Welcome to Alan Thompson's Science Quiz Sheets Links Gateway Page: Matching Items in Printable Format.

Topic Preview Gateway Page.

 This page is a gateway to other pages, as well as a comprehensive listing of the topics covered, the questions and their matched answers.

 By using CTRL-F various terms or words can be found so that the most useful topic can be located amongst the preview sheets.

 Links to each printable topic quiz can be found both near the top of this page, and between the preview sheets.

 Each topic has 20 matching items statements to assist in gaining familiarisation with science terms.


  

1. Link to all the topic question pages, with answers beside the questions, located further down on this webpage.

   Preview Topic Tests on this webpage.


2. Link to individual topic links for printable, 2 page sheets: questions followed by answers, all on separate web pages.

These links are below on this webpage. Note the links are also between between the preview topics located further down this webpage.

  Question/Answer single topic printable format sheet links below


  

3. Link to the complete set of 76 topic question papers with answers collated onto separate consecutive pages, all on a single webpage.

   Question Sheets collated with Answer Sheets, all 76 topics.


  

4. Link to all the questions-only pages (no answers provided), all on a single webpage.

   Question Sheets only, all 76 topics.


  

5. Link to all the answers-only pages, in topic groups of 3, all on a single webpage.

   Answers only webpage, all 76 topics


  

6. Link to Preview sheets: all the question pages with-answers beside the questions. This is located on a separate webpage.

   Preview: Answers and Questions on the same page, all 76 topics.


 Further instructions for finding a suitable topic to print, or a set of answers, accompanies each of the pages indicated in 3 to 6 above.

 Essentially, once a page has loaded, find a topic with CTRL-F, and print by selecting a suitable area (with mouse) and then right click on the selected area to print.

Warning: using Ctrl-P can result the printing of the entire set of question/answer/question and answer sheets, between 25 and 160 pages depending on which web page you are viewing. Unfortunately, suitable pagination is not available.

  For suitable pagination it is best to access the separate topics from this webpage either via the topic index links immediately below, or via the links located between the preview pages further below.

 The site is set up like this so that you can navigate to the desired topic without relying on specific topic headings which often don't explain fully the contents of the topic.



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The following links open Printable Single Topic pages.

 These pages are composed of a page of matching items and a page with the answers. Using CTRL-P or right-click-mouse (then select print from pop-up menu), will lead to a 2 page print out. Questions on the first page. Answers on the second page.


    Worksheet   1    Energy conservation

    Worksheet   2    Newton’s laws

    Worksheet   3    Sc method safety

    Worksheet   4    Particle theory of matter

    Worksheet   5    Properties of solid, liquid, gas; change of state

    Worksheet   6    Cells

    Worksheet   7    Energy forms 1

    Worksheet   8    Energy forms 2

    Worksheet   9    Energy forms 3

    Worksheet  10   Energy forms 4

    Worksheet  11   Newton solar system

    Worksheet  12   Universe and earth structure

    Worksheet  13   Earth structure and atmosphere

    Worksheet  14   Hydrosphere and lithosphere

    Worksheet  15   Hydrosphere and lithosphere and details of rocks and minerals

    Worksheet  16   First twenty elements

    Worksheet  17   First 20 symbols

    Worksheet  18   Metals and nonmetals

    Worksheet  19   Mixtures

    Worksheet  20   Compounds, elements, mixtures

    Worksheet  21   Atomic theory 1

    Worksheet  22   Atomic theory 2

    Worksheet  23   Elements, more details

    Worksheet  24   Compounds and reactions 1

    Worksheet  25   Compounds and reactions 2

    Worksheet  26   Reactions

    Worksheet  27   Big bang 1

    Worksheet  28   Big bang 2

    Worksheet  29   Life cycle of stars etc

    Worksheet  30   Ecosystems 1

    Worksheet  31   Ecosystems 2

    Worksheet  32   Natural resources

    Worksheet  33   Technology, information collection, energy transformations

    Worksheet  34   Science Method Only

    Worksheet  35   Wave model 1

    Worksheet  36   Wave model 2

    Worksheet  37   Newton's laws - motion and gravitational force

    Worksheet  38   Electrical energy

    Worksheet  39   Light energy

    Worksheet  40   Nuclear energy

    Worksheet  41   Classification 1

    Worksheet  42   Classification 2

    Worksheet  43   Classification 3

    Worksheet  44   Unicellular organisms

    Worksheet  45   Multicellular organisms 1

    Worksheet  46   Multicellular organisms 2

    Worksheet  47   Human systems: digestion

    Worksheet  48   Human systems: circulation

    Worksheet  49   Human systems: excretion

    Worksheet  50   Human systems: skeleton and support

    Worksheet  51   Human systems: nutrition

    Worksheet  52   Mitosis and meiosis: cell theory

    Worksheet  53   Watson-Crick Model of DNA and genetics

    Worksheet  54   Evolution and natural selection

    Worksheet  55   Human coordination systems: nervous system

    Worksheet  56   Human coordination systems: endocrine system

    Worksheet  57   human coordination systems: ears and eyes, sense organs

    Worksheet  58   Human coordination systems: skin, tongue, nose, balance sense organs

    Worksheet  59   Plate tectonics

    Worksheet  60   Natural events 1

    Worksheet  61   Natural events 2

    Worksheet  62   Ecosystems

    Worksheet  63   Energy resources and wastes from resources

    Worksheet  64   Technology, simple machines

    Worksheet  65   Technology, uses of electromagnetic radiation

    Worksheet  66   Technology, electronics, medicine, ethics, materials

    Worksheet  67   Human immunity

    Worksheet  68   Human reproduction

    Worksheet  69   Investigation terms

    Worksheet  70   Laboratory equipment

    Worksheet  71   More electricity 1

    Worksheet  72   More electricity 2

    Worksheet  73   Natural philosophy 1

    Worksheet  74   Natural philosophy 2

    Worksheet  75   Natural philosophy 3

    Worksheet  76   Importance of water



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Answers: Sheet   1   Energy conservation

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   elastic PE energy stored in a body that is able to return to its original shape after being deformed
  2   electrical energy energy of moving electrons, enables stoves, motors, lights, CD players to produce energy changes
  3   tranformation changing from one form to another. Energy does this
  4   chemical PE energy stored in the substances of a body
  5   kinetic energy energy of a moving body
  6   changes forming new chemicals, physical movement, forming new states, nuclear rearrangements, speeding up, slowing down. Energy is involved in all of these occurrences
  7   state changes solid to liquid, liquid to gas, gas to liquid, liquid to solid, solid to gas, gas to solid
  8   wind energy energy in moving air
  9   conservation Law of ...... of energy: energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can be transformed
10   light energy colours, lightning flash, produced by a globe and the sun, enables plants to carry out photosynthesis
11   potential energy stored energy
12   solar energy energy from the sun
13   tidal energy energy that results from tidal movement of water, due to gravitational energy from the moon and the sun
14   energy that which is able to cause change
15   sound energy music, noise, thunder
16   falling object the potential energy of a .......... ................ is converted to kinetic energy as it falls
17   movement changing position
18   gravitational PE energy stored in a body as a result of its position in a gravitational field
19   heat energy part of solar radiation, emitted by hot objects, electric radiator, stove element, causes change of state
20   nuclear energy energy from the nuclei of atoms



   Energy conservation Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   2   Newton’s laws

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   acceleration speeding up caused by a force in the same direction as motion
  2   gravity force causing objects to fall
  3   deformation changing shape when a force is applied
  4   Newton's 1st law a body at rest or in a state of motion will continue at rest or motion in a straight line unless acted upon an external force
  5   field region where forces act at a distance, eg magnetic, electric, gravity
  6   friction contact force that resists motion
  7   bonding force due to electricity that holds atoms and molecules together
  8   repel force away, like charges and like poles do this to each other
  9   Newton's 2nd law the force on a body = mass x acceleration
10   magnetic force field around a magnet
11   explosion result of rapid expansion of gases
12   falling effect of earth's gravitational field on objects above the earth that are moving towards the earth
13   Newton's 3rd law for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force
14   deceleration slowing down caused by a force opposing motion
15   electrical force field around a charged body
16   attract pull together, unlike charges, unlike poles and gravity all do this
17   rocket application of Newton's third law to put satellites into orbit
18   movement changing position when a force is applied
19   force field region where an object experiences a force due to either gravity, magnetism or electricity
20   force push or pull



   Newton’s laws Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   3   Sc method safety

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   safety flame yellow Bunsen flame obtained by having the air holes closed
  2   method the way in which an experiment is done
  3   control the experimental set up that is used for comparison with the treatment
  4   observation what has been seen to happen
  5   cooperation this is necessary so that people can work together with the limited equipment available
  6   safety being careful in the laboratory so that equipment is not damaged and people are not hurt
  7   aim the purpose of an experiment
  8   hot equipment one of the dangers in a laboratory, when using a Bunsen Burner to do things
  9   chemical these substances can be poisonous and corrosive and so they must be handled with care
10   care this is always taken in the laboratory so that no one is hurt and equipment is not damaged
11   glassware these pieces of equipment are easily broken to form sharp edges and so must be handled with care
12   heating flame blue Bunsen flame obtained by having the air holes open
13   hypothesis an idea that is used to explain something that has happened. Used as the basis for an experiment
14   variable factors that can vary during an experiment. Only one is allowed to vary between treatment and control
15   goggles eye protection that needs to be worn during experiments
16   open when heating with a Bunsen Burner this is how the air holes should be set to provide clean heat
17   closed when lighting a Bunsen Burner this is how the air holes should be set
18   conclusion summing up at the end of an experiment, related back to the aim
19   result the effect of the method
20   treatment experimental set up in which only one variable is allowed to vary in a particular way



   Sc method safetyTwo page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   4   Particle theory of matter

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   interaction attraction, repulsion or collision of particles of substances
  2   expansion increase in size as particles of matter spread out when heated
  3   liquid particles these particles possess less kinetic energy than the particles in the corresponding gas
  4   heat energy type of energy that causes a change in the kinetic energy of particles of matter
  5   cold lack of heat
  6   random movement moving in unpredictable directions as when particles in a liquid or gas diffuse
  7   contraction decrease in size as particles of matter come closer together when cooled
  8   vibration movement that is characteristic of particles in a solid
  9   kinetic energy energy possessed by moving particles
10   atoms smallest particles of which an element is composed
11   moving particles of all substances are doing this, one of the following, vibration, sliding, or rapid movement
12   bouncing particles of a gas do this when they interact with each other and the sides of their container
13   particles the tiny pieces of which matter is composed, atoms, molecules
14   rapid movement diffusion movement that is characteristic of particles in a gas
15   molecules groups of atoms forming descrete particles
16   heat a form of energy that causes a change in hotness or coldness of a body
17   diffusion random movement of particles from one place to another
18   vapour particles these particles possess more kinetic energy than the particles in the corresponding liquid
19   sliding motion diffusion movement that is characteristic of particles in a liquid
20   temperature a measure of the hotness or coldness of a body



   Particle theory of matter Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   5   Properties of solid, liquid, gas; change of state

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   boiling rapid change of state from liquid water to water vapour (gaseous water)
  2   melting change of state from solid to liquid
  3   adding energy this is being done in order to convert liquid particles to gaseous particles
  4   dense term describing the situation where particles of matter are closely packed together as in uranium, lead, iron
  5   contraction decrease in the distance between particles resulting in higher density eg, cold water compared to hot water
  6   density amount of matter per volume, lead has a lot of this, feathers have little
  7   solid state of matter in which particles are not able to diffuse or be compressed closer together
  8   high gas pressure force on a container used by a large amount of gas particles compressed
  9   expansion increase in distance between particles resulting in lower density, eg water compared to water vapour
10   freezing change of state from liquid to solid
11   liquid state of matter with particles able to diffuse, but not compressible
12   fixed shape not diffusible, like particles in a solid
13   unfixed shape diffusible, like particles in gases and liquids
14   evaporation change of state from liquid to gas
15   condensation change of state from gas to liquid
16   gas pressure force exerted by gas particles on their container because they are rapidly moving and bouncing off the container
17   fixed volume incompressible, like solids and liquid
18   low gas pressure force on a container used by a small amount of separated gas particles colliding on the sides of the container
19   gas state of matter in which particles diffuse freely and in which the particles can be compressed closer together
20   no fixed volume compressible, like particles in gases



   Properties of solid, liquid, gas; change of stateTwo page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   6   Cells

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   xylem plant cell that carries water up the stem
  2   cell membrane structure surrounding cells which control the entry and exit of substances, nutrients and oxygen in, wastes out
  3   nerve cell human cell that carries messages around the body
  4   nutrient substances needed by cells that move in through the cell membrane, eg food, water, amino acids, glucose
  5   organism a living thing
  6   chloroplast part of a plant cell that carries out photosynthesis to make food using sunlight energy
  7   unicellular single celled organism, eg bacteria, yeast, amoeba, diatoms.
  8   cell theory all living things are made of cells and the products of cells, cells are the smallest unit capable of independent existence, cells come from cells
  9   cell wall structure around plant cells which provides support for the plant
10   specialisation having a special function like the cells in multicellular organisms
11   cells basic building units from which living things are made
12   plant cell type of cell that has cell wall, chloroplasts, and large vacuoles in addition to nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane
13   differentiation changing of a cell in a multicellular organism during its development so that it can carry out a particular function
14   multicellular many celled organism, eg plants, animals, fungi, people
15   animal cell type of cell that has only nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane (no wall, no chloroplasts, no large vacuole)
16   nucleus control centre of the cell, contains genes
17   phloem plant cell that carries food around the plant
18   cytoplasm part of the cell outside the nucleus and within the cell membrane where the chemical changes carried out by the cell occur
19   wastes substances produced by cells which are poisonous to the cells and removed out through the cell membrane: ammonia, carbon dioxide
20   red blood cell human cell that carries oxygen around the body



   Cells Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   7   Energy forms 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   parallel circuit type of circuit used in house light wiring so that if one light globe blows the others will still operate
  2   waves carriers of energy from a disturbance
  3   ear sense organ that receives sound waves so we can hear
  4   heat energy released by a resistor in an electric circuit
  5   parallel circuit part of an electric circuit that has more than one pathway for the passage of electric current
  6   kinetic energy type of energy that electrical energy is converted into by an electric motor
  7   medium material that transmits waves carrying energy, eg sound waves and water surface waves
  8   switch device for making or breaking a connection in an electric circuit
  9   echo a bounced or reflected sound wave
10   series circuit an electric circuit that has only one pathway for the flow of current
11   propagation transmission of waves through a medium
12   light energy released by a globe in an electric circuit
13   electric current moving electricity
14   conductor material that allows the passage of an electric current
15   one out all out a feature of series circuits such as Christmas lights
16   insulator material that blocks the passage of an electric current, used to cover wires to prevent short circuits
17   circuit a series of wires that permit an electric current to flow
18   resistor a special piece of an electric circuit that is a poor conductor
19   vacuum an empty space through which sound cannot travel
20   fuse a part of an electric circuit that will melt if the circuit is overloaded breaking the circuit and preventing the flow of current



