pattern for electrons diffracted by a thin sheet of gold foil
16   standing waves waves characterised by a lack of vibration at certain points (nodes) between areas of maximum vibration (anti-nodes), which occur periodically, produced as a result of interference of two waves travelling at the same time in opposite directions



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Answers: Sheet   84   Quanta to Quarks 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   no energy loss this is made possible by standing waves because there is a continuous transfer of energy between kinetic energy and potential energy, hence electrons can be in stationary states in atoms without emitting photons
  2   wavelengths the number of these in an orbit of an electron is equal to the quantum number n
  3   Heisenberg German, 1925, used complex mathematical constructs called matrices to introduce a theory of quantum mechanics
  4   Schrodinger Dutch, 1926, proposed a wave mechanics theory based on the matter wave idea introduced by de Broglie (1924), and proved his wave mechanics and Heisenberg's matrix quantum mechanics were equivalent
  5   uncertainty principle concept that Heisenberg introduced about elementary particles such as electrons: the more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known in the instant and vice versa
  6   deterministic physics classical physics, for planets, it is possible to determine the position and momentum at any time in the future
  7   non-deterministic physics quantum mechanics: for elementary particles such as electrons, the position or momentum can only be found to a degree of probability because, even the photons used to see an electron scatter the electron and get scattered themselves in random directions
  8   probability the degree of certainty with which events on the atomic scale occur because any technique used to see subatomic particles (eg using photons) affect what the particles subsequently do, and is also affected by the subatomic particle
  9   Pauli Austrian, 1925, put forward the exclusion principle which states that no two electrons could occupy the same quantum state (energy state) of an atom, helping to explain the regularity of elements in the periodic table
10   neutrino subatomic particle whose existence was predicted by Pauli: no electric charge, no mass, no magnetic properties and almost no interaction with matter (it has energy, linear momentum and angular momentum)
11   classic physics physics called deterministic because the future position of objects such as planets can be predicted with certainty
12   quantum physics physics called non-deterministic because the future position of fundamental particles such as electrons can only be predicted with a degree of probability due to the effect of photon momentum on particle momentum during measurements
13   proton-electron hypothesis concept of the structure of the atom developed after Rutherford's scattering experiment (1911): A = number of protons (or mass number) and A - Z = electrons in the nucleus (where Z is the atomic number)
14   Ze overall charge on the nucleus, which would result from the application of the proton-electron hypothesis of the nucleus, having A protons and A - Z electrons in the nucleus
15   beta emission evidence in favour of the proton-electron hypothesis of the nucleus of atoms, because the electrons produced had to come from somewhere in the nucleus
16   uncertainty principle concept that suggests that the nucleus could not contain electrons because the more we know about the position of a particle such as an electron, then the less we know about its energy



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Answers: Sheet   85   Quanta to Quarks 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   too much energy according to the uncertainty principle, the reason why electrons could not be confined in a space the size of a nucleus: the more we know about the position of a particle such as an electron, the less we know about its energy
  2   neutron neutrally charged particle that Rutherford proposed was present in the nucleus of atoms in 1920, similar in mass to the proton
  3   Bothe and Becker Germans, 1930, bombarded beryllium with alpha particles, and caused the emission of a neutrally charged penetrating radiation, that was not gamma rays (it was neutrons)
  4   gamma rays the expected neutrally charge radiation obtained when Bothe and Becker bombarded beryllium with alpha particles in 1930
  5   Chadwick English, 1932, suggested the neutrally charged particles that Bothe and Becker obtained by bombarding beryllium with alpha particles were Rutherford's neutrons
  6   nucleons particles such as protons and neutrons that are found in the nucleus of atoms
  7   ionisation the principal method of detecting radiation, making it hard to detect uncharged particles such as neutrons as they cause little or no ionisation in a geiger counter tube
  8   paraffin a solid that contains a lot of protons (as hydrogen atoms) being of the general formula CnH2n+2, enabling neutrons from beryllium bombarded with He to eject them as a result of elastic collisions in Chadwick's experiment (first done by Joliot and Curie, 1932)
  9   Joliot and Curie people who performed Chadwick's experiment to detect neutrons that caused protons to be ejected from paraffin, 1932
10   momentum and energy conservation laws that Chadwick used to prove the existence of the neutron, as the protons ejected from paraffin wax are approximately the same mass as the neutrons that elastically colliding with them
11   Z atomic number of an element, the number of protons in the nucleus
12   A mass number of an element, the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of its atoms
13   A - Z The number of neutrons in the nucleus of the atoms of an element
14   carbon the element to which beryllium transmutes when it is bombarded with alpha particles, releasing a neutron as well
15   radioactivity the spontaneous breakdown of an element into a new element by the emission of alpha or beta particles and/or gamma rays
16   natural radioactivity spontaneous breakdown of naturally occurring isotopes to emit alpha, beta, gamma radiation, all isotopes above bismuth on the periodic table, as well as some isotopes of other elements eg H-2, C-14



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Answers: Sheet   86   Quanta to Quarks 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   bismuth element on the periodic table, beyond which all isotopes of elements is naturally radioactive, includes all the actinide series of elements
  2   Joliot-Curie couple, 1933, produced the first artificial radioactive nuclei: Al + He produces an isotope of P with a short half life
  3   half life the time taken for half of the material of a radioactive isotope to decay, before commencing the next half life, which halves the material again in the same time
  4   Fermi Italian, 1934 to 1938, synthesised a large number of artificial radioisotopes by bombarding elements with neutrona
  5   particle accelerator apparatus used to produce many of the 400 artificial radioisotopes now known to exist
  6   transmutation changing one element into another, either naturally by alpha or beta decay or artificially by bombarding elements with subatomic particles
  7   conserved this happens to mass numbers and atomic numbers during transmutation, making it possible to balance transmutation equations
  8   alpha decay transmutation in which a helium nucleus is released and another nuclide produced with atomic number 2 less and mass number 4 less than the original element
  9   beta - decay a transmutation in which a neutron is changed to a proton (atomic number increases by 1) and an electron that is ejected from the nucleus, as well as an antineutrino
10   beta + decay transmutation in which a proton is changed to a neutron (atomic number decreases by 1) and a positron that is ejected from the a nucleus, as well as a neutrino
11   neutron nucleon converted to a proton, beta- particle (electron) and an antineutrino during beta - decay transmutation reactions
12   proton nucleon converted to a neutron, beta + particle (positron) and a neutrino during beta + decay transmutation reactions
13   gamma decay a form of nuclear decay that usually accompanies alpha and beta decay when the nucleus de-excites (loses energy) by emitting high-energy electromagnetic radiation (neither Z nor A changes: not a transmutation)
14   excited nucleus a nucleus that contains energy as a result of a transmutation, and which loses the energy (de-excites) by emitting high energy electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays); not a transmutation
15   artificial transmutation conversion of one element into another (changing Z numbers) by techniques such as bombarding existing nuclei with alpha particles, neutrons, or protons
16   Rutherford person who was first to artificially transmute elements, 1919: nitrogen-14 + alpha particles (He-4) produces oxygen-17 + a proton (Hydrogen-1)



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Answers: Sheet   87   Quanta to Quarks 9

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   repulsion reason why alpha particles have greater difficulty penetrating a nucleus compared to a neutron: same charge (+), neutrons don't have this problem because of their lack of charge
  2   neutron particle that proved to be better at causing transmutation than alpha particles because its neutral charge meant that it was not repelled by the nucleus
  3   new isotopes this was the usual effect of bombarding known elements with neutrons by Fermi, 1934 to 1938, rather than transmutation
  4   A increase Fermi's expected result of bombarding elements with neutrons: greater mass, eg copper-65 converted to copper-66, isotopes
  5   occasional transmutation this sometimes occurred with Fermi's new isotopes because the extra neutron decayed to a proton and a beta particle, eg, copper-66 producing zinc-66 and a beta particle
  6   nuclear fission breakdown of heavy nuclei like uranium to two nuclei of roughly equal size eg barium and krypton, the splitting of the nucleus
  7   uranium-239 isotope that Fermi produced by bombarding U-238 with neutrons and which he expected to undergo beta decay to produce element number 93
  8   Enrico Fermi Italian, 1934 to 1938, synthesised a large number of artificial radioisotopes by bombarding elements with neutrons
  9   Hahn and Strassman Germans 1938, repeated Fermi's experiment with U-238, found U-239 was produced and also Ba-141, which they believe came from U-235 impurities in the original sample of uranium, did not claim splitting of the atom
10   Meitner and Frisch Austrian 1939, stated that U-235 can be split into two roughly equal sized nuclides when bombarded with a neutron and so undergoes fission
11   chain reaction an exponentially increasing rate of reaction brought about by use of reaction products to initiate multiples of the original reaction
12   three neutrons product of the fission of U-235 bombarded with a neutron, making it possible to initiate a chain reaction as a single fission could cause 3 fissions could cause 9 more to be produced etc
13   U-235 fission Uranium-235 + neutron ---> Barium-141 + Krypton-92 + 3 neutrons + energy
14   U-235 fission Uranium-235 + neutron ---> Lanthanum-148 + Bromine-85 + 3 neutrons + energy
15   critical mass the amount of fissionable matter that needs to be present so that neutron production just equals neutron losses by nuclei capture or escape from the material, beyond this mass a chain reaction is sustained
16   capture one way in which neutrons are unable to produce a chain reaction in a sample of uranium because U-238 and impurity atom atoms retain neutrons that collide with them (not enough U-235 present)



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Answers: Sheet   88   Quanta to Quarks 10

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   escape one way in which neutrons are unable to produce a chain reaction in a sample of uranium because the released neutrons miss hitting suitable atoms and leave the material (sample below critical mass size)
  2   moderator substance that slows down neutrons without readily absorbing them so that they can be captured by fissionable U-235, eg water, heavy water, graphite, beryllium
  3   thermal neutrons slow moving neutrons that can be captured by fissionable U-235, fast neutrons are released when U-235 fissions, and are slowed by moderators like water, graphite and beryllium
  4   fast neutrons neutrons released when U-235 fissions, too energetic to be captured by U-235 atoms, slowed by moderators (water, graphite, beryllium)
  5   nuclear age began, 1942 when Fermi initiated the first self-sustaining nuclear fission reaction in squash courts at university of Chicago, using a graphite moderator
  6   neutrino particle proposed by Pauli 1930, of no mass and no charge, no magnetic properties, and virtually no interaction with matter, but has linear and angular momentum
  7   Pauli Austrian, 1930, proposed the existence of a particle of no mass, no charge, no magnetic properties, no interactions with matter, but does have linear and angular momentum, called it a neutron, but Fermi later rename it neutrino
  8   energy calculations these lead to Pauli proposing the existence of the neutrino because when E = mc2 was applied to reactions like Thorium-234 ---> Palladium-234 + beta - there appeared to be an energy loss (ie, energy not being conserved)
  9   anti-neutrino discovered in 1956, similar properties to Pauli's neutrino, accounts for the energy lost when beta - decay occurs
10   one third fraction of the amount of energy expected to be associated with the electron released in beta-decay, but not accounted for in the energy of the electrons as measured, energy possessed by the anti-neutrino
11   positron decay transmutation decay that results in the production of a neutrino, which accounts for approximately 1/3 of the energy expected to be possessed by the positron produced
12   gamma rays these forms of electromagnetic radiation were predicted to carry away energy lost by atoms transmuting by beta - and beta + decay, but they could not be detected, so Pauli suggested the lost energy was carried away by the neutrino
13   spin direction basic difference between neutrinos and anti-neutrinos
14   nuclear force extremely powerful, short-range attractive force between: proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron particles brought about by the exchange of particles called mesons
15   mesons particles that protons and neutrons exchange with themselves and each other to produce the strong nuclear force
16   gravity an attractive force between pieces of matter that is very weak, too weak to account for the forces of attraction holding protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei



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Answers: Sheet   89   Quanta to Quarks 11

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   electromagnetic force force that results from the exchange of photons
  2   nucleon separation distance between particles in a nucleus, on average: 1.3 x 10-15 m
  3   zero effectively strong nuclear force has this value if the nucleon particles are greater than 2 x 10-15 m apart
  4   repulsion this is what effectively happens to strong nuclear force if the nucleons are less than 0.5 x 10-15 m apart
  5   attraction this is effectively the direction of strong nuclear force if the nucleons lie between 0.5 x 10-15 m and 2 x 10-15m separation
  6   electrostatic force a force of repulsion between two protons, which has a value of approximately 140 N for mean nucleon separation compared to 10 000 N strong nuclear force of attraction
  7   strong nuclear force a force of attraction between nucleons of about 10 000 N at mean separation of the nucleons compared to 140N repulsion for electrostatic force between two protons
  8   mass spectrograph a device used to measure the masses of atoms and their components because of their movement in a magnetic field, allowing for determination of mass defect in nuclear reaction
  9   mass defect difference between the mass of the component particles of an atom (protons, neutrons, electrons) and the actual mass of the atom (which is lower)
10   binding energy the energy needed to separate the atom into its separate parts
11   mass and energy these are equivalent according to Einstein's theory of relativity E = mc2, so that the mass defect is converted into the binding energy of the nucleus
12   released this happens to energy when atoms form from electrons and nucleons because a mass defect occurs
13   work this is done to overcome the nuclear attractive force when nucleons are taken from a nucleus, so the energy and hence the mass of the components increases
14   helium an atom with a relatively high binding energy per nucleon, which is also relatively stable as a result, and also more likely to be ejected from large atoms like radium
15   iron-56 atoms with the highest binding energy per nucleon, the most stable atoms, least likely to either fission or fuse
16   carbon-14/hydrogen-2 naturally occurring isotopes of lighter elements are generally not radioactive, but there are exceptions such as these



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Answers: Sheet   90   Quanta to Quarks 12