   Energy forms 1 Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   8   Energy forms 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   convection transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of heated particles of a gas or liquid
  2   convection current the circulation of a gas or fluid produced by the tendency of a warm mass to rise and a cold mass to descend
  3   reflection bouncing of a ray of light when it strikes a shiny object
  4   absorption the taking up or absorbing of light and heat that occurs when these forms of wave energy strike dark objects
  5   metals solids that are the best conductors of heat
  6   straight lines path followed by light (and heat radiation) through a medium such as air
  7   vacuum an empty space through which light can travel
  8   300 000 000 speed of light in metres per second
  9   radiation transfer of heat by the process of giving out energy in the form of electromagnetic heat waves
10   rises hot air does this
11   eyes sense organs with which we see
12   electromagnetic term describing the type of wave that light and heat are
13   insulator material that prevents the passage of heat by conduction or convection
14   onshore wind movement of air that results from convection caused by land heating up faster by day than seawater
15   light radiant energy that enables us to see
16   conduction transmission of heat by transferring of energy from one particle to another
17   330 speed of sound in air in metres per second
18   photosynthesis chemical change in plants to produce food using light energy
19   respiration chemical change in plants and animals to release energy from food
20   refraction bending of a ray of light as it passes into a new medium



   Energy forms 2Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   9   Energy forms 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   repulsion force pushing two charged bodies apart when they have the same charge
  2   warmth we feel this because it is caused by friction when we rub our hands together
  3   attraction force pulling two charged bodies towards each other when they have different charges
  4   walking movement that we undertake by having friction push us forward when we push backwards
  5   no friction situation that occurs when two bodies in contact are not moving
  6   dust tiny pieces of fluff attracted by plastic objects that are charged by rubbing, eg CD's, records, combs
  7   induction means of charging a body electrically by bringing another charged body near it
  8   positive charge on perspex because it loses electrons when rubbed with silk
  9   friction contact force that opposes motion
10   rough type of surface that has the greatest amount of friction
11   negative charge on ebonite because it gains electrons when rubbed with wool
12   smooth type of surface that has the least amount of friction
13   braking using friction to slow or stop a car
14   friction means of charging a body electrically when it is rubbed with an insulator
15   lightning huge electrical discharge that occurs because air masses develop charges
16   opposite direction in which friction acts with respect to the direction of the motion
17   shock disturbance produced by electric current passing into the body when walking on carpet
18   contact means of charging a body electrically by touching it with another charged body
19   heavier type of object that has the most friction when it is moving
20   lighter type of object that has the least friction when it is moving



   Energy forms 3Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   10   Energy forms 4

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   electric motors devices that use electromagnets to convert electrical energy to kinetic energy
  2   hammering means of destroying a magnet: continually dropping or hitting
  3   temporary type of magnet that loses its magnetism quickly, composed of "soft" iron
  4   magnetic field a region around a magnet in which another magnet experiences a force
  5   electromagnets magnets formed when a coil of wire conducts an electric current
  6   repulsion force between two north magnetic poles
  7   universal gravitation term describing gravity as being a force that all objects exert on all other objects in the universe
  8   field lines lines drawn around a magnet indicating the direction a north magnetic pole would move
  9   gravity force of attraction related to the mass of an object
10   attraction force between a north and an south magnetic pole
11   poles parts of a magnet where most of the magnetism is concentrated
12   permanent type of magnet that retains its magnetism for a long period of time
13   solenoid using a coil of wires carrying a current to create a temporary magnet out of a soft iron core
14   north direction in which a north pole on a magnet points when it is suspended and allowed to rotate
15   relay switch device that uses a solenoid to turn on the headlights of a car
16   soft iron pure, or nearly pure iron, not alloyed with other substances like carbon or chromium
17   stroking method of magnetising a piece of iron with a magnet
18   heating a means of destroying a magnet: increasing temperature
19   magnetic strip plastic impregnated with particles of magnetic material for holding objects on refrigerators
20   iron filings particles sprinkled on paper over a magnet to map the magnetic field lines about the magnet



   Energy forms 4Two page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   11   Newton solar system

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   6 000 temperature at the surface of the sun in degrees celsius
  2   < 1 earth year time taken for planets closer to the sun than the earth to revolve around the sun
  3   large gas planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
  4   rotation on axis the cause of day and night and the apparent movement of the sun and moon across the sky
  5   revolving moving around a point in a curved (elliptical or circular) path
  6   150 000 000 distance from earth to the sun in kilometres
  7   MoVE My(J) SUN Please Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
  8   tilting of axis cause of the seasons and the apparent movement of the sun north and south throughout the year
  9   seasons phenomenon on earth that results from the combined effect of the tilt of the earth's axis and the revolution of the earth around the sun
10   104 sun's diameter is this number of times bigger than the diamter of the earth
11   13 000 earth's diameter in kilometres
12   astronomy the study of heavenly bodies
13   moon orbit about earth cause of the phases of the moon during the lunar month
14   lunar month time it takes for the moon to complete one orbit of the earth
15   Pluto object formerly known as a planet that takes 250 earth years to orbit the sun, is about the same size as the earth, has its orbital plane at an angle to the rest of the solar system, temperature about -230oC
16   circular the orbital path of the earth is nearly this shape resulting in relatively constant temperatures on earth
17   small rocky planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
18   planets objects that orbit a star
19   > 1 earth year time taken for planets further from the sun than the earth to revolve around the sun
20   ellipse shape of the orbital path taken by planets as they move around the sun, and oval shape



   Newton solar systemTwo page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   12   Universe and earth structure

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   meteor a mass of stone or metal that enters the earth's atmosphere from space, at enormous speed, burns up forming a shooting star
  2   black holes regions of the universe where the pull of gravity is so strong that nothing can escape, not even light, collapsed stars
  3   cosmic dust fine particles of matter in outer space often forming clouds
  4   galaxy a group of billions of stars forming one system, eg Milky Way
  5   quasars new galaxies in the process of being formed, giving out huge amounts of energy, smaller than galaxies, larger than stars, very distant
  6   light years distance light travels in one years, about 10 million million kilometres
  7   meteorite a mass of stone or metal that has reached the earth from space, a fallen meteor
  8   stars bright heavenly bodies that produce their own light, composed of intensely hot gas
  9   star clusters groups of stars that travel together through space, either globular or open types
10   solar systems stars and their accompanying planets, asteroids, comets
11   comets bodies of gas and icy material that occasionally orbit near the sun and become visible. They often have very elliptical orbits
12   supernova a star which explodes becoming much brighter than even a nova
13   nebulae a mass of dust or a cluster of stars in space,
14   constellation a group of nearby stars that forms a pattern in the night sky
15   Milky Way a broad band of light that stretches across the sky at night. It is produced by countless stars and luminous clouds of gas too far away to be seen separately
16   asteroid one of thousands of small objects that orbit the sun mainly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
17   Magellanic clouds the nearest galaxies that are 150 000 light years away, seen in the southern half of the sky as two small clouds
18   nova a star that suddenly becomes much brighter and then gradually fades to its normal brightness over weeks or years
19   pulsars stars that give out pulses of radio waves at regular intervals
20   universe the whole of reality, every thing there is, the whole of existing things, includes galaxies, solar systems, nebulae



   Universe and earth structureTwo page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   13   Earth structure and atmosphere

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   water vapour gaseous water in the air, makes up to 5% of air depending on the source of air and its temperature
  2   air a mixture of gases that surrounds the earth, being held there by the gravitational force of the earth
  3   argon a noble gas that is extremely inert that makes up about 1 % of dry air, and is used in incandescent light globes so that the metal filament will not burn during use
  4   atmosphere the air that surrounds the earth
  5   CFC's substances that breakdown the ozone layer and reduce its effectiveness in shielding out harmful UV radiation from the sun. Chloro-fluoro-carbons
  6   ozone atmsopheric gas molecule made of 3 oxygen atoms which protects us from harmful UV radiation from the sun
  7   crust solid outer layer of the earth, 8 to 64 km thick
  8   lithosphere solid, rocky part of the earth including the crust
  9   outer core molten iron and nickel near the centre of the earth, 2000 km thick
10   hydrosphere water on the surface of the earth
11   oxygen gas making up 21% of dry air, needed for us to breathe, produced during photosynthesis by plants
12   greenhouse gases atmospheric gases that absorb heat radiated from the earth helping to maintain average temperatures about 20 oC, eg carbon dioxide, water vapour methane
13   space the near emptiness in which all objects in the universe move, almost a complete vacuum
14   greenhouse effect retention of heat in the atmsophere by greenhouse gases causing increased air temperatures and possible future environmental catastrophe
15   core central part of the earth, composed of two parts: inner and outer
16   inner core solid iron and nickel part at the centre of the earth, radius 1400 km
17   asthenosphere a region of the earth's mantle directly beneath the lithosphere (rocky part), consisting of hot, soft or weak rock material, about 130 km thick
18   carbon dioxide gas making up about 0.04% of dry air, produced by animals during respiration, used up by plants during photosynthesis
19   mantle the part of the earth beneath the crust and above the outer core, composed of rock, 2800 km thick
20   nitrogen gas making up 78% of dry air, inert substance



   Earth structure and atmosphereTwo page printable: Student Answer Sheet followed by the Answers


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Answers: Sheet   14   Hydrosphere and lithosphere

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   sedimentary rocks sandstone, shale, conglomerate, coal, mudstone, rock salt, volcanic breccia, tuff (volcanic ash)
  2   rock minerals quartz, mica, feldspar, augite, olivine, calcite
  3   neap tide small tides that result when the gravity of the moon and sun are at right angles to each other (first and last quarter moon times
  4   precipitation falling of water through air from clouds in the forms of rain, hail, sleet, snow
  5   rock strata layers of sedimentary rock that were formed from horizontal layers of sediments
  6   erosion removal of soil or rock by wind, running water, moving glacier ice
  7   river valley a group of landscapes formed when running water erodes away soil and weathered rock materials, includes waterfalls, meandering river, flood plains
  8   physical change changes in which no new substance is formed, eg, weathering by changes in rock temperature, compaction of sediments by pressure of overlying materials
  9   condensation conversion of water vapour to droplets of water in clouds or on the surface of cold objects (dew)
10   chemical change change in which new substances are formed, eg, weathering of limestone by acid in water, cementation of sediments after compaction during sedimentary rock formation
11   drainage movement of liquid water from areas above sea level (land) to the ocean under the influence of earth's gravity
12   deposition dropping sediments from agents of erosion when they slow down and do not have sufficient energy to carry the soil or rock particles
13   evaporation conversion of water (liquid) to gaseous water vapour
14   minerals pure substances that are mixed together to form rocks
15   compaction pressing together of rocks or sediments to form a sedimentary rock
16   spring tide large tides that result when the gravity of the moon and sun are in the same direction (new or full moon times)
17   ocean shore a group of landscapes formed when energy in waves erodes and deposits materials along a coastline, assisted by the action of wind, eg headlands, sandy beaches, sand dunes
18   water cycle a cycle in nature in which water evaporates from oceans, forms clouds that move over land, rains and then drains back to the ocean
19   tides the movement of the waters of the earth in response to the gravitational pull of the moon and sun
20   weathering the chemical or physical breakdown of rocks into smaller particles



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Answers: Sheet   15   Hydrosphere and lithosphere and details of rocks and minerals

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   shale sedimentary rock composed of fine particles, formed from sediments at the bottom of a lake
  2   minerals rock forming substances, quartz, calcite, olivine, mica, feldspar
  3   olivine greenish coloured mineral, hardness 6
  4   quartz glassy mineral, hardness 7
  5   coal sedimentary rock formed from the remains of plants that grew millions of years ago
  6   sedimentary rocks that form from the compaction and cementation of sediments
  7   basalt igneous rock, black in colour, fine grained, volcanic origin
  8   calcite main mineral in limestone, reacts with acid to make carbon dioxide
  9   mica mineral that is composed of layers of shiny sheets, soft and brittle
10   Moh's scale a hardness scale that is used to identify minerals by rubbing them against each other to see which one gets scratched
11   limestone sedimentary rock formed from coral and shellfish deposits, reacts with dilute acid to produce a fizz of carbon dioxide
12   conglomerate sedimentary rock composed of rounded pebbles cemented together
13   slate metamorphic rock formed when the sedimentary rock shale is affected by extra heat and pressure
14   felspar mineral that can be creamy, grey or pink in colour, blocky appearance, hardness of 6
15   metamorphic changed rock, formed by the effects of heat and/or pressure on existing rocks
16   granite igneous rock of speckled appearance, three main minerals visible, quartz, feldspar and mica
17   diamond hardest mineral, composed of carbon, used as a gem
18   igneous rock that is formed from molten materials, eg granite from magma, basalt from lava
19   sandstone sedimentary rock formed by the compaction and cementation of sand deposits
20   rocks solid materials from the earths crust composed of mixtures of minerals



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Answers: Sheet   16   First twenty elements

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   hydrogen lightest gas, diatomic, easily ignited and burns with oxygen to make water, H
  2   helium lightest inert gas, monatomic molecule, makes your voice squeaky, He
  3   oxygen colourless, tasteless, odourless diatomic gas that makes up about 20% of air, produced by plants, needed by both plants and animals O
  4   sulfur light yellow solid nonmetallic element, burns with a blue flame, found in matches, gunpowder, fertilizers, medicines, S
  5   fluorine greenish-yellow diatomic gas, poisonous bad-smelling, most reactive nonmetal element, helps prevent tooth decay, F
  6   argon a colourless, odourless inert gas, monatomic, that forms about 1% of the atmosphere, used in electric light bulbs, Ar
  7   sodium a soft, silver-white metal, very reactive, found in table salt Na
  8   beryllium light metal, used in alloys and nuclear reactors, Be
  9   calcium a soft silver white metal, found in limestone, milk, bones, teeth, used in plaster, Ca
10   aluminium strong silver-white light metal that does not corrode easily, used in sauspans, cars, electrical wiring, very abundant, Al
11   chlorine a greenish-yellow bad-smelling poisonous gas, found in table salt, used to disinfect water supplies and as a bleaching agent, Cl
12   carbon nonmetallic organic element, diamond, graphite (lead pencil) and charcoal, alloyed with iron in steel, C
13   neon colourless, odourless, monatomic gas used in electric signs or lamps to give a fiery red glow, Ne
14   lithium light metal, very reactive, used in medicines for manic people, and batteries, Li
15   magnesium light silver-white metal that burns with a dazzling white light, used in fireworks and metal alloys Mg
16   boron nonmetallic element, found in borax, used in fuels, alloys and nuclear reactors, B
17   nitrogen colourless, tasteless, odourless diatomic gas that makes up about 80% of the air, needed to make protein, N
18   silicon solid nonmetallic element, very abundant, in quartz, used to make semi conductors for transistors and integrated circuits, Si
19   phosphorus solid nonmetallic element, needed in living things to transfer energy during chemical reactions, red and white forms, P
20   potassium a soft silver white metal, very reactive, used in fertilizers called potash, K



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Answers: Sheet   17   First 20 symbols

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Al strong silver-white light metal that does not corrode easily, used in sauspans, cars, electrical wiring, very abundant, Aluminium
  2   Cl a greenish-yellow bad-smelling poisonous gas, found in table salt, used to disinfect water supplies and as a bleaching agent, Chlorine
  3   H lightest gas, diatomic, easily ignited and burns with oxygen to make water, Hydrogen
  4   He lightest inert gas, monatomic molecule, makes your voice squeaky, Helium
  5   B nonmetallic element, found in borax, used in fuels, alloys and nuclear reactors, Boron
  6   Ne colourless, odourless, monatomic gas used in electric signs or lamps to give a fiery red glow, Neon
  7   Ca a soft silver white metal, found in limestone, milk, bones, teeth, used in plaster, Calcium
  8   Na a soft, silver-white metal, very reactive, found in table salt Sodium
  9   Mg light silver-white metal that burns with a dazzling white light, used in fireworks and metal alloys Magnesium
10   K a soft silver white metal, very reactive, used in fertilizers called potash, Potassium
11   S light yellow solid nonmetallic element, burns with a blue flame, found in matches, gunpowder, fertilizers, medicines, Sulfur
12   Be light metal, used in alloys and nuclear reactors, Beryllium
13   Ar a colourless, odourless inert gas, monatomic, that forms about 1% of the atmosphere, used in electric light bulbs, Argon
14   Si solid nonmetallic element, very abundant, in quartz, used to make semi conductors for transistors and integrated circuits, Silicon
15   F greenish-yellow diatomic gas, poisonous bad-smelling, most reactive nonmetal element, helps prevent tooth decay, Fluorine
16   Li light metal, very reactive, used in batteries, Lithium
17   O colourless, tasteless, odourless diatomic gas that makes up about 20% of air, produced by plants, needed by both plants and animals Oxygen
18   C nonmetallic organic element, diamond, graphite (lead pencil) and charcoal, alloyed with iron in steel, Carbon
19   P solid nonmetallic element, needed in living things to transfer energy during chemical reactions, red and white forms, Phosphorus
20   N colourless, tasteless, odourless diatomic gas that makes up about 80% of the air, needed to make protein, Nitrogen



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Answers: Sheet   18   Metals and nonmetals

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   nucleus central heavy part of an atom composed of protons and neutrons, positively charged
  2   majority relative number of elements that are metals
  3   atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of the atoms of an element
  4   monatomic gases helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon
  5   metal examples iron, copper, silver, gold, aluminium, sodium magnesium
  6   metals shiny solids that are malleable and ductile and good conductors of electricity and heat
  7   conductor substance, metal, that allows the passage of electricity or heat
  8   minority relative number of elements that are nonmetals
  9   diatomic gases nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, hydrogen
10   liquid elements mercury and bromine
11   electrons subatomic particle that permits metals to conduct electricity because they can move from atom to atom
12   nonmetal examples sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, oxygen, nitrogen, iodine, fluorine
13   metalloids elements that have both metal and nonmetal properties, boron, silicon, germanium; semiconductors
14   electrons light negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus of the atom
15   malleable able to be beaten into a sheet, a metal property
16   ductile able to be drawn into wire, a metal property
17   neutron neutrally charged particle in the nucleus of the atom
18   electrons subatomic particle that takes part in chemical changes because it is located on the outside of atoms
19   nonmetal dull, brittle non-conducting element
20   proton positively charged particle in the nucleus of the atom which determines which element the atoms belongs to



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Answers: Sheet   19   Mixtures

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   food a mixture of protein, carbohydrate, fat, water, vitamins, minerals
  2   sedimentation mixture separation technique for separating solids from liquids where the solid falls to the bottom of the container, eg soil from water
  3   distillation mixture separation technique for separating miscible liquids that have different boiling points, eg alcohol from water
  4   milk a mixture of casein, water, fat, lactose sugar, baby's food
  5   solution a mixture of a solvent and the solute that has dissolved in it
  6   decanting mixture separation technique for obtaining the liquid left when a solid sediments, eg, water from sand and water mixture
  7   seawater a mixture of water and salt found in the oceans
  8   sieving mixture separation technique for separating solids that have different sizes or diameters, eg sand from gravel
  9   solvent a substance that dissolves other substances
10   chromatography mixture separation technique for separating solutes by passing them in their solvent through an absorbent medium like blotting paper, eg colours in a felt tip pen
11   crystallisation mixture separation technique for separating mixtures of solutes based on differences in solubility, eg sodium chloride from potassium nitrate
12   magnetic attraction mixture separation technique for separating iron from other metals, eg, iron and aluminium mixture
13   evaporation mixture separation technique for separating a solute from its solvent by boiling away the solvent eg salt from seawater
14   solute a substance that becomes dissolved in another substance
15   condensation mixture separation technique for separating gases based on differences in boiling points, eg nitrogen from air
16   soil a mixture of weathered rock materials, water and air in which plants grow
17   air a mixture of gases, mainly oxygen and nitrogen, some water vapour and carbon dioxide
18   filtration mixture separation technique for separating solids from liquids by passing the mixture through porous paper, eg mud from water
19   water an important solvent that dissolves polar substances such as salts and alcohol
20   kerosene a non-polar solvent, dissolves other non-polar substances such as petrol, oil, grease



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Answers: Sheet   20   Compounds, elements, mixtures

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   element a simple substance such as gold, iron, oxygen or hydrogen, that cannot be separated into simple parts by ordinary chemical means
  2   temperature decrease sign of a chemical reaction, due to heat being absorbed in the process
  3   decomposition making simpler substances, reacting a compound to form elements, eg mercury and oxygen made from HgO (mercuric oxide)
  4   endothermic term describing a chemical reaction in which heat is absorbed and the temperature falls
  5   precipitate sign of a chemical reaction, due to the formation of a solid when two solutions are mixed
  6   rearranged this happens to the atoms in substances when they undergo chemical reaction, allows for mass to be conserved
  7   compound a pure substance composed of more than one element, can be broken down chemically
  8   chemical change a change in which new substances are formed, occurs when elements or compounds react
  9   synthesis making a more complex substance, reacting two elements to form a compound, eg MgO (compound) made from oxygen and magnesium (elements)
10   gas sign of a chemical reaction, fizzing
11   colour sign of a chemical reaction, due to a change in the appearance or hue
12   exothermic term describing a chemical reaction in which heat is released and temperature rises
13   mixture more than one element and/or compound physically combined, and easily separated by physical means
14   varied composition feature of mixtures, they can have different proportions of component compounds and elements depending on the source
15   element a pure substance composed of one type of atom, cannot be broken down chemically
16   physical change a change in which no new substances are formed, occurs when substances are moved, deformed, change state
17   compound a substance formed by chemical combination of two or more substances in definite proportions by weight
18   constant composition feature of compounds, they have the same proportions of component elements no matter where they come from
19   chemical reaction a chemical change in which new substances are produced
20   temperature increase sign of a chemical reaction, due to heat being produced



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Answers: Sheet   21   Atomic theory 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   mass number total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
  2   neutrons the number of these in the nucleus of an atom is found by subtracting atomic number from mass number
  3   neutron neutrally charged sub-atomic particle, mass of 1 amu, found in the nucleus
  4   neutral charge condition in which the number of protons equals the number of electrons, as in atoms
  5   proton positively charged sub-atomic particle, mass of 1 amu, found in the nucleus
  6   atomic number a number given to each element that indicates the number of protons in the nucleus.
  7   isotope atom of an element that has the same atomic number but has a different mass number indicating a different number of neutrons in the nucleus eg C-12 compared to C-14
  8   electron negatively charged sub-atomic particle, mass of 1/1835 amu, found orbiting the nucleus
  9   electrons sub-atomic particles that take part in chemical changes, atoms can either gain, lose or share them
10   sub-atomic particles particles that are smaller than atoms from which atoms are made, eg proton, neutron, electron
11   neutral charge on an atom and on a neutron
12   nucleus central core of an atom composed of protons and neutrons
13   1 amu mass of a proton or a neutron, one atomic mass unit
14   positive charge on a proton
15   nuclear change a change that occurs when the number of protons or neutrons in the nucleus changes
16   chemical change a change that occurs when the number of electrons orbiting a nucleus changes. The element still has the same atomic number and mass number
17   atom smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element
18   atomic weight average of all the masses of all the atoms of an element
19   electcron shells regions around the nuclei of atoms in which electrons orbit
20   negative charge on an electron



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Answers: Sheet   22   Atomic theory 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   helium this element has a mass number of 4 and an atomic number of 2
  2   phosphorus group 5 element, valency 3-, contains 31 protons and neutrons, 15 electrons
  3   nitrogen this element has a mass number of 14, and an atomic number of 7
  4   period a horizontal row of the periodic table, each element across the row has the same chemical properties as the element immediately above or below
  5   carbon the atoms of this element contain 6 protons, 6 neutrons and 6 electrons
  6   ion a charged particle produced by gaining or losing one or more electrons from an atom
  7   negative 1 (-1) valency of elements in group 7 of the periodic table because they can gain one electron to complete their outer electron shell, eg fluorine, chlorine
  8   valency combining power of elements, related to the number of electrons in the outer electron shell of the atom
  9   unreactive group 8 elements are this, because they have 8 electrons in their outer shell
10   group a vertical column of the periodic table in which all the elements have the same number of electrons in the outer electron shell
11   cation a positively charge particle produced by losing one or more electrons from the atom, eg Na+, Al3+
12   lithium group 1 element, valency 1+, contains 7 protons and neutrons, 3 electrons
13   shared electrons non-metals form covalent bonds with other non-metals by having these.
14   hydrogen the atom of this element contains only one proton and one electron
15   lithium what element? atomic number 3, number of neutrons 4, number of electrons 3
16   positive 2 (2+) valency of elements in group 2 of the periodic table because they tend to lose the two electrons in their outer electron shell, eg magnesium, calcium
17   periodic table a table arranging the elements into horizontal rows called periods, and vertical columns called groups, based on atomic numbers and chemistry
18   sulfur group 8 element, valency 2-, contains 32 protons and neutrons, and 16 electrons
19   potassium what element? atomic number 19, number of neutrons 20, and number of electrons 19
20   anion a negatively charged particle produced by gaining one or more electrons to the atom, eg Cl-, O2-



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Answers: Sheet   23   Elements, more details

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   argon element with the following electronic configuration and a valency of 0 because the outer shell is full: 2,8,8
  2   molecular element a particle consisting of more than one atom of the same type bonded together, eg oxygen O2, hydrogen H2
  3   covalent compound substance composed of atoms of different elements sharing electrons in order to satisfy their valence requirements, eg sulfur dioxide SO2
  4   atom smallest unit of an element
  5   boiling point a physical property that is affected by the strength of bonds between ions or molecules, temperature of change from liquid to gas
  6   metals type of element that usually forms positive ions because they have a small number of electrons in their outer electron shell
  7   molecules a particle consisting of more than one atom bonded together
  8   sodium element with the following electronic configuration and a valency of 1+ because the outer shell tends to lose one electron: 2,8,1
  9   conduction ionic compounds can do this with respect to electricity when melted or dissolved because ions carry current
10   chlorine element with the following electronic configuration and a valency of 1- because the outer shell can hold one more electron: 2,8,7
11   non-conductor term describing solid ionic compounds with regards to carrying electric current because the ions are not free to move
12   non-metals type of element that usually forms negative ions because they have close to 8 electrons in the outer electron shell
13   melting point a physical property that is affected by the strength of bonds between ions or molecules, temperature of change from solid to liquid
14   insulating molecular substances are this because they do not have either electrons or ions that are free to move to carry a current
15   electron shell one of these is filled as each element across a period of the periodic table is considered, up to an outer shell limit of 8 electrons
16   molecular compound a particle consisting of more than one atom of different types bonded together, eg water H2O, methane CH4
17   covalent bond bond between atoms of molecular substances formed by sharing of valence electrons between the atoms, found in fluorine F2, ammonia NH3
18   ionic bond bond between ions of metal and non-metal elements, eg, MgO
19   ionic compound substance composed of anions and cations bonded together because of their negative and positive charges of their ions, eg NaCl
20   valency combining power of atoms of elements related to the number of electrons in the outer shell



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Answers: Sheet   24   Compounds and reactions 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   mass this is conserved during chemical changes because atoms are rearranged rather than created or lost
  2   non-electrolyte a substance that dissolves in water but the solution does not conduct electricity, eg, sugar, methyl alcohol
  3   organic compound that contains carbon, formed by living things eg sugar, fat, protein, petrol
  4   inorganic compounds that do not contain carbon eg copper sulfate, nitric acid, ammonia
  5   acid a sour tasting compound that reacts with a base to form a salt, contains hydrogen ions H+, eg HCl, HNO3
  6   matter law of conservation of .... : matter cannot be created or destroyed by ordinary chemical means
  7   alkali a bitter tasting soluble compound that neutralises acids to form salts, turns red litmus to blue, contains hydroxide ions OH-, eg NaOH, KOH
  8   balanced equation a consequence of the law of conservation of matter during chemical change enabling us to predict new arrangements of atoms as new compounds
  9   halides salts or ionic compounds formed from acids such as HF (fluorides), HCl (chlorides), HBr (bromides)
10   carbonates salts or ionic compounds formed from carbonic acid, eg CaCO3
11   salt chemical compound formed when acid and base react, contains metal and non-metal ions eg, sodium chloride NaCl
12   sulfates salts or ionic compounds formed from sulfuric acid, eg K2SO4
13   nitrates salts or ionic compounds formed from nitric acid, eg KNO3, Mg(NO3)2
14   ionic compound compound formed from a metal and a non-metal where the metal atom has lost electrons to the non-metal atom, eg HCl, NaOH, KBr, CuO
15   balanced valencies used to determine compound formulae because compounds have an overall neutral charge
16   electrolyte a substance which dissolves in water to form a solution that conducts electricity, salts KNO3, acids H2SO4, and alkalis Ca(OH)2
17   base a chemical compound that reacts with acid to form salts, includes alkalis, metal oxides, insoluble hydroxides,and carbonates eg KOH, MgO, AgOH, CaCO3
18   hydroxides bases containing OH- ions, includes soluble alkalis eg KOH, Cu(OH)2
19   covalent molecular compound formed from two non-metals that share electrons to complete their outer electron shells, eg, water, carbon dioxide
20   oxides compounds formed when any element combines with oxygen, eg water (H2O), CaO, SO2, PbO



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Answers: Sheet   25   Compounds and reactions 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   slaked lime Ca(OH)2
  2   hydrogen sulfuric acid + magnesium --> magnesium sulfate + ?
  3   carbon dioxide CO2
  4   carbonate acid + ? --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
  5   ozone O3
  6   acid ? + metal --> salt + hydrogen
  7   carbon dioxide nitric acid + calcium carbonate --> calcium nitrate + water + ?
  8   lime CaCO3
  9   gypsum CaSO4
10   salt acid + alkali --> ? + water
11   water hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide --> sodium chloride + ?
12   base acid + ? --> salt + water
13   table salt NaCl
14   alcohol C2H5OH
15   epsom salt MgSO4
16   quick lime CaO
17   water H2O
18   glucose C6H12O6
19   hydrogen sulfide H2S
20   ammonia NH3