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   BE graph a diagram showing the average binding energy per nucleon (MeV) vs mass number, with peaks at He-4 and C-12 and a maximum at Fe-56
  2   conversion factor to change atomic mass units to energy as Mega-electron Volts, multiply by 931
  3   atomic mass units rest masses for protons (1.007276 u), neutrons (1.008665 u) and electrons (0.000549 u) or for a helium atom etc (4.002602 u) resulting in a mass defect (0.030378 u)
  4   one atomic mass unit one twelfth the mass of an atom of carbon-12, which is used as a reference to obtain the masses of all other elements and isotopes as it is, by definition 12.000000 units exactly
  5   one atomic mass unit in kilograms: 1.66 x 10-27, equal to 931 MeV (mega electron volts), isolated protons and neutrons are slightly heavier
  6   negligible the binding energy of electrons is this compared to the nucleons, which is why the binding energy of the atom is almost the same as the binding energy of the nucleus alone
  7   roughly constant for mass numbers (A's) greater than 60 the binding energies per nucleon are this, gradually decreasing from nearly 9 MeV/nucleon at Fe-56 to 7.5 MeV/nucleon for U-238
  8   stability unlikely to undergo nuclear reaction or to decay, iron-56 has a maximum degree of this, He-4 also
  9   electrostatic repulsion the effectiveness of this increases with A (above Fe-56) because the BE/A decreases, hence the nuclei become less stable for higher values of A (especially above bismuth)
10   atomic stability this increases with increasing BE/A (towards Fe-56)
11   not uniformly surrounded this occurs because for low values of A there are not enough nucleons, and so the BE/A is also low
12   uncontrolled chain reaction U-235 fission in which all the released neutrons stimulate the fission of more U-235 atoms, resulting in a rapid release of energy: atomic bomb
13   controlled chain reaction U-235 fission in which only one neutron from each fission is available to split another uranium atom, the other two having been absorbed by control rods made from substances such as cadmium which absorb neutrons without undergoing fission: nuclear power generation
14   nuclear reactors devices used to release nuclear energy at a controlled rate by fission, either thermal or fast neutrons bringing about the fission
15   thermal reactors nuclear reactors in which the neutrons bringing about fission have energies comparable to gas particles at normal temperatures



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Answers: Sheet   91   Quanta to Quarks 13

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   fast breeder reactors nuclear reactors in which the neutrons bringing about fission have large energies
  2   enriched uranium fuel used in thermal reactors to undergo fission by the capture of thermal neutrons, contains a greater proportion of U-235 than in naturally occurring uranium
  3   fissionable material substances like U-235 and Pu-239 which undergo fission when the atoms capture thermal and fast neutrons respectively
  4   fertile material substances like U-238 which produce fissionable material by neutron capture, eg U-238 forms Pu-239 which is fissionable with fast neutrons in fast breeder reactors
  5   moderator substance used in thermal reactors to slow down neutrons (without capturing them) so that U-235 is able to capture them and then carry out fission, eg water, heavy water, graphite, beryllium
  6   control rod substance used to absorb neutrons so that a nuclear reaction can be controlled or stopped eg boron steel or cadmium steel
  7   regulating rods control rods that are used for routine nuclear reactor control, eg boron or cadmium steel, pushed into the reactor core to absorb neutrons, pulled out to increase reaction rate
  8   safety rods control rods normally held vertically so that they can be dropped into the nuclear reactor core for emergency shut down (boron or cadmium steel)
  9   neutron capture cross-section term describing control rod materials, boron and cadmium are said to be high in this respect
10   kinetic energy form of energy that the products of fission reactions carry, transferred to substances called coolants so the heat can then be used to form steam to turn turbines attached to electricity dynamos
11   coolant substances used to carry heat from reactors, eg, air, helium, heavy water, liquid sodium, some liquid organic compounds
12   radiation shields materials used to surround the nuclear reactor core to protect the walls of the reactor from radiation damage and reflect neutrons back into the core, and to protect workers
13   reactor wall protection radiation shield used to protect the wall of a reactor, and to reflect neutrons back into the reactor core so that they can be captured by fissionable material
14   biological shield radiation shield that is used to protect the workers from radiation from a reactor, consisting of many centimetres of high-density concrete
15   fast breeder reactors nuclear reactors using fast neutron capture to bring about the fission of Pu-239, with no need of a moderator, producing more fuel than they use because the fuel rod cores are surrounded by U-238 which makes more Pu-239



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Answers: Sheet   92   Quanta to Quarks 14

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   U-238 to Pu-239 neutron capture by U-238 to form U-239, which then undergoes beta - decay twice, to form Np-239 and then Pu-239, in fast breeder reactors
  2   beta - decay radioactive decay that enables U-239 formed after neutron capture by U-238 to form firstly Np-239 and finally fissionable Pu-239 in fast breeder reactors
  3   radioisotopes alternative name for radioactive isotopes, used in industry and medicine, and as tracers
  4   radioactive tracers radioisotopes used to follow the movement and storage of materials in chemical, biological or physical systems
  5   respiration pathway a series of biological chemical reactions that has been studied with the use of radioisotopes such as carbon-14 to find the intermediate compounds formed during the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water
  6   sewage systems a use of radioactive tracers to determine the flow of wastes through waste systems
  7   machinery wear an industrial use of radioactive tracers achieved by making a moving part radioactive, using it for some time, and then determining the amount of radioactivity in lubricating oil
  8   thickness control an industrial use of radioisotopes in which radiation is passed through metal or plastic to determine how thick the material is: too thick, less radiation passes through, too thin, more radiation passes through
  9   power supply an industrial use of radioisotopes such as Pu-238: the heat produced by the isotope can be converted into electricity, eg in satellites
10   radiometric dating using radioisotopes and their product nuclides to determine the age of a specimen, eg rocks, and fossils, related to the half-life of the radioisotope
11   half-life the time taken for half a given mass of an element to decay into a new element, eg carbon-14 takes 5570 years for 50% to form nitrogen-14 by beta - decay
12   radiocarbon dating a technique used for estimating the age of charcoal, cloth and plant material by determining the proportion of Carbon-14 in a sample compared to what is normally present for a living individual
13   nuclear medicine this involves the use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis and treatment of disease
14   isotopic tracing/scanning medical use of radioisotopes in diagnosis of disease, related to where the radioisotope is likely to accumulate if a diseased organ is present
15   short half-lives isotopes used for tracing and scanning for the presence of diseased organs have these so that they can breakdown before they cause damage to the body



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Answers: Sheet   93   Quanta to Quarks 15

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   iodine-131 radioisotope with a half-life of about 8 days, which is used to diagnose disease conditions of the thyroid gland and lungs, beta - and alpha radiation
  2   technetium-99m radioisotope made from molybdenum, half life 6 hours, produces low energy gamma radiation, used for diagnosing bone and lung disease
  3   diagnostic radioisotopes iodine-131 thyroid gland, technetium-99m bone density, chromium-51 red blood cells, selenium-75 pancreas, gallium-67 lymphatics, potassium-42 blood, ytterbium-169 brain, sodium-24 body electrolytes
  4   radiotherapy using radiation from radioisotopes to destroy abnormal cells inside the body, eg gamma rays from cobalt-60, beta - from phosphorus-32
  5   cobalt-60 radioisotope emitting gamma rays used to destroy cancer cells by either implanting the radioactive material in the tumour or exposing the body to an external emitter aimed at the tumour
  6   radioactive implants radioactive gold, iridium, caesium, or cobalt, placed into small rapidly growing tumours to release radiation over extended periods of time
  7   radiotherapy side effects nausea, hair loss, vomiting, blood loss, skin disorders, falling blood pressure
  8   chromium phosphate solution material injected into oedema (fluid swelling) tumours to emit beta - from phosphorus-32 which damage the tumours 2 mm to 8 mm from radioactive atoms
  9   gamma sterilisation agricultural use of radioisotopes (cobalt-60) to kill parasites in raw wool for export, and in increasing shelf life of food material
10   pest eradication agricultural use of radioisotopes to sterilise insects prior to releasing them, so that they prevent reproduction amongst existing populations (used in some species that mate only once)
11   neutron scattering a powerful method of analysing the internal structure and properties of matter using neutrons which may be scattered, absorbed or captured
12   neutron scattering elastic or inelastic collisions by neutrons with matter, assisting with the analysis of the internal structure of matter
13   neutron absorption neutrons being taken in by atoms which then undergo fission, assisting with the analysis of the internal structure of matter
14   neutron capture neutrons being taken in by atoms which then transmute to new elements many of which are radioactive, assisting with the analysis of the internal structure of matter
15   wave-particle duality possessed by neutrons and the reason for them being scattered by matter, allowing analysis of the internal structure of matter



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Answers: Sheet   94   Quanta to Quarks 16

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   some neutron scattering uses development of magnetic materials for computer data storage, determination of the structure of superconductors, and structure of viruses
  2   neutron activation analysis process of stimulating stable elements to form radioactive isotopes which then decay and emit particles that have energies that allow them to be readily measured, eg, uranium, barium, thorium, hafnium
  3   hair analysis a use of neutron activation analysis in forensic investigation allowing the identification of specific trace elements
  4   Manhattan Project the code name for the effort of the US to produce an atomic bomb during World War II
  5   Einstein scientist who wrote a letter to Rooseveldt in 1939 advocating the development of an atomic bomb, as a result of being convinced by Zilard, Teller, Wigner who felt that Germany would attempt such a development (which they did)
  6   small percentage problem with using U-235 for making an atomic bomb because most of uranium is U-238
  7   gaseous diffusion method of concentrating U-235 from uranium by converting it to UF6, a gas, the U-235 form being able to diffuse faster than the U-238 through a series of membranes
  8   electromagnetic separation method of concentrating U-235 from uranium by converting it to ions and bending a current in a solution, the U-235 current formed being able to bend more than the U-238 current
  9   engineering problems these had to be overcome before U-235 was separated from uranium successfully by either the gaseous diffusion method or electromagnetic separation method
10   plutonium-239 radioactive transuranium element formed from neptunium, found to be fissionable, 1941
11   neptunium-239 radioactive transuranium element formed from U-238 by neutron capture, discovered in 1940
12   Pearl Harbour event, 1941, that brought America into the second world war, and accelerated the race for the atomic bomb
13   Oppenheimer theoretical physicist appointed to direct actual atomic bomb weapon design and manufacture, 1942, by Colonel Groves, US military
14   Fermi first chain reaction was created by this scientist in 1942, in a reactor
15   gun-type bomb U-235 bomb, method used to combine two pieces of uranium so that a supercritical mass was produced enabling uncontrolled chain reaction, 1945



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Answers: Sheet   95   Quanta to Quarks 17

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   implosion technique used to make a supercritical mass of Pu-239 by using explosives around a sphere of Pu-239
  2   plutonium bomb first type of bomb exploded in New Mexico, explosive energy equivalent to 20,000 tonnes of TNT
  3   little boy nickname of the U-235 bomb that was dropped onto Hiroshima, 6th August 1945, first atomic bomb used in war, Japan surrendered 4 days later after a second bomb was dropped
  4   fat boy nickname of the Pu-239 bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki, 9th August, 1945; Japan surrendered the next day
  5   costly the Manhattan Project was this, $US2 billion (1945 dollars), biggest project of the war, the gaseous diffusion plant used more electricity than the city of Boston
  6   Cold War this and the resultant arms race that followed the war, costing huge amounts of money that could have been used for other purposes, eg disease eradication, food supply
  7   particle accelerators Van de Graaff generators, cyclotrons, betatrons, synchrotrons, linear accelerators
  8   disrupted this needs to be done to atomic nuclei in order to investigate nuclear force and the nature of fundamental particles, requiring a lot of energy to be put into the nucleus (from accelerated particles)
  9   Cockroft and Walton people that bombarded lithium with accelerated protons to form two helium nuclei
10   betatron an electron accelerator using a rapidly changing magnetic field and a circular orbit of constant radius
11   Van de Graaff generator a device providing a continuous high voltage supply by transferring charges to a belt which carries them to a dome, the charges can be continually added
12   cyclotron an ion accelerator using oscillating magnetic fields produced by D shaped electromagnets, allowing the particles to spiral outwards as they accelerate
13   synchrotron particle accelerator using high energy particles from other accelerators (eg Van de Graaff),a circular evacuated round tube, an electromagnet to maintain the circular path, and high frequency supply to kick them along at the right time
14   linear accelerator particle accelerator that uses drift tubes (zero electric field inside), alternating polarity to repel/attract the particles between tubes, successive tubes longer, tubes in a straight line
15   synchro-cyclotron a particle accelerator that overcomes the relativistic mass increase with increasing speed (which is a limiting problem of the cyclotron) by varying an accelerating frequency to keep in phase with orbit times of the particles in the electromagnetic D's



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Answers: Sheet   96   Quanta to Quarks 18

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   CERN research facility in France that has a large electron-positron collider, with a circumference of almost 27 km (Conseil Europeen pour las Recherche Nucleaire)
  2   accelerator advantages particles have smaller wavelength at higher speeds, giving greater resolution, and the high speed means greater mass allowing release of elementary particles during collisions
  3   fine detail higher resolution provides this in observations, and is made possible by producing high energy, high speed particles in accelerators because of shorter wavelengths that result (λ = h/(mv) de Broglie equation)
  4   high mass high energy particles have this according to Einstein's E = mc2, enabling elementary particles to be observed because they can only be observed after being created in high-energy accelerators
  5   standard model a theory that attempts to describe all the interactions of subatomic particles (except those due to gravity)
  6   fundamental forces of nature strong nuclear, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, gravity in order from strongest to weakest
  7   gravitational force force that results from the attraction of objects with mass to other objects with mass
  8   electromagnetic force force that acts between charged objects or magnets
  9   strong nuclear force force that holds the nucleus of atoms together, the strongest force, range 10-15 m
10   weak nuclear force force involved in radioactive decay of elements, third strongest force, range 10-17 m
11   infinite range over which both electromagnetic and gravity (fundamental forces) have an effect compared to 10-15 and 10-17 m for strong and weak nuclear forces
12   nuclear forces these have a range of 10-15m for strong and 10-17m for weak compared to infinite for electromagnetic and gravity forces
13   relative force strength strong nuclear: 1, electromagnetic: 10-3, weak nuclear: 10-5, gravity: 10-38
14   electroweak theory component of the standard model that describes interactions through the electromagnetic and weak forces
15   quantum chromodynamics component of the standard model that describes the strong nuclear force, using colour words



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Answers: Sheet   97   Quanta to Quarks 19

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   gravity this force is not part of the standard model, it is the weakest fundamental force being 1x10-38 th of the value of strong nuclear force
  2   matter that which is composed of atoms, protons (+), neutrons, electrons (-)
  3   antimatter that which is composed of antiatoms: antiprotons (-), positrons (+), and antineutrons
  4   annihilate matter and antimatter do this to each other when they come together with the release of electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays)
  5   2 gamma rays 1 electron + 1 positron annihilate to produce these
  6   quarks fundamental particle from which matter is made, always combined in twos or threes
  7   hadrons composite particles made of quarks (includes baryons and mesons)
  8   baryons an hadron composed of 3 quarks: protons (UUD), and neutrons (UDD)
  9   mesons and hadron composed of two quarks: a quark and an antiquark eg pion
10   gluons gauge particle responsible for holding quarks together in hadrons (baryons and mesons)
11   photon gauge particle responsible for electromagnetic force
12   bosons gauge particles carrying the weak nuclear force associated with beta decay, eg photons, gluon
13   leptons particles with little or no mass and include electron, neutrino, muon
14   atomic and subatomic phenomena evidence used to corroborate the existence of quarks and other fundamental particles which compose matter
15   quarks fundamental particles making up hadrons (baryons: proton and neutron) or mesons (together with antiquarks) with charges -1/3e and +2/3e, point-like, no measurable size, fundamental because they have no known components