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Answers: Sheet   26   Reactions

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   neutralisation reaction in which acid and alkali react to remove the corrosiveness of both substances making a salt and water
  2   indicators substances that are used to show the completion of the neutralisation reaction between acid and alkali, the substances show the presence of either acid or alkali
  3   acid + alkali substances reacted together to --> salt + water during neutralisation
  4   red colour of litmus in the presence of an acid
  5   synthesis production of a more complicated substance from simpler ones, as when metal reacts with non metal
  6   decomposition reaction in which a complicated compound is broken down to simpler compounds or elements
  7   corrosion reaction in which metals are eaten away, production of rust from iron
  8   combustion process of burning, rapid oxidation accompanied by heat and light production as in burning fuel
  9   petrol + oxygen substances reacted together to --> water + carbon dioxide during combustion
10   titration determination of the amount of a substance in a solution by measuring the amount of a different solution of known concentration that must be added to complete a chemical change, eg acid + alkali with an indicator
11   precipitation reaction in which a solid is made when two solutions are mixed
12   iron + oxygen substances reacted together to --> iron oxide or rust, during corrosion
13   acid + metal substances reacted together to --> salt + hydrogen
14   burning rapid combustion process that produces a flame
15   acid + carbonate substances reacted together to --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
16   no change this happens to the colour of litmus that has been added to water or a salt solution (red stays red, blue stays blue)
17   water substance reacted to --> hydrogen and oxygen during decomposition by electrolysis
18   acid + bicarbonate substances reacted together to --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
19   blue colour of litmus in the presence of an alkali
20   acid + base substances reacted together to --> salt + water (bases include metal oxides and hydroxides



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Answers: Sheet   27   Big bang 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   red shift also called Doppler effect: increase in wavelenght of radiation from galaxies as they move rapidly away from earth, indicating an expanding universe
  2   same age hypothesised age of all the galaxies as they were formed from the material that issued after the big bang
  3   big bang a model used to explain the evolution of the present universe from the explosion that started the universe
  4   Friedman used Einstein's equations and showed the universe to be expanding
  5   strong radiation content of the primordial fireball of a rapidly expanding region immediately after the big bang
  6   antimatter that which is composed of antiatoms: antiprotons (-), positrons (+), and antineutrons
  7   faint radio waves radiation in all parts of the present universe left over from the radiation in the original primordial fireball
  8   matter that which is composed of atoms, protons (+), neutrons, electrons (-)
  9   dark night sky night time observation that indicated that stars must not be present in all parts of "space", this required a complex explanation
10   Einstein provided equations explaining the universe in his theory of relativity
11   matter type of particles that were in excess in the universe immediately after the Big Bang
12   Gammow proposed that the background radiation from the Big Bang should still exist; it was discovered 20 years later
13   annihilate matter and antimatter do this to each other when they come together with the release of electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays)
14   Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding, noting Doppler effect or red shift of wavelength of light from distant galaxies
15   galaxies star systems formed from clumps of matter that blew out of the primordial fireball as it expanded
16   hydrogen main form of matter left in the primordial fireball after it had cooled down
17   helium form of matter together with hydrogen (the main form) left in the primordial fireball after it had cooled down
18   gravity force that condensed matter into galaxies, stars, and solar systems after the big bang
19   primeval atom hyothesised original particle of the universe which was extremely compact, dense and hot, this aspect is not part of the Big Bang model
20   another big bang the expected result of a universe that expands, then contracts again; the result would be another universe similar to present one



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Answers: Sheet   28   Big bang 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   red shift evidence that the universe is expanding, related to longer wavelengths of light observed in characteristic line spectra for elements
  2   created in the Big Bang fundamental sub-atomic particles, matter and energy, space and time
  3   by 3 minutes after Big Bang protons and neutrons nucleosynthesise to form deuterium and then helium and some lithium nuclei
  4   in 1st second after Big Bang annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs; separation of the 4 basic forces: strong and weak nuclear forces, electromagnetic and gravity; temperature drop; formation of protons, neutrons, electrons, positrons, photons, neutrinos
  5   cosmic background radiation microwave radiation indicating a calculated, predicted, cooled universe of 3K, an afterglow, evidence of the Big Bang
  6   flat universe model after Friedmann: universe expands slowly until it stops for eternity on the verge of collapsing
  7   Doppler effect change in pitch of sound depending on relative motion of the observer and the source. Light undergoes a similar change in frequency or colour
  8   Einstein's equation mass and energy are different forms of the same entity, hence E = mc2
  9   by 300 000 years after Big Bang atoms form as electrons combine with nuclei, light radiated (photons trapped inside universe to this point)
10   radio waves electromagnetic radiation emitted from pulsars, extremely dense spinning matter with a huge magnetic field producing these waves
11   line spectrum colours produced when the atoms of an element are heated so the electrons become excited and emit particular colours as they return to their stable position
12   Albert Einstein German physicist, AD ~1906, Special Theory of Relativity using time as a fourth dimension and explaining that gravity was the result of the curvature of four-dimensional space (the space-time continuum)
13   by 15 billion years after Big Bang galaxies, stars, planets formed from atoms of universe,
14   microwaves background electromagnetic radiation indicating the the radiation that was in the original expanding primordial fireball
15   light year distance in space: the distance light can travel in one earth year at the speed of light, 9.46 thousand million kilometres
16   light electromagnetic radiation used to study the universe, in the visible range, so we can see stars, planets, galaxies, and observe Doppler effect
17   Edwin Hubble American astronomer, AD ~1930, discovered cosmological red shift (due to expanding universe), Andromeda galaxy, and more distant galaxies are moving away faster than closer galaxies
18   open universe model after Friedmann: below a certain critical density of matter the universe will expand forever
19   closed universe model after Friedmann: above a certain critical density of matter the universe will eventually contract and result in another Big Bang, pulsating
20   speeding up the rate of expansion of the universe appears to be doing this according to recent research (Brian Schmidt, 1998, NSW), ie open universe



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Answers: Sheet   29   Life cycle of stars etc

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   red giant relatively large diameter bright star in which helium is fusing to form heavier atoms, formed after the star has been a main sequence star
  2   pulsar a neutron star formed from a larger mass star after exploding as a supernova, emits pulses of radio waves
  3   red colour of coolest stars, although the giant sized stars emit a lot of energy even though they are this colour
  4   planetary nebula ball-like cloud of gas and dust surrounding small and medium stars near the end of their life cycle, after hydrogen and helium fuel have been used, before white dwarf stage
  5   nuclear reaction once the temperature of a contracting nebula is high enough atomic nuclei begin this type of reaction
  6   supernova huge explosion of a larger mass star towards the end of its life cycle
  7   helium element formed when hydrogen fusion occurs on a star
  8   gravity force that causes contraction of masses of dust and gas to form stars
  9   temperature rise this occurs because of the contraction of gas into a smaller volume releases heat
10   main sequence term referring to the stage in which a star is stable and consistently producing energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen to helium
11   white dwarf small, very dense, white hot star that is the remains of the core of a smaller star after it has run out of hydrogen and helium fuel
12   black hole the final stage of very large mass stars after exploding as a supernova, so dense that light is attracted back resulting in a place of no light
13   blue-white colour of the hottest stars, large masses
14   nova sudden increases in brightness of small and medium mass stars, often associated with white dwarfs
15   nebula large relatively cool mass of gas that can evolve into stars
16   hydrogen fusion nuclear reaction that occurs as a star begins and continues to radiate heat and light
17   short time relative length of time that a large mass star spends as a main sequence star compared to a smaller mass star, eg 1 billion years
18   long time relative length of time that a smaller mass star spends as a main sequence star compared to a large mass star, eg 10 billion years
19   black dwarf cooled down, burnt out cinder left when a white dwarf loses its heat energy
20   our sun a middle aged medium sized main sequence yellow star



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Answers: Sheet   30   Ecosystems 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   concentrated urine land animal adaptation to dry conditions, reducing the amount of water lost when wastes are removed from the body
  2   behavioural adaptations activity feature of a living thing that assists it to survive in its natural environment, eg migration
  3   cold environmental condition lacking heat, requiring special adaptations such as hibernation, migration, and warm bloodedness
  4   impervious eggshells land animal adaptation to dry conditions, preventing loss of water from eggs
  5   thick cuticle plant adaptation to arid conditions, an outer layer on leaves impervious to water movement
  6   arid dry land conditions, such as those found in desert regions
  7   warm blooded adapation of birds and mammals to variations in the environmental temperature
  8   functional adaptation internal function of living things that assist in survival, eg producing concentrated urine, closing stomates
  9   water liquid that needs to be conserved in land environment, requiring adaptations such as internal respiratory organs, thick cuticle, concentrated urine
10   hollow bones adaptation of birds to reduce weight but still retain bone strength
11   sunken stomates plant adaptation to arid conditions, stomates below the main leaf surface to reduce water loss by transpiration
12   migration land animal adaptation to avoid extreme conditions by moving to a more suitable environment
13   structural adaptation part or colour of a living thing that assists in its survival in its natural environment eg, internal lungs
14   environment the conditions surrounding and affecting a living thing
15   streamlining adaptation of fish to improve speed of movement through water
16   adaptation a feature of a living thing that assists in its survival in its natural environment
17   feathers adaptation of birds to insulate and help maintain a constant warm body temperature
18   internal respiratory organs land animal adaptation to dry conditions, reducing water loss from respiratory organs during breathing
19   fur adaptation of mammals to insulate and help maintain a constant warm body temperature
20   hibernation land animal adaptation to avoid extreme cold by sleeping with a lowered body temperature



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Answers: Sheet   31   Ecosystems 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   food web a complex set of food chains that show how consumers rely on a variety of producers and/or other consumers for food energy
  2   drought resistant adaptation of plants that live in places of unpredictable rainfall so that they can survive between showers of rain
  3   food chain a simple series of organisms showing a producer and one or more consumers
  4   fire resistant adaptation of plants that live in fire prone areas to enable them to survive fire, eg, underground buds, seeds requiring heat treatment to germinate
  5   unpredictable term describing the nature of the Australian environment with respect to rainfall and floods
  6   respiration process carried out by both producers and consumers to release the chemical energy stored in glucose
  7   biomass pyramid diagram showing the relative masses of producers and consumers at each level
  8   carnivore second or later oder consumers, meat eaters, eg eagle, shark
  9   energy flow this is indicated by arrows in food webs and food chains, going from producers to consumers
10   herbivore first order consumer, animals that eat plants, eg cows, grasshoppers
11   producer to consumer direction of arrows in food chains and food webs showing the direction of energy flow
12   balance situation in an ecosystem in which there is a decrease in the biomass from level to level up a biomass pyramid
13   consumer organism that uses the energy stored by producers during the process of photosynthesis
14   photosynthesis process carried out by producers to store solar energy in the form of chemical energy in glucose
15   seed dormancy adaptation of plants to survive adverse conditions: the seeds do not germinate until suitable oxygen, water and warmth are available
16   omnivore a mixed order consumer that eats both plants and meat, eg people
17   heat treated seeds adaptation of species living in fire prone environment requiring fire to stimulate germination of dormant seeds
18   decomposer organism that breaks down the remains of living things, extracting the last of the energy available and recycling substances
19   ephemeral species term describing species of desert plants that have a short living phase and produce dormant stages (seeds) to avoid extended dry periods
20   producer organism that converts solar energy to glucose which provides chemical potential energy to consumers



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Answers: Sheet   32   Natural resources

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   timber land based renewable resource used for paper and housing
  2   alcohol an alternative to petrol as a fuel, produced by the fermentation of sugar
  3   land based crops products of plants that have been grown in soil or hydroponics
  4   liquid nitrogen resource extracted from air, used to freeze semen used in artificial insemination
  5   petroleum energy resource extracted from the earth and used to produce petrol
  6   resources materials and energy needed by people extracted from air, ocean, earth
  7   made resources a resource that is produced by the actions of people, eg dams, buildings
  8   coal energy resource extracted from the earth as a solid formed from preserved remains of trees
  9   natural gas energy resource extracted from the earth as a gas
10   water resource collected by damming rivers, used for agriculture, hydroelectricity production, industrial and domestic purposes
11   metals resource extracted from minerals that have been mined from the earth
12   land based meat renewable resource that provides food from cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, goats, kangaroos, ducks etc
13   gravel resource extracted from the earth, used to make roads
14   fish meat product of the oceans
15   natural resources a resource that occurs naturally in a region eg forest, coal, mineral
16   non-renewable term that describes a resource that is used up faster than the rate at which it can be restored
17   renewable term describing a resource that continues to be restored as it is used
18   salt resource extracted from sea water by the process of evaporation of sea water in wide shallow made bays
19   oxygen resource extracted from the air, used to burn acetylene in oxy-acetylene equipment
20   uranium resource extracted from the earth and used to provide fissionable material for nuclear power stations



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Answers: Sheet   33   Technology, information collection, energy transformations

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   pH meter device for measuring the acidity of a solution
  2   spectroscopes devices for determining the range of colours in a sample of light
  3   microphone device for picking up sounds so that they can be recorded or amplified
  4   globe device used to convert electrical energy into light
  5   stove device used to convert electrical energy in heat for cooking
  6   ammeter instrument for measuring the flow of current in an electrical circuit
  7   light microscopes instruments for observing the cells of living things using visible light
  8   voltmeter instrument for measuring the potential difference across a portion of a circuit
  9   electron microscope instrument for observing cells of living things using beams of electrons
10   thermometer device for measuring temperature
11   watches devices for measuring time
12   standard metre the standard of length on which all other distance measurements are based
13   data loggers electronic device that is used gather information (data) over an extended period of time
14   alternator generator used in cars to produce electricity by spinning wires in a magnetic field
15   computers electronic device used to store data from a data logger, and to display derived information as a table or in graphical format
16   motor device that is used to convert other forms of energy into kinetic energy so that a vehicle and be moved, or other forms of work done
17   stain substance that is added to the tissues and cells of organisms in order to highlight structures that are present
18   radio device used for communication, and which can be attached to animals so that their location can be found
19   generator device for making electricity by spinning wires in a magnetic field
20   radiator device used to convert electrical energy into heat that is radiated out in all directions



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Answers: Sheet   34   Science Method Only