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Answers: Sheet   98   Quanta to Quarks 20

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   quark flavours varieties of quarks, there are 6 of them, up (u,+2/3)/down (d, -1/3), strange (s, +2/3)/charm (c, -1/3), bottom (b, +2/3)/top (t, -1/3)
  2   quark varieties flavours of quarks, there are 6 of them, up (u,+2/3)/down (d, -1/3), strange (s, +2/3)/charm (c, -1/3), bottom (b, +2/3)/top (t, -1/3)
  3   quark colours red, green, blue, different colours attract, similar colours repel
  4   colour quantum property of quarks and antiquarks that results in attraction or repulsion, like repels like, unlike attracts just like electromagnetic forces in the electroweak theory
  5   antiquark fundamental particles of matter that make up anti-protons and anti-neutrons, having a charge of +1/3e and -2/3e
  6   antiquark colours antired, antigreen, antiblue, different colours attract, similar colours repel
  7   zero the value of the net colour charge of quarks and antiquarks when they combine to form hadrons
  8   hadrons composite particles made of quarks, either baryons (3 quark combinations) and mesons (two quark combinations)
  9   hadron properties integral charge (1 e, or neutral), and colour neutral, interact through strong force
10   baryons hadrons that are made of 3 quarks, nucleons: protons two up and one down quark and neutrons of one up and two down quarks, interact through strong force
11   up quarks fundamental particles with a +2/3 e charge, combines with down quarks to form protons or neutrons
12   down quarks fundamental particles with a -1/3 e charge, combines with up quarks to form protons or neutrons
13   mesons combinations of quarks and antiquarks which are unstable and decay in millionths of seconds, eg the negative pion which is made of an anti-up-quark and a down quark (-2/3 e and -1/3 e)
14   negative pion an example of a meson which is a hadron composed of an anti-up-quark (-2/3 e) and a down quark (-1/3 e), unstable, decays in millionths of seconds
15   leptons particles with little or no mass, which do not experience strong force, interact through weak force, and, if charged, electromagnetic force, they are of negative charge, eg electron



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Answers: Sheet   99   Quanta to Quarks 21

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   lepton flavours or varieties: electron (e-)/electron-neutrino (ve), muon (μ-)/muon-neutrino (vμ), tau (τ-)/tau-neutrino (vτ)
  2   lepton varieties or flavours: electron (e-)/electron-neutrino (ve), muon (μ-)/muon-neutrino (vμ), tau (τ-)/tau-neutrino (vτ)
  3   corresponding neutrino each electrically charged lepton has one of these, which have little or not charge and little, if any mass
  4   antilepton particles with little or no mass, which do not experience strong force, interact through weak force, and, if charged, electromagnetic force and of positive charge, eg positron
  5   generations the six quark and lepton types can be paired as 3 of these, based on whether they are found in everyday matter, or are unstable and decay into everyday matter particles
  6   more massive this property occurs at each succeeding generation of quarks or leptons
  7   normal matter everyday matter, made up of first generation quarks (in the form of protons and neutrons) and leptons (in the form of electrons and electron-neutrinos)
  8   decay second and third generation particles (quarks and leptons) do this to form first generation
  9   first generation these particles (up and down quarks, and the electron and electron-neutrino) are stable and constitute everyday, normal, matter
10   second and third the generations of quarks and leptons that are 'created' in particle accelerators and which are heavy, unstable and do not exist in normal, everyday, matter
11   force-carrier particles gauge particles, or bosons: the particles that carry the four forces: strong nuclear (gluon), electromagnetic (photon), weak nuclear (weakon), gravity (graviton)
12   graviton theoretical gauge, force particle, or boson, that carries the force of gravity between bodies that have mass
13   photon gauge, force particle, or boson that carries the electromagnetic force between charged particles, small unit of electromagnetic radiation
14   gluon gauge, force particle, or boson that provides the strong nuclear force which keeps quarks together in their hadron particles (proton and neutron)
15   weakon gauge, force particle, or boson that provides the weak nuclear force which keeps quarks together, associated with the release of alpha particles from large nuclei



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Answers: Sheet   100   Quanta to Quarks 22

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   pions one of several mesons, which are hadrons composed of a quark and an antiquark, theorised to provide nuclear force by behaving in a way that is similar to the sharing of electrons in covalent compounds, except these particles are shared by protons and neutrons (baryons, also grouped with hadrons)
  2   exchange of bosons this is the method by which force is believed to be transmitted between particles, one particle emits the boson and the other absorbs it
  3   standard model problems not explained: why quarks have the masses they do, why the top quark (t) is so massive (190 xs proton mass) and gravity is not incorporated in the theory
  4   quark masses one of the findings that have not been explained by the standard model, related to increasing massiveness of succeeding generations of quarks
  5   gravity the fundamental force that is not incorporated into the standard model, because it is unable to be explained, the graviton gauge or force particle boson has not been discovered, its only hypothetical
  6   particles the standard model is based on these, whether they be quarks (up/down), leptons (electron, neutrino), bosons (gluon, photon, weakon, graviton), hadrons (composite quarks), baryons (proton, neutron), mesons (pion, muon)
  7   top quark problem with the standard model because these particles have a mass that is about 190 times that of a proton
  8   one force during the first 10-35 seconds after the Big Bang the temperatures were so high that three of the fundamental forces of nature (strong nuclear, electromagnetic and weak nuclear) were combined into this...
  9   Big Bang hypothesised origin of the Universe, a time at which three of the fundamental forces of nature (strong nuclear, electromagnetic and weak nuclear) were combined into one force in the first 10-35 seconds
10   creation the understanding of this may be an outcome of research into the fundamental particles (quarks: hadrons(baryons, mesons)), leptons (electrons, neutrinos), and forces of nature (boson: gauge particles(gluon, photon, weakon, graviton))
11   least stable nuclei of isotopes that contain odd numbers of protons and odd numbers of neutrons are this because all but 3 nuclei of this kind are radioactive
12   excessive neutrons the presence of these in an atomic nucleus reduces nuclear stability, which is what happens with all the isotopes above Bismuth on the periodic table
13   stable nuclei generally these contain even numbers of protons and an even number of neutrons
14   mass the Higgs boson is a field that gives this property to other fundamental particles such as electrons and quarks
15   Higgs boson a field that gives mass to other fundamental particles such as electrons and quarks
16   resists velocity change the mass of a particle provides this property, the mass being provided by the Higgs boson.



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Answers: Sheet   101   Medical Physics 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   endoscopy the medical examination of the interior of the body by inserting an optical tube through an opening in the body (either natural or as a result of an incision)
  2   40,000 fibres number of glass fibres in an endoscope being used to examine the interior of the body
  3   non-invasive a medical technique that does not require the body to be opened for inspection
  4   total internal reflection physical principle upon which fibre optics relies so that they can be used in an endoscope to form an image of internal parts of the body
  5   coherent bundle a bundle of optical fibres in which the fibres are kept in the same relative positions in the bundle at both ends so an image can be formed
  6   resolution the degree of detail of an image formed, for endoscopes, this depends on the number of fibres in a bundle, which depends on fibre thickness
  7   non-coherent type of optic fibres used to pass light to illuminate the interior of an organ being studied with an endoscope
  8   concentric bundle the outer layer of an endoscope, composed of non-coherent optical fibre bundles to carry light into an organ
  9   endoscope parts light guide (non-coherent), image guide (coherent), water pipe, operations channel, and gas channel
10   water pipe part of an endoscope used to carry water to the end so that it can be washed and kept clear
11   operations channel part of an endoscope used to insert surgical instruments
12   gas channel part of an endoscope used to permit suction of gas exchange
13   biopsy samples a use of endoscopes that allow collection of material to be tested in a laboratory for the presence of cancer cells
14   light form of electromagnetic energy used by endoscopes
15   colonoscopy inspecting the large intestine and rectum for large abnormal changes with the aid of an endoscope, also used for removal of potentially pre-cancerous polyps



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Answers: Sheet   102   Medical Physics 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   ultrasound sound with frequencies greater than 20,000 Hz
  2   echo reflected sound waves
  3   ultrasonography the use of ultrasound in medical and industrial situations
  4   3 MHz most common frequency used in ultrasound diagnosis, being a compromise value between low (resulting is less image resolution) and high (resulting in more absorption by soft tissues)
  5   Z = ρv for a medium with a density ρ and a velocity of sound in the medium v, the acoustic impedance is given by this formula, in Pascal seconds per metre (or rayl), equivalent to kg m-2 s-1
  6   0.5 mm wavelength of 1 MHz waves in body tissues where the speed of ultrasound is about 1540 ms-1, which limits the size of detectable objects
  7   greater reflection a greater the difference in acoustic impedance between two materials results in this occurring to the incident pulse at a tissue interface
  8   Ir/Io ratio equals [Z2 - Z1]2/([Z2 + Z1]2), where Z1 is the acoustic impedance of medium 1 and Z2 is the acoustic impedance in medium 2
  9   [Z2 - Z1]2/([Z2 + Z1]2) formula to calculate the ratio of reflected energy (Ir) to incident energy (Io) at tissue boundaries
10   neck or arm sites where high frequency ultrasound can be used because the tissues being studied are thin, and so absorption by soft tissue is not a problem
11   perpendicular angle at which ultrasound waves are assumed to meet a media interface when using the formula Ir/Io = [Z2 - Z1]2/([Z2 + Z1]2)
12   phase this is a measure of how far a wave has gone through its cycle at a particular point and time, eg crest and trough are 180o apart, a property that can be used to get a clearer image using ultrasounds
13   bone density this can be measured with an ultrasound of the heel because the speed of sound in tissue depends on the density of the tissue. Used to identify people who should undergo further testing
14   Io = Ir + It by conservation of energy, the transmitted wave intensity (It) and the reflected wave intensity (Ir) must equal the initial wave intensity (Io)
15   10 acoustic impedence has units Pa.s.m-1 in the MKS system, and is often expressed as "rayls" when derived from the CGS system units, the conversion factor from CGS rayls to Pa.s.m-1 is?....
16   Doppler effect the apparent frequency change when there is relative motion between a source of waves and an observer, also called the Doppler shift



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Answers: Sheet   103   Medical Physics 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   higher frequency this happens to the apparent frequency of echo ultrasound waves when they are from a source that approaches an observer
  2   kidney stones and gallstones these are broken up by being shaken to pieces so they can be passed naturally in an active or therapeutic use of focused high intensity ultrasound
  3   echocardiography use of ultrasound to diagnose heart problems
  4   soft tissue injury this can be treated by ultrasound heating tissues and stimulating increased circulation
  5   valves/tumours things that can be studied in the heart with the use of an ultrasound transducer placed on the chest
  6   passive/diagnostic term describing the use of ultrasound to obtain information about items such as tumours, heart disease, blood flow, foetuses in womb
  7   endocarditis heart valve infection which can be detected using ultrasound
  8   diagnostic ultrasound this works on the principle that different tissues and organs in the human body have different acoustic impedances and so reflect ultrasound differently
  9   false colour Doppler ultrasound images have this added to determine the rate of blood flow (image brightness) and direction (red towards and blue away from observer)
10   1 ms (milli seconds) time between the pulses of ultrasound that have been aimed in a specific direction for diagnostic purposes
11   coupling gel a substance that is put onto the skin of a patient being diagnosed with ultrasound so there is no air between the skin and transducer
12   air and skin media with large differences in acoustic impedance that would result in most of the ultrasonic signal being reflected if coupling gel was not used
13   A-scan a single ultrasound transducer scans along a line in the body to determine size and distance to internal organs/measurement of eye, amplitude scan, rarely used
14   short wavelengths the reason why ultrasonic waves are easily reflected producing echoes
15   mechanic transducers a means of producing ultrasound using moving air, as in dog whistles
16   B-scan a linear array of ultrasound transducers used to scan a plane of the body (slice from front to back), displayed as a degree of brightness depending on amplitude of the echoes



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Answers: Sheet   104   Medical Physics 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   transducer an electrical device that converts one form of energy into another
  2   1540 ms-1 average speed of sound in human soft tissue, the soft tissues varying but being within a few percent of it, 1450 (fat) to 1620 (eye lens)
  3   electromechanical transducer device that converts other forms of energy into ultrasonic vibrations
  4   air and bone media/tissues in the human body that has the widest range of speeds of sound, 331 to 4080 ms-1 respectively, and preventing use of ultra sound to diagnose within bone and lungs
  5   piezoelectric crystal substances that convert an oscillating potential difference into a mechanical vibration (and a mechanical vibration into an oscillating potential difference)
  6   1.38 to 1.84 range of acoustic impedances in rayls for soft human tissues
  7   piezoelectric effect the production of a changing potential difference from a vibration, and vice versa, in the presence of a piezoelectric crystal
  8   0.0004 and 1.54 acoustic impedances in rayls for air and water, air being much lower than soft human tissue, water being approximately average for the range of human soft tissues
  9   6.5 and 7.8 acoustic impedances in rayls for bone and skull bone respectively
10   high frequency AC type of potential difference applied to piezoelectric crystals in order to stimulate them to produce ultra sound
11   piezoelectric crystals materials used in both the production and detection of ultrasound in ultrasound transducers
12   rocking back and forth old technique used with an ultrasound transducer to allow the production of a two dimensional B-scan image
13   piezoelectric crystals quartz, Rochelle salt, ceramics such as PZT (lead zirconate titanate)
14   small angle modern placement of beams from transducers in an ultrasound probe that allows the production of 2-D B-scans
15   phased array modern arrangement of 100 transducers in an ultrasound probe so that altering the phase of each causes the beam to sweep across the area being imaged for 2-D B-scans
16   acoustic impedance a measure of how easy it is to transmit sound waves through a medium



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Answers: Sheet   105   Medical Physics 5

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   acoustic impedance this property of media transmission of sound waves depends on speed of waves in medium and density of medium
  2   high frequency ultrasound type of ultrasonic waves that should give better image resolution but is more readily scattered and absorbed by soft tissue, and hence have lower penetration
  3   reflection this occurs when ultrasound meets an interface between different media (of different acoustic impedance)
  4   low frequency ultrasound type of ultrasonic waves that have better penetration of soft tissue, but which give poorer quality images
  5   highly reflective due to high differences in acoustic impedance between air and tissue, and bone and soft tissue, these interfaces have this property and that prevents the effective imaging of weaker echoes from deep soft-tissue interfaces
  6   1 to 15 MHz range of frequencies of ultrasound used in ultrasound diagnosis
  7   CAT computerised axial tomography, a non-invasive technique that uses X-rays to produce images of various internal parts of the body soft tissues
  8   gantry circular shaped scanning machine used to make CAT (computerised axial tomography) images
  9   CAT uses diagnosis of cancerous tumours, infections, bone fractures, blood clots
10   contrast solutions solutions of iodine and barium sulphate that are used to improve the contrast between the organ being scanned with CAT (computerised axial tomography) and surrounding tissues
11   1 to 256 grey scale used to colour pixels for a CAT image obtained from X-rays, 1 = black, 256 = white
12   3 to 5 mm thickness of a slice of tissues in the body of a person being scanned with a CAT to produce a tomographic image
13   30 shades number of shades of grey of a normal X-ray image, which is much lower than the 256 for each pixel in a CAT tomographic image, and so X-rays show much less detail
14   more radiation exposure CAT (computerised axial tomography) has this disadvantage and so ordinary X-rays are used for diagnosis of bone fracture
15   CAT computerised axial tomography