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   treatment experimental set up that has the one variable being tested different from the control set up
  2   bias the tendency of a sample to be unrepresentative of all samples in a study or experiment
  3   inference a conclusion obtained by deduction or reasoning about an observation or a theory. Not testable by experiment
  4   model any formula, diagram, physical structure that is used to illustrate a system or scheme in an attempt to understand the system or scheme
  5   repetition to do something over again. This is done in experiments to eliminate bias and to obtain average result
  6   subjective belonging to the thinking of a person rather than to the results of an experiment, being biased opinions and feelings
  7   method the way in which an experiment is done
  8   theory an explanation or a thought that is in the process of being tested by experiment or obtaining supporting evidence
  9   controls possible variables that are kept the same between the two experimental set ups, treatment and control
10   random selection choosing a sample by chance so that bias can be eliminated from an experiment, very important in biological studies
11   aim the purpose of an experiment
12   result the effect of the method
13   control the experimental set up that is used for comparison with the treatment
14   conclusion summing up at the end of an experiment, related back to the aim, based directly on the results
15   prediction a future possible occurence that can be logically obtained from a law, theory or an hypothesis
16   objective term describing interpretation of experiments based on real and observerable results, free from personal feelings or bias
17   observation what has been seen to happen
18   law a statement of what always occurs under certain conditions, plenty of supporting evidence
19   hypothesis an idea that is used to explain something that has happened. A statement used as the basis for an experiment
20   variables factors that can vary during an experiment. Only one is allowed to vary between treatment and control experimental set ups



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Answers: Sheet   35   Wave model 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   water ripple transverse waves along the surface of a pool of water
  2   speed distance per time that a wave travels
  3   electromagnetic light and related waves composed of electric and magnetic components, requiring no medium for transmission
  4   medium the elastic substance that is carrying a wave
  5   trough a low, hollow point between two consecutive waves in transverse waves
  6   transmission the passing through of waves by a medium, eg windows do this for light, air for sound, space for light
  7   longitudinal wave type in which the particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is travelling, also called compressional
  8   disturbance a sudden movement that causes the production of waves in a medium
  9   amplitude size of a wave, measured from the mean position of the medium, related to the amount of energy the wave is carrying
10   transverse wave type in which the vibration of the medium is at right angles to the direction the wave is travelling
11   waves vibrations in media that carry energy from a disturbance
12   rarefaction part of a compressional or longitudinal wave that has reduced density or pressure
13   crest the top of a transverse wave
14   compressional wave type in which the particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is travelling, also called longitudinal
15   compression part of a compressional or longitudinal wave that has the most density or pressure
16   frequency number of waves passing a point per second
17   propagation passing or sending further: elastic media do this for waves
18   wavelength distance between two consecutive waves
19   period time for one wavelength to pass a point
20   sound longitudinal wave that we can hear



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Answers: Sheet   36   Wave model 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   primary waves the first waves to arrive at a recording station from an earthquake (longitudinal waves)
  2   spectrum all the colours of the rainbow, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet
  3   nuclear reaction source of gamma rays
  4   X-rays short wavelength electromagnetic waves used to make photographs of bones
  5   sound speed 330 metres per second
  6   solids nature of substances that transmit both transverse and longitudinal waves
  7   microwaves electromagnetic waves used in communication and cooking, wavelength between radio and infra-red waves
  8   solar energy the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that radiates from the sun (UV, light, infra-red)
  9   fluids nature of substances (liquids and gases) that transmit longitudinal waves but not transverse waves
10   light speed 300 000 000 metres per second
11   infra-red electromagnetic waves of slightly longer wavelength than red light, heat waves
12   gamma rays most penetrating of the electromagnetic waves, shortest wavelength too
13   secondary waves the second set of waves that arrive at a recording station from an earthquake (transverse wave type)
14   visible light the part of the spectrum that we can detect with our eyes, ROYGBIV.
15   earth structure earthquake waves have been used to determine this
16   elastic type of medium that is able to transmit energy in the form of waves
17   radio longest electromagnetic waves, made by oscillating electrons in an antenna
18   ultraviolet sunburn causing waves of shorter wavelength than visible light
19   photon a unit particle of light wave energy
20   long waves last and most damaging waves that arrive at an earthquake recording station



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Answers: Sheet   37   Newton's laws - motion and gravitational force

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   time how low it takes for an action to take place (seconds)
  2   direction the course taken by a moving body, may be changed by a force even when the speed is not changed
  3   circular motion an example of a force changing the direction of motion of a body but not the speed of the body
  4   velocity straight line speed of a body
  5   rocket an example of the operation of Newton's third law
  6   gravitational force this force between two bodies depends on the mass of the bodies and is reduced by the square of the distance between the two bodies
  7   acceleration the rate at which a body increases its speed, metres per second squared
  8   weight the force that acts on a body in a gravitational field. = mg, (Newtons)
  9   first law a body at rest or in a state of motion continues at rest or in the original state of motion in a straight line unless an external force acts on it
10   rest term indicating that a body is not moving
11   mass a quantity of matter upon which the inertia of a body depends, kilograms
12   distance how far an object has travelled (metres)
13   second law the acceleration of a body is increased by greater force, and reduced by increasing the mass of the body
14   downwards direction in which gravitational force acts
15   force that which causes motion to speed up, slow down or change direction, = ma, Newtons
16   speed the rate of change of distance (metres per second)
17   pushing a car an example of overcoming the inertia of a heavy body
18   third law when two bodies interact: for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force
19   Newton person who put forward 3 laws of motion related to the effects of forces
20   gravitational acceleration 9.8 metres per second squared, at the surface of the earth



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Answers: Sheet   38   Electrical energy

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   current increases effect of increasing the voltage on the amount of current flowing
  2   ohmic resistor a resistor that obeys ohms law for a range of values of voltage because it has constant resistance
  3   current decreases effect of increasing the resistance on the amount of current flowing
  4   resistance the degree to which a piece of conducting wire prevents the passage of an electrical current (Ohms)
  5   non-ohmic resistor a resistor that does not obey Ohm's law: the resistance increases as the voltage is increased
  6   series circuit circuit type in which all components have the same current passing
  7   series circuit type of an electrical circuit that carries the same current as the rest of the circuit
  8   power source battery, transformer rectifier
  9   voltage electrical pressure, potential difference, measured in volts
10   resistor part of an electrical circuit that is made of resistance wire
11   parallel circuit circuit type in which components have the same voltage
12   conductor piece of wire that offers little or no resistance to an electric current
13   current the flow of electrons, measured in amps
14   parallel circuit part of an electrical circuit that provides and alternative pathway for the flow of electrons
15   electrons sub-atomic particles that flow as an electric current
16   switch part of an electrical circuit that breaks the circuit so its use can control when the current is allowed to flow
17   power the rate at which electricity causes change (Watts)
18   one out all out disadvantage of series circuit
19   load part of a circuit that uses the energy provided by electricity, eg, toaster, fridge
20   Ohm's law the voltage of a circuit equals the current times the resistance of the circuit



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Answers: Sheet   39   Light energy

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   reflection law angle of incidence equals angle of reflection
  2   rainbow a natural phenomenon caused by the refraction of light in raindrops to produce a spectrum
  3   refracted ray ray of light that forms as an incident ray enters a new medium
  4   blue skies this natural phenomenon is caused by oxygen molecules causing the blue end of the spectrum to scatter
  5   ray a line or narrow beam of light
  6   refraction bending of a ray of light as it changes speed when it enters another transparent medium
  7   shallow clear water appears to be this because of the refraction of light from the bottom bending downwards as it leaves the water
  8   red sunset this natural phenomenon is caused by the transmission of red light by air with out the light being scattered
  9   diffraction bending of light around a corner
10   reflection bouncing of a ray of light off a medium
11   spectrum all of the colours of the rainbow, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet
12   incident ray ray of light that goes towards a mirror or a new medium
13   black body objects that absorb the most light
14   normal ray ray of light that strikes a new medium or mirror at right angles
15   reflected ray ray of light that bounces off a mirror
16   towards normal direction a ray bends when it enters a more dense medium, eg going from air to water
17   absorption soaking up, this is what happens to light when it falls onto a dull black body
18   scattering this happens to light when it shines onto molecules and particles, causing the light rays to bounce in all directions
19   speed a change in this quantity causes the bending or refraction of a ray of light as it enters a new medium
20   away from normal direction a ray bends when it enters a less dense medium, eg going from water to air



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Answers: Sheet   40   Nuclear energy

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   hydrogen lightest element, the atoms of which can be fused together to form helium on the sun
  2   nuclear reactor power plant that converts energy from nuclear decay to electricity
  3   neutrons uncharged sub-atomic nuclear particle that is released during fission reaction and also brings about fission reactions in uranium
  4   coolant substance used in a nuclear reactor to carry heat from the radioactive material to electricity generators
  5   beta particle electron ejected from the nucleus of a radioactve substance undergoing radioactive decay
  6   plutonium a heavy radioactive element that is produced from uranium and used in nuclear fission reactions
  7   tritium heavy hydrogen composed of one proton, and two neutrons and one electron, can be fused to form helium
  8   control rod device used to alter the rate at which nuclear fission occurs in nuclear reactors so that the rate of nuclear reaction can be controlled
  9   solar energy energy produced by the fusion of hydrogen to form helium on the sun
10   fusion joining together of atoms to form heavier atoms, eg hydrogen converted to helium
11   uranium heaviest natural element that splits to form smaller atoms when fission occurs
12   fission splitting of atoms of substances like uranium to form smaller atoms
13   alpha particle helium nucleus released when radioactive decay occurs to an atom
14   light elements elements such as hydrogen that have atoms that can be fused together with the release of energy
15   heavy elements elements such as uranium that have atoms that can undergo fission to release energy
16   gamma ray high energy radiation of the same nature as light (electromagnetic) emitted when radioactive decay occurs
17   radioactivity giving off radiation in the form or alpha and beta particles and gamma rays by spontaneous nuclear reaction
18   helium product of nuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium, and hydrogen
19   radioactive wastes environmental problem of using fission as a source of electricity
20   deuterium heavy hydrogen composed of one proton, one neutron and one electron, can be fused to form helium



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Answers: Sheet   41   Classification 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   round worms worms that are round in section but have no segmentation, eg, thread worms
  2   tracheophytes land plants that have water and food conducting tissues (xylem and phloem), eg, ferns, gymnosperms, flowering plants
  3   bacteria living things that are very small, three main shapes: spheres, cylinders, spirals. They are decomposers
  4   structural feature of a living thing that is a part or a colour
  5   bryophytes land plants that live in moist places, eg, mosses and liverwarts
  6   cnidarian animal that has a sac-like body, tentacles, eg, coral, jelly fish, blue bottle
  7   molluscs soft bodied animals that have a shell eg, snail, oysters, mussels, squid, octopus
  8   reproduction feature of a living thing that is to do with the continuation of the species
  9   animal living things that have no cell walls, able to move around
10   sponge animal that has a lot of holes, lives in the ocean
11   echinoderms spiny skinned animals, eg, starfish, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, move with tube feet
12   plant living things that have cell walls and carry out photosynthesis (contain chloroplasts)
13   protozoan single celled animals such as amoeba, paramecium, euglena
14   arthropods jointed legged animals, such as crabs, centipedes, millipedes, insects, spiders, ticks, scorpions
15   annelids segmented worms, such as earthworm, beachworms, leeches
16   platyhelminths flatworms such as liver flukes, tapeworms, planarians
17   invertebrate animals that have no vertebral column: protozoans, sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, round worms, annelids, molluscs, echinoderms, arthropods
18   fungi living things that are composed of hair like structures, and reproduce by spores, decomposers
19   algae simple plants that live in water
20   chordates animals that have hollow dorsal nerve cord, gill slits, and a notochord at least during development, eg, fish, frogs, lizards, birds, people



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Answers: Sheet   42   Classification 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   octopus mollusc, fleshy body encloses shell, 8 long arms that have suckers, eyes present
  2   crab arthropod, many appendages (limbs) with a variety of functions, lives in water
  3   millipede arthropod, long round body segmented, two pairs of legs per segment, lives on land
  4   liver fluke flatworm, lives in sheep livers, leaf like appearance
  5   spider arthropod, 8 legs, body divided into two parts, live on land
  6   planarian flatworm, free living in water
  7   earthworm annelid, lives in moist soil
  8   leech annelid, parasitic, lives in rivers and moist land environments
  9   blue bottle cnidarian, lives in colonies floating on the ocean, many stinging cells
10   threadworm roundworm, parasitic, lives in the colon and rectum of humans, emerging from the anus to lay eggs
11   sea star echinoderm, lives in the ocean, 5 or more "arms"
12   mussel mollusc, lives in the river, two shells
13   centipede arthropod, long flattened body segmented, one pair of legs per segment, lives on land
14   insect arthropod, 6 legs, 2 or 4 wings, body divided into 3 parts: head, thorax and abdomen, live on land
15   coral cnidarian, lives in the ocean in colonies of many polyps, produce rocky reefs
16   beachworm annelid, lives in the sand of the intertidal zone of the ocean
17   tapeworm flatworm, long animal, causes hydatid disease, lives in intestines
18   snail mollusc, single spiral shaped shell, different species in ocean, streams, on land
19   jellyfish cnidarian, lives as individuals floating in the ocean, jelly like body
20   sea urchin echinoderm, lives in the ocean, rounded shape, with long spines



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Answers: Sheet   43   Classification 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   carnivora placental mammals that eat meat: examples include dogs, cats
  2   hooved animals placental mammals such as horses, rhinoceros, cows and sheep, possessing hooves
  3   fish streamlined vertebrate, lives in water, has fins and gills, cold blooded
  4   mammals vertebrate with hair (or fur), produces milk from mammary glands, lives on land, warm blooded, most have live birth
  5   cartilaginous fish fish such as sharks and rays, gill slits visible on the side of the animal, skeleton made of cartilage
  6   understanding function of classification, to give meaning to the vast variety of living things
  7   bony fish fish such as cod, catfish, whiting that have scales, gills covered, and a skeleton made of bone
  8   placental mammal that gives birth at an advanced stage of deveopment, eg, dog, horse, human, bat, whale
  9   dichotomous key table using pairs of features to divide groups of living things so that they can be identified
10   primates placental mammals that have stereoscopic vision, grasping hands, eg, lemurs, monkeys, apes, people
11   identify to recognise as being a particular living thing, one of the functions of classification
12   monotreme egg laying mammals: platypus and echidna
13   birds vertebrates that have feathers, wings, beak (no teeth), warm blooded, hard shelled eggs, nests.
14   relationships function of classification, to show the connections between living things, whether or not they belong to the same group
15   marsupial pouched mammals, birth at an early stage, young then attaches to a teat in the pouch, eg kangaroo, wombat, quoll, koala
16   amphibians vertebrates that live on land and in water, moist skin, return to water to reproduce, cold blooded
17   classification arranging living things into groups according to some system so that related organisms are grouped together, and features are easily remembered
18   reptiles vertebrates that have a dry scaly skin, lungs, lay leathery shelled eggs, live on land, cold blooded
19   vertebrates animals that are chordates that have the notochord replaced during development with vertebrae, eg fish, frogs, lizards, birds, people
20   communication function of classification, to enable people all round the world to understand each other when discussing living things



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Answers: Sheet   44   Unicellular organisms