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Answers: Sheet   106   Medical Physics 6

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Wilhelm Roentgen person who in 1895 discovered X-rays when experimenting with a Crookes cathode ray tube because a nearby fluorescent screen was glowing
  2   0.001 nm to 10 nm (nano metres) wavelength of X-rays enabling them to pass through materials opaque to light
  3   tungsten target metal in modern X-ray tubes, which produces X-rays when high speed electrons are slowed down (decelerated) upon entering the target metal
  4   99 percent the amount of energy of the electrons striking the target tungsten in an X-ray tube that is converted to heat
  5   1 percent the amount of energy of the electrons striking the target tungsten in an X-ray tube that is converted to X-rays
  6   15,000 to 25,000 V potential difference in an X-ray tube between the cathode and tungsten anode that accelerates the electrons prior to hitting the anode
  7   cooling agents because most of the energy in X-ray production becomes heat, the tubes have fins on metal structures and possibly oil flowing through the tungsten target block
  8   45o angle that the surface of the target tungsten block anode makes to the incident electron beam so X-rays can leave at a side window on the tube
  9   continuous type of X-ray spectrum produced, over a range of frequencies, except there are spikes that are characteristic of the target metal
10   maximum frequency each accelerating voltage used in X-ray production has this feature, with the amount increasing with higher voltages
11   spikes peaks that occur in the continuous spectrum of X-rays produced by an X-ray tube, characteristic of the target metal and related to return of electrons to orbitals after being knocked out
12   hardness penetrating power of X-rays: about 0.01 nm (nano metre) are hard, while 1 nm wavelength are soft X-rays and are less penetrating
13   soft X-rays electromagnetic radiation of wave length about 1 nm which have poor penetration power
14   hard X-rays electromagnetic radiation of wave length about 0.01 nm which have high penetration power
15   fractures broken bones, a use of X-rays for diagnosis because bone absorbs incident X-rays preventing them from reaching a photographic plate (radiograph produced as a result)



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Answers: Sheet   107   Medical Physics 7

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   h/(2p) the fundamental angular momentum formula (also called h bar, where h is Planck's constant). Spin is in multiples of half of this number, and so is quantised
  2   multiples of 1/2 the quantised relationship between spin and fundamental angular momentum as calculated from h/(2p) where h is Planck's constant
  3   nuclear magnetic resonance the emission or absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atomic nuclei when subjected to certain magnetic fields (NMR)
  4   unpaired nuclear spins the type of spins of atom nuclei that are important in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
  5   precession the spin axis of a spinning object rotates around another axis, causing a change in the direction of the original spin axis is called ....?
  6   magnetic moment a measure of the turning effect of a spinning charge in a magnetic field, which determines how difficult it is for the charge to align its axis of rotation in the direction of an external magnetic field
  7   antiparallel the aligning of spinning charges in a magnetic field in such a way that their magnetism has the opposite vector direction, the particles being in a high-energy state (down spin)
  8   down spin the antiparallel alignment (high energy state) of spinning charges in a magnetic field with their magnetism opposing the applied field
  9   up spin the parallel alignment (low energy state) of spinning charges in a magnetic field with their magnetism in the same direction as the applied field
10   slight excess for every 2 million protons spinning in a magnetic field of 1.5T, 9 more are spinning up (parallel) compared to down (antiparallel)
11   Larmor frequency electromagnetic frequency that enables low energy state (up spinning charges in a magnetic field) to become antiparallel to the field when they absorb energy according to E = hf
12   precession the changing of direction of the magnetic dipole of a charge in a magnetic field from up spin to down spin (parallel to antiparallel, low energy to high energy)
13   Larmor precession rate for spinning charges, this is proportional to an applied magnetic field and so can be used to accurately measure magnetic fields. Also called Larmor frequency
14   MRI magnetic resonance imaging
15   radio wave pulses these are used to provide a weak oscillating magnetic field perpendicular to an applied strong field in MRI to cause precession of spinning charges



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Answers: Sheet   108   Medical Physics 8

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   resonance in MRI this occurs when the Larmor frequency radio waves are applied to cause spinning charges to flip over, changing the materials magnetism, detected by a radio-frequency signal emitted from the sample
  2   wobble precession in particles that result from radio waves other than the Larmor frequency when applied to spinning charges in a magnetic field
  3   hydrogen proton the largest magnetic moment of a nucleus for its spin, used in the MRI as it provides the strongest resonance signals, (P and F also used)
  4   current loop electrons moving in a wire made into a circle (or solenoid) form this, and induce a magnetic field that acts like a magnet with a N and S pole
  5   protons and neutrons subatomic particles that were found to have an associated magnetic field like a magnet, in the 1920's, thought to be due to their spinning
  6   magnetic resonance imaging a technique used to produce images of tissues inside the body using radio-frequency energy and strong magnetic fields (MRI)
  7   spin a measure of the intrinsic angular momentum of an elementary particle (eg proton), in multiples of 1/2 and may be + or -
  8   cylinder shape of the powerful magnet that is used to surround the patient, producing magnetic fields about 30,000 times stronger than earth's magnetic field
  9   L = pr for a body moving in a circle: angular momentum (L) equals the product of the linear momentum (p = mv) and circle radius (r)
10   original orientation once the pulse of radio waves (at Larmor frequency, in MRI) is off, the precessed charges return to this, emitting a weak measurable radiowave of Larmor frequency
11   total angular momentum for a particle spinning (rotating) on its axis and revolving about an axis, this equals the total of the spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum, eg electron orbiting a nucleus
12   bones tissue with no MRI signal, because it contains the lowest concentration of hydrogen
13   body fluids tissue with maximum MRI signal because it contains the greatest concentration of Hydrogen in water
14   nuclear spin the spin of the nucleus of an atom is the sum of the orbital angular momentum and the intrinsic spin of the nucleons
15   zero spin amount of spin that nuclei with even numbers of protons and neutrons have in their ground state, eg He, C-12



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Answers: Sheet   109   Medical Physics 9