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   bacteria procaryotic organisms, 3 basic shapes: sphere (cocci), cylinder (rod) and spiral, heterotrophic (can't make their own food)
  2   fungi micro-organism composed of many thread-like structures called hyphae, reproduces with spores, eg mould and yeast
  3   virus smallest living thing, not cellular, causes host cells to reproduce it, eg flu, cold, measles, HIV, Coronavirus SARS
  4   unicellular composed of a single cell, as with bacteria, cyanobacter, yeast, diatoms, protozoans
  5   multicellular composed of many cells, eg, most animals, plants and fungi
  6   parasites organisms that live at the expense of other living things, eg, pathogens, viruses
  7   decomposers organisms that breakdown the remains of living things, eg, fungi, bacteria
  8   microscope instrument needed to view unicellular organisms because of their small size
  9   producers organims that make their own food (photosynthetic) using light energy, eg cyanobacter, diatoms
10   eucaryotes living things that do possess a true nucleus (with a membrane around the chromosomes): fungi, plants, animals
11   binary fission method of reproduction of most unicellular organisms
12   cyanobacter blue green algae, related to bacteria, procaryotic, photosynthetic
13   majority relative amount of unicellular organisms that are beneficial to the environment: decomposers, producers, those used in making bread, yoghurt
14   minority relative amount of unicellular organisms that are harmful, causing disease or food spoilage, eg, HIV, tinea, whooping cough, salmonella
15   micro-organism a living thing that is so small that a microscope is needed to view its structure, eg bacteria, cyanobacter, protozoan, single celled algae, fungi
16   protozoan single celled animal
17   procaryotes living things that do not possess a true nucleus (no membrane around the chromosomes): bacteria and cyanobacter
18   diatoms unicellular algae, small size, hard shells of silica, photosynthetic
19   pathogens organisms that cause infectious diseases, usually because they are parasitic, eg, HIV, flu virus, whooping cough bacteria, tinea fungus
20   spore formation method of reproduction of most fungi



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Answers: Sheet   45   Multicellular organisms 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   tissue a group of cells of the same type and function, eg muscle
  2   organ a group of tissues that function together as a unit, eg. heart, stomach
  3   glucose energy rich product of photosynthesis, input for respiration
  4   light form of radiant energy that is absorbed during photosynthesis so that energy rich glucose can be formed
  5   photosynthesis process by which plants make food using light energy
  6   respiration breakdown of glucose in both plants and animals to release energy for cell functions from glucose by reacting it with oxygen
  7   water liquid input for photosynthesis, waste product from respiration
  8   organism a group of systems that function together as a completely co-ordinated living thing
  9   differentiation process of change of cell structure during its growth and development so that it can carry out its specialised functions efficiently
10   carbon dioxide gas input of photosynthesis, and a gas product of respiration
11   chloroplast part of a plant cell where the process of photosynthesis occurs
12   efficiency doing things without waste of time or energy, reason for cells being specialised for one function in a multicellular organism
13   oxygen gas product of photosynthesis, used as an input for respiration
14   system a group of organs that function together as a unit, eg, respiratory ..., digestive ..., excretory …
15   mitochondria place inside cells where the process of respiration is carried out to release energy from glucose for other cell functions
16   specialisation purpose made, cells of multicellular organisms have a particular function related to their shape formed during differentiation
17   diffusion movement of substances from places of high concentration to places of low concentration, cells rely on this process to obtain substances and remove wastes
18   energy agent of change that is stored in glucose during photosynthesis and released for use by cells during respiration
19   heat form of radiant energy released during respiration, enabling us to warm our bodies
20   cell building unit of living things, smallest unit capable of independent existence



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Answers: Sheet   46   Multicellular organisms 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   neurone nerve cell of animals, carries messages
  2   white blood cell blood cells that help fight disease by engulfing pathogens
  3   muscle contractile cell of animals, enables them to move about
  4   motor neurone type of nerve cell that stimulates muscle cells to contract
  5   stem part of a plant that holds up the leaves, transports water to the leaves in xylem and food around the plant in phloem
  6   skeletal muscle type of muscle cell that pulls on bones to allow an animal to move, has cross striations, not branched
  7   connecting neurone type of nerve cell that joins motor and sensory neurones within the central nervous system
  8   epithelium thin layer of cells on the outside surface of an animal
  9   xylem vascular tissue of plants that carries water up the stem to the leaves
10   transpiration loss of water from a plant leaf through stomates
11   bone cell cells that produce the bones of the skeleton
12   red blood cell blood cells that transport oxygen around the body
13   sensory neurone type of nerve cell that carries messages from sense receptors to the central nervous system
14   leaf organ on a plant that efficiently carries out photosynthesis, flat, green, makes food, transpires
15   root part of a plant that anchors the plant to the ground, and absorbs water and minerals
16   stomate tiny hole or pore on the surface of a plant leaf that opens to let carbon dioxide in and oxygen out, water is also lost through it
17   cardiac muscle type of muscle cell that the heart is made of, has cross striations, and is branched
18   fat cell fat storage cell, provides insulation and a food reserve
19   smooth muscle type of muscle cell that is found around organs like intestines and arteries. No cross striations, spindle shaped
20   phloem vascular tisse of plants that carries food produced in photosynthesis to the rest of the plant



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Answers: Sheet   47   Human systems: digestion

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   digestion process of the breakdown of large food molecules to smaller food molecules
  2   small intestine organ that completes digestion and absorbs the products of digestion
  3   villus finger-like projections of the small intestine to increase the surface area and increase the efficiency of absorption of digestion products
  4   emulsification process of converting lipids to tiny droplets by bile; increases the surface area for reaction with lipases
  5   fatty acid and glycerol products of digestion of lipids (fats and oils)
  6   digestive system organs that breakdown large food molecules and absorbs them into the body
  7   simple carbohydrates small sugar molecules formed by digesting complex carbohydrates
  8   large intestine organ that absorbs water from the undigestible matter after the small intestine, colon
  9   mouth organ used to take in food and grind it to smaller pieces
10   liver organ that produces bile (emulsifies fat) and stores excess carbohydrate as glycogen
11   duodenum first part of the small intestine where bile and pancreatic juices are added to food
12   stomach organ in which acid digestion occurs
13   pancreas organ that produces digestive enzymes to be placed in the duodenum
14   absorption process of taking the products of digestion into the bloodstream in the small intestine
15   enzyme substance that speeds up reaction rates in living things, including digestion reactions
16   pepsin enzyme that speeds up the breakdown of proteins in the presence of acid in the stomach
17   peristalsis contractions of the wall of the small intestine to push food material through the small intestine
18   saliva liquid added to food in the mouth to moisten and lubricate the food; and which contains an enzyme to commence starch digestion
19   amino acids small molecules that can be absorbed, formed by digesting proteins
20   defaecation removal of undigestible material from the rectum



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Answers: Sheet   48   Human systems: circulation

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   blood fluid containing plasma and blood cells, in the circulatory system
  2   valve structure in a vein or the heart to prevent the backflow of blood
  3   heart muscular pump that moves blood out to the lungs or the body organs
  4   capillary very thin walled vessel, connects arteries and veins, allows exchange of substances between blood and other tissues
  5   platelet fragments of blood cells that assist in clotting when a wound occurs
  6   oxygenated containing a lot of oxygen, condition of red blood cells after passing through the lungs
  7   artery vessel with thick elastic walls to maintain pressure between heart beats, carries blood away from the heart
  8   atrium part of the heart that receives blood from the veins
  9   red blood cell blood cells that carry oxygen around the body
10   ventricle part of the heart that pumps blood out to the body or the lungs
11   vena cava large vein that brings blood back to the right side of the heart from the body
12   pulmonary vein vein that carries blood from the lungs back to the left side of the heart
13   pulmonary artery artery that carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs from the right side of the heart
14   white blood cell blood cells that fight disease by engulfing pathogens
15   aorta artery that carries oxygenated blood to the body from the left side of the heart
16   vein vessel with thin inelastic walls and valves to allow surrounding muscles to pump blood, carries blood back to the heart
17   circulatory system organs that transport food and wastes and heat around the body
18   plasma straw coloured fluid part of the blood containing dissolved food and wastes, clotting proteins, and antibodies to fight disease
19   carotid artery artery that carries blood up to the head
20   jugular vein vein that carries blood from the head to the heart



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Answers: Sheet   49   Human systems: excretion

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   exhalation breathing out, a passive process in which the diaphragm relaxes upwards and raises air pressure in the lungs
  2   bladder organ that collects and temporarily stores urine until a convenient time for urination
  3   nephron filtration and reabsorption unit within the kidney, composed of fine tubules
  4   filtration process in which the kidney extracts from blood all small molecules including water, urea, salts, glucose
  5   urine product of the kidney containing water, urea and dissolved salts
  6   trachea air tube that carries inhaled air to the lungs and exhaled air back outside again
  7   excretory system organs that work together to remove waste materials from the body, kidneys and lungs
  8   excess salts substances of mineral nature that are surplus to body requirements
  9   reabsorption process in the kidneys in which useful materials such as glucose are returned to the blood leaving behind urine
10   ureter tube carrying urine from the kidney to the bladder
11   urea poisonous product of breakdown of excess amino acids in the liver
12   larynx voice box, part of the trachea
13   carbon dioxide poisonous gaseous product of the breakdown of glucose during respiration to release energy
14   bronchus air tubes in the lungs that divide repeatedly until they end in alveoli
15   kidney organ that filters blood, reabsorbs useful materials, and produces urine
16   water liquid product of breakdown of glucose during respiration to release energy from glucose
17   inhalation breathing in, an active process in which the diaphragm contracts downwards and lowers air pressure in the lungs
18   alveoli tiny sack at the end of bronchioles in the lungs where gaseous exchange occurs between the air and blood
19   diaphragm sheet of muscles between the lungs and the stomach that contracts to allow inhalation to occur
20   urethra tube carrying urine from the bladder to the outside of the body



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Answers: Sheet   50   Human systems: skeleton and support

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   scapula shoulder blade
  2   patella knee cap bone
  3   cranium skull bones, protects the brain
  4   pelvis basin shaped cavity formed by the hip bones
  5   protection function of skeleton, prevents damage to parts such as the brain
  6   vertebrae back bones, cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (middle back)
  7   radius and ulna forearm bones
  8   teeth biting and chewing bones in our jaws, incisors, canines, premolars and molars
  9   ribs thorax bones that provide a structure for the functioning of our lungs
10   support function of skeleton, hold us up
11   clavicle collar bone
12   movement function of skeleton, enables us to change our position
13   mandible jaw bone
14   carpel wrist bones
15   humerus upper arm bone
16   femur upper leg bone
17   skeleton system that supports, protects and allows us to move
18   phalanges digits, either on the hand or foot
19   tibia and fibula lower leg bones
20   metacarpel back of hand bones



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Answers: Sheet   51   Human systems: nutrition

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   minerals inorganic substances needed in small amounts as salts
  2   essential amino acids amino acids that must be eaten because we need them but we cannot make them
  3   vitamins organic substances needed in small amounts to assist enzymes to carry out their reactions
  4   sodium mineral substance in salt that is needed for ion and water balance so that the nervous system can function correctly
  5   water liquid needed to dissolve food and wastes for transport, and to act as a medium in which chemical change occurs
  6   vitamin C vitamin that prevents scurvey, found in citrus fruits
  7   calcium mineral substance needed to make bones, found in milk
  8   phosphorus mineral substance needed to transport energy from respiration reactions within cells, also used in bones
  9   carbohydrate food substance needed to carry out respiration for the release of energy, eg starch
10   iodine mineral substance needed to make thyroxin (a hormone that controls metabolism and growth)
11   vitamin D vitamin that is needed for healthy bones, produced in the skin in the presence of UV
12   vitamin B-12 cobalamine, a vitamin that prevents pernicious anaemia, found in liver, milk, eggs
13   essential fatty acids fatty acids that must be eaten because we need them but we cannot make them
14   oxygen gas needed for the respiration of glucose so energy can be released in the body
15   protein food substance needed to be broken down to amino acids so that body proteins can be produced
16   iron mineral substance that is needed to make red blood cells, in red meat
17   potassium mineral substance needed for ion balance and nervous sytem functioning, works in conjunction with sodium
18   vitamin B-1 thiamine, a vitamin that prevents beriberi which is a nerve condition, found in whole grains
19   lipid food substance that is either fat or oil, needed for energy production (respiration) and storage of food reserves in the body
20   vitamin A vitamin that prevents night blindness and helps prevent infection, found in milk, egg yolk, liver, green vegetables



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Answers: Sheet   52   Mitosis and meiosis: cell theory

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   variety condition observed between the cells resulting from meiosis, and the offspring from sexual reproduction
  2   growth increase in size of a living thing, which results from cell division and cell growth
  3   sexual type of reproduction resulting from meiosis and fertilisation in which the offspring have variations from each other and their parents
  4   reproduction producing new members of a species, one of the functions of cell division
  5   prophase first stage of a nuclear division process in which chromosomes appear, and the nuclear membrane disappears
  6   random segregation separation of pairs of chromosomes during anaphase of the first division of meiosis leading to variety amongst offspring
  7   mitosis cell division producing two offspring cells with identical genes
  8   cell plate formation division of the cytoplasm that occurs when plant cells divide
  9   metaphase second stage of a nuclear division process in which chromosome line up on the cell equator, and a spindle of fibres forms
10   identical condition observed between the cells resulting from mitosis, and the offspring from asexual reproduction
11   anaphase third stage of a nuclear division process in which chromosomes move toward the cell poles
12   chromatids identical branches of a chromosome before separating to become single strand chromosomes
13   chromosomes thread-like structures that carry genetic material
14   telophase forth and final stage of a nuclear division process in which chromosomes reach cell poles and nuclear membranes reform
15   cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm that occurs when animal cells divide
16   repair maintaining the body of a living thing, one of the functions of cell division, providing cells to replace damaged cells
17   meiosis cell division leading to the production of gametes (sex cells), involves two successive nuclear and cytoplasm divisions
18   cancer the result of cells dividing out of control
19   asexual type of reproduction resulting from mitosis, in which the offspring are identical to each other and their parent
20   crossing over exchange of chromosome material during the metaphase of the first division of meiosis, increases variety amongst offspring



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Answers: Sheet   53   Watson-Crick Model of DNA and genetics

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   DNA deoxyribose nucleic acid, genes, acts as a template to make RNA, carries messages to new cells
  2   protein organic substance including enzymes that are produced using DNA as a template
  3   homozygous having just one type of gene present, that is two copies of the same gene, eg BB or bb
  4   heterozygous having two types of genes present, two alleles: Bb
  5   phosphate inorganic phosphorus that is part of DNA and RNA
  6   RNA ribose nucleic acid, produced from DNA, acts as a template to make proteins in cells
  7   nucleotide base the organic nitrogen containing substance that is part of DNA and RNA and forms the message (gene) each of the molecules presents
  8   double helix shape of DNA, like a twisted, spiralled staircase
  9   genotype actual genes carried. Written as BB or Bb or bb etc.
10   recessive gene that is not expressed in a heterozygous individual, eg Bb has hidden the blue eye colour
11   genes heredity factors, DNA, messsages between generations of cells
12   codominant condition in which two genes are expressed at once, eg RW is pink in snapdragons (Red and White genes both present)
13   environment a factor in determining the appearance (phenotype), limits the ability to express a gene, eg TT may grow short if water is lacking
14   dominant gene that is expressed in a heterozygous individual. eg Bb is a brown eye individual
15   deoxyribose sugar molecule that is part of DNA
16   replication to produce another copy. DNA does this prior to cell division so that the next generation of cells contains exact copies of the original DNA
17   template a pattern from which other things are made, eg DNA is the pattern to make RNA which is the pattern to make protein
18   punnet square a mathematical device in table form used to determine the genotypes resulting from a crossbreeding
19   allele alternative genes for a feature, eg, tall and short genes for pea plant height
20   phenotype appearance of an organisms, due to the presence of genes and the effect of the environment on the expression of the genes



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Answers: Sheet   54   Evolution and Natural Selection

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   variety many different kinds or variation, some of which are more suited to the environment
  2   competition simultaneous demand for the same resource by many individuals of the same species
  3   divergence becoming outwardly disimilar because of evolution in a variety of environments with a variety of selection pressures eg the different finches of the Galapagos Islands
  4   adaptive radiation alternative term for divergence, many diverse species evolving from a common ancestor, eg land vertebrates evolving from ancient lobed finned fish
  5   common ancestry having a primitive species from which many other species descended eg mammals, reptiles, birds and amphibians all descended from lobed finned fish
  6   embryos early stage of development of a diverse group of living things that indicates common ancestry amongst the vertebrates
  7   survival living despite competition and other selection pressures from the environment of the species
  8   Galapagos Islands Darwin studied the living things on these Islands off the South American coast, noting divergence (adaptive radiation) amongst many species
  9   pass on as a result of reproduction the features of the most suited to the environment have this occur (... to the offspring)
10   homologous structure a part possessed by a diverse group of living things indicating common ancestry, eg 5-digit limbs
11   most suited having the features that result in being the best adapted to the environment of the species
12   Lamarck person who put forward a theory of evolution by inheritance of acquired characteristics
13   evolution gradual changing from one species into another species over a long period of time
14   Darwin person who first put forward the theory of evolution by natural selection
15   selection pressure a feature of the environment that can limit the chances of survival of unsuited members of a species
16   reproduce producing more offspring, the individuals of a species that are most suited and able to survive despite selection pressures are able to do this
17   convergence becoming outwardly similar because of evolution in a similar environment, eg shark and dolphin
18   natural selection mechanism for evolution proposed by Darwin and Wallace, the environment allowing the most suited members to survive and reproduce
19   biochemistry chemical substances and reactions in living things, which can be an indication of common ancestry, eg ape and human blood types
20   chromosome structure from within the nucleus of cells, used to indicate common ancestry, eg apes and humans have many of these in common



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Answers: Sheet   55   Human coordination systems: nervous system

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   impulse the message being transmitted by a neurone
  2   breathing rate one of the things controlled by the medulla oblongata enabling us to get enough oxygen into our blood stream
  3   synapse a gap between two neurones across which messages are transmitted by chemical means
  4   CNS composed of the brain, medulla oblongata, spinal cord. The central nervous system
  5   coordination the working together of the parts of the body, a process assisted by the endocrine system and the nervous system
  6   axon part of a neurone that transmits messages from the nerve cell body towards a synapse
  7   ANS a network of nerve cells that controls unconscious responses such as blood flow to the skin and breathing rate: autonomic nervous system
  8   nervous system the neurones (nerve cells) that act together to assist in rapid coordination, memory, thinking, balance, vision, hearing etc
  9   memory one of the functions of the cerebrum of the brain, enabling us to remember past events
10   connecting neurone a neurone that transmits messages form the sensory neurone to the motor neurone
11   reflex arc a set of neurones that bring about a rapid protective response coordinated by the spinal cord
12   balance one of the functions of the cerebellum of the brain enabling us to stand upright
13   neurone nerve cell composed of dendrite, nerve cell body and axon
14   brain main coordinating part of the nervous system, found in the cranium, of the head
15   sensory neurone a neurone that transmits messages from the receptors to the CNS for processing
16   nerve cell body part of a neurone that contains the nucleus
17   medulla oblongata stem of the brain, controls many of the subconscious things that need to be coordinated such as breathing and pulse rates
18   dendrite part of a neurone that transmits messages towards the nerve cell body
19   PNS sensory and motor neurone cell fibres involved in transmitting information from receptors to the CNS and then from the CNS to the effectors (muscles)
20   motor neurone a neurone that transmits messages from the CNS to the muscles that act as effector organs



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Answers: Sheet   56   Human coordination systems: endocrine system

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   slow action speed of action of hormones compared to nerves, resulting in sustained response
  2   progesterone female hormone released by the corpus luteum to assist in maintaining pregnancy
  3   hormone substance released into the bloodstream from an endocrine gland, to bring about a slow sustained response in a target cell
  4   glucose simple sugar found in the bloodstream which is controlled by the hormone insulin released by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
  5   islets of Langerhans glands in the pancreas that produce insulin to control blood sugar content
  6   testosterone male hormone released by the testes to control male sex drive and body development
  7   adrenal gland gland above the kidney that releases adrenalin for the fight/flight response, and cortisone to promote healing
  8   ovaries female sex glands that produce ova and the hormones progesterone and oestrogen
  9   thyroid gland in the neck that releases thyroxin to control metabolism
10   luteinising hormone hormone released by the pituitary gland to stimulate the production of the corpus luteum which in turn produces progesterone
11   endocrine glands glands that assist in coordination by releasing hormones into the bloodstream
12   insulin hormone that controls the concentration of blood glucose, released by the pancreas
13   follicle stimulating hormone hormone released by the pituitary to stimulate the production of oestrogen and the development of an ovum
14   feed back a mechanism in which the response to a hormone affects the stimulus that causes the release of the hormone and so results in a changed response and rate of hormone release
15   fast action speed of action of nerves compared to hormones
16   pituitary gland gland under the brain that controls other glands by releasing hormones such a follicle stimulating hormone
17   hypothalamus underneath side of the brain, controls temperature, thirst, hunger, and the pituitary gland
18   oestrogen female hormone released by the developing follicle and controlling female sex drive and body development
19   testes male sex glands that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone
20   target cells cells of the body that respond to particular hormones in particular ways eg the ovary cells respond to leuteinising hormone



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Answers: Sheet   57   Human coordination systems: ears and eyes, sense organs

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   pinna outer fleshy part of the ear, receives the sound waves and channels them into the ear drum
  2   eyes receptors of light, organs of sight
  3   blind spot part of the retina that has no nerve endings. We cannot see light falling on this part
  4   optic nerve nerve that carries messages from the retina to the brain
  5   ossicles small bones in the middle ear that transmit vibrations from the ear drum to the inner ear cochlea
  6   ears receptors of sound, organs of hearing
  7   eustachian tube a tube that connects the middle ear to the pharynx to equalise air pressure on both sides of the ear drum
  8   retina tissue at the back of the eye that receives light and transmits messages to the brain to convert them to sight
  9   cornea window of the eye, the clear part at the front of the eyeball that allows light to enter the eye
10   peripheral vision being able to see out of the corner of the eye
11   cochlea inner ear structure that receives the vibrations caused by sound waves and converts them to impulses to be transmitted to the brain in the auditory nerve
12   sight sense that enables us to see things
13   light form of radiant energy to which the retina responds by sending messages to the brain
14   cones shape of the end of receptor neurones in the retina that respond to the colour of light
15   sound waves vibrations in the air that are received by the ear
16   rods shape of end on receptor neurones in the retina that respond to intensity of light rather than colour
17   sclera tough outer coating of the eyeball
18   lens a clear structure inside the eye that focuses the rays of light to an image on the retina
19   iris coloured part at the front of the eye that controls the amount of light reaching the retina by altering the size of the pupil
20   ear drum membrane that receives the vibrations of sound waves and transmits them to the ear ossicles



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Answers: Sheet   58   Human coordination systems: skin, tongue, nose, balance sense organs

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   tip part of the tongue that perceives sweet chemicals
  2   skin organ of sensation of touch, temperature perception, and pain, covers our body
  3   balance sense that the semicircular canals are responsible for
  4   temperature sensation of the skin when we feel the hotness or coldness of the skin
  5   sour taste sensation caused by acid (lemon), at the middle of the sides of the tongue
  6   front and back sides part of the tongue that perceives salty chemicals
  7   bitter a sharp, harsh, unpleasant taste, at the back of the tongue
  8   taste sensation that results from various chemicals that come into contact with the tongue (sweet, sour, salty, bitter)
  9   sweet taste sensation caused by sugar, at the front of the tongue
10   nose receptor organ for smell
11   middle sides part of the tongue that perceives sour chemicals
12   touch sensation of the skin when we feel things with the skin
13   semicircular canal organs that perceive the orientation of the body and enable the cerebellum to balance the position of the body
14   back part of the tongue that perceives bitter chemicals
15   tongue receptor organ for taste, in the mouth
16   salty taste sensation caused by sodium chloride, at the front and middle sides of the tongue
17   chemicals these things are what stimulate the receptors in the nose and on the tongue
18   smell sensation that results from chemicals that are in the air and dissolve in moisture in the nose
19   fluid movement of this material in the semicircular canals stimulates hair like receptors so that body orientation can be determined
20   pain an unpleasant sensation that results from actual or potential tissue damage or emotions



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Answers: Sheet   59   Plate tectonics

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   earthquakes sudden shaking of the earth's surface, most of these occur at the edges of crustal plates
  2   crustal plates large blocks of rocks that comprise the surface of the earth
  3   granitic continents material of the crust in continents, which is less dense than the material of the mantle and the basaltic layer of the crust under the ocean
  4   mountain ranges Himilayas and Andes; regions caused by the effects of continental drift causing the granitic continental layer to pile up
  5   geometric fit shaped to fit together, the continental margins have this characteristic
  6   ring of fire region around the Pacific Ocean at the edge of crustal plates where there are a large number of volcanoes and frequent earthquakes
  7   magma molten rock deep within the earth's crust, becomes lava in volcanoes, or massive blocks of granite if solidified under mountain ranges
  8   ratites flightless birds that have a southern distribution, evidence of continental drift having occurred: emu, kiwi, cassowary, rhea, ostrich
  9   continent large mass of land above the level of the ocean, composed mainly of granitic rock material
10   geological fit rocks and moutain ranges fitting together from continent to continent, an indication of continental drift having occurred
11   mid oceanic ridge under ocean mountain ranges formed by lava at the edges of crustal plates where convection currents rise in the mantle
12   climatic changes changes in conditions on land masses that occur as the land masses drift from polar to tropical regions
13   continental shelves areas of relatively shallow water around the continents
14   mantle convection movement of plastic rock under the crust resulting in movement of crustal plates
15   volcanoes places where lava reaches the surface of the earth, at the edge of crustal plates
16   oceanic trench very deep parts under the ocean where the crustal plates collide, and one slides under the other. Also, mantle convection currents sink
17   basaltic layer crustal material under the majority of the oceans: formed from mid oceanic volcanic ridges
18   southern distribution term describing species of plants and animals found on the continents around the south pole
19   proteaceae plants related to banksia and silky oak which have a southern distribution, evidence of continental drift
20   rift valley a region in central and northern Africa where the continent is spliting into two pieces as crustal plates pull apart



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Answers: Sheet   60   Natural events 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   limestone rock formed from the skeletons of coral and shells of shellfish that live in shallow oceans
  2   preserving term describing environments lacking oxygen and being cold in which the burried remains of living things have more chance of being fossilised
  3   coal rock formed from the remains of preserved plants in cool shallow swamps
  4   sediments materials that have been deposited from agents of erosion when they slow down (lose kinetic energy)
  5   wind moving air, carries sand and dust which form sediments when the wind slows down
  6   hard parts parts of living things that are most likely to be preserved, evolved about 600 million years ago (0.6 billion years ago)
  7   top layer rock stratum that is the youngest in a series and is found above the rest
  8   horizontal orientation of sediments when they are being laid down
  9   4.5 billion years ago time when the earth formed, 4 500 million years ago
10   conglomerate rock formed from middle river sediments full of rounded pebbles
11   glacier moving ice, carries mud, clay, sand, sharp edged pebbles, fractured boulders
12   0.6 billion years ago time from which many species evolved hard parts resulting in greater diversity and more chance of being fossilised: 600 million years ago
13   running water moving water, carries mud, clay, sand, pebbles (rounded in the process), boulders
14   erosion agents wind, running water, glacier: moving materials that can carry the particles of rocks that have formed when rocks weather
15   sandstone rock formed from lower river, beach, or large wind blown sediments
16   3 billion years ago time when life first began to live on earth, 3 000 million years ago
17   quick burial one of the conditions necessary for the formation of fossils, other sediments must cover the remains of living things
18   fossil traces of past life, found in sedimentary rocks, and indicating the conditions of the past
19   oldest the relative age of sedimentary rocks found at the bottom of a series of rock strata
20   shale rock formed from clay or mud that has been deposited in the still waters of a shallow lake



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Answers: Sheet   61   Natural events 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   Pangaea the great land mass which once contained all the continents of the world joined together
  2   gravity force of attraction between masses, the force that enables convection to occur when different parts of a fluid have differences in density due to expansion when heated
  3   mountain ranges regions around the world associated with the movement of tectonic plates forcing land upwards
  4   extended winter this is the likely result of a very large volcanic explosion sending ash and dust into the upper atmosphere and blocking out the sunlight
  5   colliding moving together, eg two crustal plates have done this to form the Himilayan Mountain ranges
  6   tornado part of a thunderstorm resulting from very low air pressures, very destructive
  7   common to being present in a wide range of places, eg Southern Beech tree fossils found on Antarctica, Australia, South America and South Africa
  8   cyclones huge storms that occur in southern lattitudes, similar occurrences in northern lattitudes are called hurricanes or typhoons
  9   spreading zones regions around the world where new crustal plate is being formed from volcanic activity under the ocean
10   Pacific ocean around which there is a large number of volcanoes and earthquake prone regions at the edge of a crustal plate, labelled ... ring of fire
11   earthquake zones regions around the world where earthquakes are common, often associated with the edges of crustal plates
12   lava flow very destructive river of molten rock that is released by a volcano
13   earthquakes shaking of the earth, results when crustal plates move suddenly
14   explosion this results when a volcano suddenly blows off its top, causing a deadly flow of hot gas and dust down the slopes of the volcano and into the upper atmosphere
15   6.9 cm North distance and direction in which Australia is moving yearly as a result of the movement of the Indo-Australasian crustal plate
16   Gondwana great southern land mass that has split up to form Australia, India, Antarctica, South America and Africa
17   Laurasia great northern land mass that split up to form Europe, Asia and North America
18   radioactive substances a source of heat in the mantle resulting in convection currents
19   tsunami large wave that forms when an earthquake occurs near the ocean or under the ocean, often called a tidal wave
20   convection movement of fluids in response to differences in temperature causing changes in density resulting in gravitational forces causing more dense fluid to fall, forcing less dense fluid to rise (in the mantle)