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   any plane imaged an advantage of MRI over CAT and PET scans, because it relies on the use of magnets aligned in the x, y and z axes, and these can be positioned appropriately
  2   x, y and z axes magnet coils aligned on these axes so that the site of origin of Larmor frequency radio waves can be plotted accurately for image production in MRI
  3   even mass number type of nuclei that have spin of integer values (including zero for elements with even numbers of protons and neutrons) eg, H-2 = 1, N-14 = 1
  4   MRI uses differentiate between normal and diseased tissues, detailed anatomical information, brain and CNS study, multiple sclerosis diagnosis, brain and pituitary tumours, early stroke, infections of brain, spine, joints, cancerous tumours
  5   odd mass number type of nuclei that have spin of half integer values eg H = 1/2, P-31 = 1/2, Na 23 = 3/2
  6   functional MRI the use of MRI to show blood flow in heart and brain (eg when the patient performs various functions or is exposed to a range of stimuli)
  7   tiny magnet an electron or a proton with spin and also nuclei with net spin also act like this, a characteristic that is used in nuclear magnetic resonance
  8   zero magnetic field atoms with even numbers of protons and neutrons have zero total spin and hence also have ....?
  9   Oxygen and Carbon two common elements in the body that have even numbers of protons and neutrons and hence zero total spin, and hence zero magnetic fields
10   hydrogen and nitrogen two common elements in the body that have odd numbers of protons and neutrons and hence have spin and the associated magnetic fields (net spin in both is 1)
11   versatile chemistry advantage of technetium-99m in that it can be incorporated into a wide range of carrier biomolecules which concentrate on specific organs
12   Tc-99m uses brain, thyroid, lungs, liver, spleen, kidney, gall bladder, skeleton, bone marrow, salivary and lachrymal (tear) glands diseases diagnoses
13   gamma rays electromagnetic radiation often released by nuclei undergoing nuclear reaction, can be included in equations by writing 'energy' or γ
14   pure γ emitter Tc-99m has this advantage and so its radiation can easily pass out from within the body and be detected
15   pair annihilation the reaction that occurs when a positron interacts with an electron, causing the release of two gamma rays that have the same energy by travel in opposite directions



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Answers: Sheet   110   Medical Physics 10

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   beta particle electron, negative or positron, positive, mass 1/1800 proton mass, weakly ionising, stopped by 5 mm aluminium, large deflection in electric or magnetic field
  2   gamma ray electromagnetic wave, neutral charge, zero mass, very weak ionising effect, never fully absorbed, intensity halved by 25 mm lead, zero deflection in electric and magnetic fields
  3   positron emission tomography the use of scanned gamma rays produced by the annihilation of electrons and positrons to form computer generated images
  4   momentum conservation reason for the emission of two gamma rays in opposite direction when the masses of an electron and a positron annihilate
  5   1 mm2 area of tissue that a pixel on a tomographic image represents
  6   109.8 minutes half-life for Fluorine-18, which is attached to glucose for body metabolism and used in PET to provide functional information about rate of consumption of glucose in the brain, and other tissues
  7   beta+ decay transmutation in which a proton is changed to a neutron (atomic number decreases by 1) and a positron that is ejected from the nucleus, as well as a neutrino
  8   radiopharmaceutical a substance to which a radioactive substance has been attached so that it is ready to be used as a tracer in living tissue eg glucose + F-18
  9   FDG 2-fluoro-2deoxy-D-glucose, a radiopharmaceutical used in positron emission tomography (PET) for diagnosis of tissue function rate as the glucose is metabolised
10   artificial radioisotopes there are about 400 of these now known to exist, some of which have half lives that are suitable for use in medicine, industry, agriculture and radioactive tracing
11   imaging producing pictures of things that cannot normally be seen, through the use of computer technology
12   half-life the time it takes for half the given mass of an element to decay into a new element by radioactive decay
13   patient's body the source of electrons with which positrons interact after they have been released by proton rich isotopes to produce 2 gamma rays for PET imaging
14   annihilation site in PET this is calculated using the differences in arrival times of the two oppositely moving gamma rays produced by annihilation of positron and electron
15   N(t)/No = (1/2)t/t(1/2) formula that can be used to calculate the fraction (N(t)/No) of a radioactive element that remains after a given time, knowing the half-life, N(t) = amount remaining, N0 = initial quantity, t = time elapsed, t(1/2) = half life



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Answers: Sheet   111   Medical Physics 11

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   functioning this aspect of body parts is best studied with PET, rather than structure, which is best studied with CAT, MRI, ultrasound, X-ray
  2   normal metabolism radioactive isotopes undergo this in the body so that they are processed by living tissues in the same way as the non-radioactive isotopes
  3   PET positron emission tomography
  4   slices the series of images of the body obtained with CAT (computerised axial tomography), PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  5   gamma cameras equipment needed to scan a body or organ to locate the site(s) of accumulation of metabolised gamma ray emitting radioactive isotopes
  6   grey scale PET scans show the amount of activity, from black (zero activity) to white (maximum activity), so an organ slice can be mapped
  7   PET uses abnormal brain activity (Alzheimer's, tumours, strokes, cerebral blood flow, multiple sclerosis) and research into schizophrenia, Parkinson's, brain activity in thinking or moving an arm
  8   cancer a potential result of use of long half-life radioactive isotopes and excessive X-rays because of damage to genetic material in living cells
  9   organ specific chemicals substances, radioactive isotopes, that are used by certain organs in the body or accumulated in these organs, eg I-123: brain, thyroid, kidney, heart
10   neutron activation radioisotope manufacture technique that involves neutron capture by atoms placed in a nuclear reactor to produce neutron rich nuclei
11   cyclotron accelerator used to make proton rich atoms for use as radioisotopes by bombarding them with protons
12   technetium-99m radioisotope that evolves from molybdenum-99 which has been produced by neutron activation in a nuclear reactor
13   radioactivity the spontaneous breakdown of an element into a new element by the emission of alpha (α), beta (β) and/or gamma (γ) rays
14   66 hours and 6 hours half life of Mo-99 allowing transportation time and Tc-99m allowing for diagnostic use and rapid change to harmless products once inside a patient
15   diagnosis use of radioisotopes to determine the cause of an illness, eg iodine-131 for thyroid gland cancer



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Answers: Sheet   112   Medical Physics 12

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Henri Becquerel French 1896: discovered radiation being emitted from a mineral ore of uranium (and affecting photographic plates)
  2   therapeutic a use of radioisotopes to treat cancer by weakening or destroying diseased cells, eg, radiation by Co-60, implanting Ir-192 in target tissue
  3   Ernest Rutherford New Zealander, 1899, in England, found two types of radiation on the basis of penetration ability: alpha (least) and beta (most) rays from radium and uranium
  4   Villard French, 1900, identified a third very penetrating radiation from radium: gamma radiation (third after alpha and beta rays)
  5   biomedicine use of radioisotopes by labelling molecules of biological samples because they can then be detected in very low concentrations
  6   radioactive term describing an unstable atomic nucleus that breaks down to release radiation
  7   gamma rays radiation that needs to be emitted by diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals because it can be detected outside the body
  8   radioactive decay the breakdown of unstable atomic nuclei to release particles and radiation
  9   saline wash material used to leach technetium-99m from its molybdenum-99 precursor, able to be used over a two week period
10   nuclear instabilities too many protons compared to neutrons (positron decay), too many neutrons compared to protons (beta decay), too many protons and neutrons (alpha particle decay)
11   beta decay neutron breaking down to a proton and an electron, increasing the atomic number by 1, while the mass number remains the same
12   radioisotopes for treatment half life wont cause extended hospital stay due to excessive radiation, emits alpha and
13   radiograph picture of bones made by passing X-rays through a patient onto a photographic plate, bone absorbs X-rays causing lighter areas on the picture
14   radioisotopes for diagnosis short half-life (hours), no alpha or beta particles, emits gamma radiation to allow position in the body to be assessed
15   positron decay proton breaking down to a neutron and a positively charged electron (beta + decay), atomic number decreases by 1, mass number remains the same



   Medical Physics 12 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Youtube Channel Link.

Alan Thompson's Songs of Bygone Eras on Youtube.



Soundcloud Channel Link.

Alan Thompson's Songs of Bygone Eras on Soundcloud.



Easy access to songs on my Youtube Channel (videos with lyrics) and my SoundCloud Channel (MP3s) via a webpage listing of songs uploaded.

Alan Thompson's Songs of Bygone Eras.






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