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Answers: Sheet   62   Ecosystems

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   parasitism relationship between living things in which one benefits at the expence of the other eg. threadworms in human bowel
  2   biotic general term for living things in the environment, eg competitors, predators, mutualists
  3   physical abiotic factors such as temperature and sunlight
  4   chemical abiotic factors such as salt, oxygen, water, calcium
  5   oxygen a chemical abiotic factor that is produced during photosynthesis and used up during respiration
  6   mutualism relationship between living things in which both benefit, eg bacteria in cows rumen, rhizobium bacteria in legume root nodules
  7   eutrophication excessive growth of algae in water due to the presence of pollutants such as nitrates and phosphates from sewage and agricultural fertilizers
  8   abiotic general term for non-living things in the environment eg water, temperature, oxygen, chemicals
  9   water a chemical abiotic factor that acts as a solvent, coolant, and transport medium, comes in the form of rain
10   conservation maintaining the habitats of living things, keeping endangered species alive, prevention of pollution of natural environments
11   agriculture a human activity that controls the species of plants and animals in a region so that food and fibre can be produced to send to urban areas
12   competition situation where more than one species or organism seeks to use the same resource
13   temperature a physical abiotic factor that affects the rate of chemical change, depends on the amount of heat in the environment
14   habitat destruction one of the effects of mining, agriculture and urbanisation, resulting in no places for native living things
15   pollution damaging environmental conditions with chemicals that are poisonous or stimulate the excessive growth of algae
16   exploitation over use of a resource so that it becomes scarce or uneconomic eg. over fishing
17   matter cycle a diagram showing what happens to a substance such as oxygen as it is used by living things and returned to the environment
18   predator organism that captures, kills and eats prey, eg eagle
19   commensal relationship between living things in which one benefits but the other is not affected eg bird sheltering in a tree
20   recycling using substances over and over again. A method of conserving limited resources



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Answers: Sheet   63   Energy resources and wastes from resources

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   natural gas a fossil fuel that is a gas under pressure
  2   smog pollution caused by the action of sunlight on car exhaust gases
  3   solar building heating a direct use of solar energy in warming buildings by orientation and window placement to receive heat from the sun
  4   wealth having great material property and affluence, related to a country's natural mineral and energy resources
  5   solar energy energy from the sun, heat and light radiated from the sun
  6   pollution adding poisonous and unsightly waste materials to the environment
  7   wind energy energy that results from high and low air pressure caused by solar energy heating different parts of the earth to different extents
  8   fractional distillation technique used to divide petroleum into various useful fractions, based on boiling and condensing
  9   concentrated energy source reason for the usefulness of coal and petroleum compared to solar energy
10   location place where something is found, this affects the amount of incident solar energy
11   carbon dioxide greenhouse gas released when fossil fuels, wood and biomass gases are burnt to release energy
12   population growth increasing numbers of people, resulting in greater use of energy resources and greater pollution production
13   hydroelectricity a renewable source of electricity obtained from gravitational potential energy contained in rain water stored in dams in mountainous region
14   sulfur dioxide acidic gas formed when coal rich is sulfur is burn resulting in acid rain forming
15   easily extracted reason for energy resources such as coal and petroleum being relatively cheap
16   tidal energy energy that results from the gravitational attraction of the oceans of the earth by the moon and sun
17   solar cell a silicon based device that is used to directly convert solar energy to electricity
18   timber a renewable store of solar energy which also acts as a carbon sink helping to lower levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
19   leaded petrol heavy metal fuel previously used to improve motor efficiency, but which also resulted in lead poisoning
20   solar hot water a direct use of solar energy to provide hot water for domestic purposes



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Answers: Sheet   64   Technology, simple machines

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   second order lever levers with the load between the pivot and effort, always magnify force, eg wheel barrow
  2   block and tackle a complex system of pulleys and ropes that magnifies force and changes direction of force
  3   energy conservation this occurs because the energy output of a machine can never be greater than the energy input, related to the law of conservation of energy
  4   levers simple machines made of a pivoted bar, eg, scissors, wheelbarrow, fishing rod
  5   slope simple machine, incline, eg ramp, stairs, screw, wedge
  6   efficiency for a machine: the ratio of the output energy to the input energy, often expressed as a percentage
  7   magnify force one of the things that simple machines do to make work easier, a reduced amount of force is needed as effort compared to the load force eg wheelbarrow
  8   easier simple machines make work .... by either changing direction of force, or magnifying either force or motion
  9   change direction one of the things that simple machines do to make work easier, eg single fixed pulley, the load force is in the opposite direction to the effort force
10   effort force force that is causing movement of a load by a machine
11   pulleys simple machine made of ropes and wheels, eg single fixed pulley, block and tackle
12   mechanical advantage the ratio of load force per effort force, which shows how much a machine magnifies force
13   single fixed pulley a simple machine that has a mechanical advantage of 1, changes direction of force, and is made of rope and a pulley
14   velocity ratio the ratio of the distance the effort force moves over the distance the load force moves, showing how much a machine magnifies force
15   load force force that is being moved by an effort force applied to a machine
16   simple machine device that makes work easier, eg slope, pulley system, lever, gears
17   magnify motion one of the things that simple machines do to make work easier by speeding up the rate at which a load moved compared to the movement of the effort, eg fishing rod
18   first order lever levers with the pivot between the load and effort forces: change direction of force application and can be either force or motion
19   gears simple machines composed of cogged wheels that can change direction of force whilst either magnifying force or magnifying movement
20   third order lever levers with the effort between the load and pivot, always magnify motion, eg fishing rod



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Answers: Sheet   65   Technology, uses of electromagnetic radiation

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   infra red heat waves used to heal damaged muscles and joints
  2   gamma ray extremely short wave length electromagnetic radiation produced by radioactive decay of atoms
  3   UHF short wavelength television waves
  4   X-ray very short wave length electromagnetic radiation produced by colliding electrons with heavy metals like tungsten
  5   fluorescence the production of light when UV is shone onto certain substances, used in black-light signatures
  6   microwave electromagnetic waves used in cooking by directly heating water molecules
  7   fibre optics fine glass threads being used to carry laser light for communication by using total internal reflection
  8   gamma ray extremely short wave length electromagnetic radiation that is used to sterilise food
  9   photoemission the stimulation of an electric current in metals by light, eg in solar cells
10   X-ray very short wavelength electromagnetic waves used to observed fractured bones
11   spectroscopy the study of spectrums to determine the elements present in solutions and stars
12   antenna device used to receive long wavelength radiations (radio, TV and microwave) because they cause electrons to oscillate in the device
13   radio wave electromagnetic radiation with long wavelengths used in communication
14   infra red heat waves used for "night sight" apparatus
15   laser light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, a technique used to increase the energy content of light
16   antenna device used to produce long wave length radiation (radio, TV and microwave) by acceleration of electrons
17   gamma rays electromagnetic radiation used to determine the thickness of materials such as sheet metal
18   VHF long wavelength television waves
19   UV electromagnetic radiation of wavelength shorter then light which is used in sun tanning devices
20   microwave electromagnetic radiation with wavelength 1 mm to 30 cm, used for communication



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Answers: Sheet   66   Technology, electronics, medicine, ethics, materials

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   silicon chip integrated circuitry used in computers; composed of many linked transistors to act as switches
  2   gamma emiters radioactive substances that give off gamma rays, which are useful in detecting and combating cancer
  3   genetically modified organisms plants or animals that have a gene from another organism, to provide it with a useful feature such as resistance to insect attack
  4   cathode ray tube a vacuum tube that is used to produce a stream of electrons; used in old computer monitors and television screens
  5   ethical issues answers to the question: "should something be done just because it can be done?" eg genetic engineering could lead to a super disease germ
  6   rocketry a technique used to deliver war heads across the English Channel during World War II, now used to place satellites in orbit around the earth
  7   radioactive tracer an isotope of an element that gives off radiation as it breaks down, and which can be used to find the chemical pathway in which the element is involved in plants or animals
  8   iodine 131 radioactive substance that is used to treat over active thryoid glands
  9   solar cell device made of two layers of silicon doped with aluminium and phosphorus respectively used to convert light to electricity
10   social issues the effect of technological development on human society, eg loss of jobs
11   photoemission the stimulation of electrons to leave metals when in light
12   computer an electronic device that uses integrated circuits (silicon chips) to temporarily store information, and to do rapid calculations
13   half life time it takes for half of a radioactive substance to breakdown
14   genetic engineering the changing of genes and injection of genes from one species into another species of plant or animal
15   sound amplification one of the uses of triode valves or transistors, to increase the volume of music through a speaker
16   transistor a semiconductor with 3 terminals used in circuits as amplifiers, detectors or switches
17   triode valve an evacuated tube with 3 electrodes used to amplify a variable current, eg sound amplification
18   teflon non-sticky substance that is used in cooking utensils, originally developed during space research
19   super conductor a substance that has no resistance to the conduction of electricity, at least at very low temperatures
20   television a communication device that previously used a cathode ray tube to produce coloured pictures, but now uses LCD (liquid Crystal Display)



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Answers: Sheet   67   Human immunity

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   antibodies substances released by B cells in response to the presence of antigens on pathogens
  2   B cells lymphocytes that produce antibodies in response to the presence of antigens
  3   inflamation increase in blood to a site of infection, bringing extra white blood cells and antibodies
  4   temperature this increases during infection due to increased production of heat, related to fighting the infection
  5   influenza an acute viral infection marked by inflammation of the respiratory tract and by fever, chills and pain
  6   stomach acid barrier in the stomach that prevents infection by killing pathogens
  7   antigen substance carried by pathogens that stimulates lymphocytes to produce antibodies
  8   cilia hair like structures in the trachea that sweep mucus and trapped pathogens to the throat to swallow (stomach acid does the rest)
  9   memory cells lymphocytes that remember an antigen from an infection so that a faster response occurs when the same antigen (pathogen) returns
10   immunity the ability of the body to resist infection, related to barriers (skin), phagocytes and antibody production
11   phagocytes white blood cells that ingest and destroy pathogens
12   tinea a contagious fungal infection of the skin usually affecting the feet characterised by itching, blisters, cracking and scaling
13   infectious type of disease that can be transmitted from one host to another, eg AIDS
14   microflora friendly bacteria that live on our skin and help prevent pathogens entering the body
15   non-infectious type of disease that cannot be transmitted from one host to another, eg, cancer, scurvy, heart disease
16   malaria an infectious disease marked by cycles of chills, fever and sweating transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito
17   skin outside barrier to infectious organisms
18   amoeboid movement displayed by white blood cells (phagocytes) enabling them to ingest pathogens
19   pathogens infectious agents of disease such as bacteria, viruses, fungi
20   whooping cough a highly contagious bacterial disease of the respiratory system usually affecting children and marked by spasms of coughing interspersed with deep noisy gasps



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Answers: Sheet   68   Human reproduction

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   after birth placenta and foetal membranes expelled from the uterus following childbirth
  2   penis male organ of copulation, erectile organ for placing sperm in the vagina
  3   fertilization fusion of sperm and ovum in the oviduct to form a zygote
  4   zygote first cell that is formed when an ovum and a sperm fuse
  5   umbilical cord a cordlike structure that connects the navel of an embryo or foetus with the placenta of the mother. It carries nourishment to the foetus and carries away waste
  6   vas deferens duct through which sperm is carried from a testis to the urethra during ejaculation
  7   ovaries female gonad, produce ova, oestrogen and progesterone
  8   prostate gland gland at the base of the bladder that controls release of urine and secretes a fluid which is a major constituent of semen
  9   placenta the organ by which the foetus is attached to the inner wall of the uterus and nourished
10   scrotum external sac of skin enclosing the testes for the purpose of keeping testes at a temperature below body temperature
11   testes male gonads, produce sperm and testosterone, found in the scrotum
12   cervix neck-shaped anatomical structure at the outer end of the uterus
13   vagina birth canal, passage leading from the vulva to the uterus
14   foetus baby within the uterus in the later stages of pregnancy
15   birth bearing young, act of being born
16   semen combined sperm and secretions of the prostate and seminal glands
17   uterus female organ in which the new baby grows
18   seminal vesicle gland located before the bladder and prostate gland that adds secretions to sperm in the vas deferens during ejaculation
19   oviduct tube that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus, and site of fertilization
20   mammary gland milk producing gland, breast



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Answers: Sheet   69   Investigation terms

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   collate to arrange in order; put together
  2   propose to put forward an idea for consideration, acceptance or action
  3   distinguish between show ways in which two alternatives differ, both things need to be mentioned
  4   establish to set up on a firm basis, to show beyond doubt
  5   model a formula, diagram, scheme or structure used to represent and explain things too small or too big to understand
  6   compare to place (two things) side by side to show their similarities
  7   produce to yield, furnish or supply an idea
  8   justify give a good reason for a chosen action
  9   specify to mention or name definitely, to state in detail
10   modify to make partial changes in; change somewhat
11   describe set forth in written or spoken words, give an account of
12   predict to announce or tell beforehand; forecast; prophesy.
13   anticipate to take care of ahead of time; consider in advance, to look for possible problems before they actually occur
14   formulate express in a precise form, develop a systematic means of giving information, make up an idea
15   evaluate to explain the value of something or a procedure
16   recommend to speak in favour of an idea, person or action
17   contrast to place (two things) side by side to show their differences, both alternatives need to be mentioned in a description
18   identify to recognise as being a particular person or thing
19   select pick or choose from a group of alternatives
20   demonstrate to establish the truth; for example by argument or deduction, show clearly, prove, attest



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Answers: Sheet   70   Laboratory equipment

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   goggles plastic eye protectors to be worn in experiments
  2   clamp metal object with a single screw used in conjunction with a retort stand to support other items
  3   test tube rack wooden object for supporting test tubes upright on the bench so that reactions can be observed and liquids wont be spilt
  4   retort stand metal object used with a clamp and bosshead to support other items
  5   metal tongs metal object for holding items when they are being strongly heated in a Bunsen Burner flame
  6   thermometer instrument used to measure temperature
  7   tripod three legged metal object used to support a beaker when it is heated with a Bunsen Burner
  8   pipe clay triangle object used to support a crucible on a tripod so the contents of the crucible can be strongly heated with a Bunsen Burner
  9   beaker glass container used to hold liquids, can be used on a tripod for heating over a Bunsen Burner
10   crucible porcelain container used in conjunction with a pipe clay triangle on a tripod to strongly heat with a Bunsen Burner
11   wire gauze metal fabric used to spread heat under a beaker being heated on a tripod
12   heating mat fibrous material used to protect the bench from hot objects when they need to be placed on the bench
13   transformer rectifier electrical equipment used to convert 240 V AC to either 12 V AC or 12 V DC
14   conical flask glass container that has sloping sides and is approximately a cone shape
15   filter funnel glass or plastic object used in conjunction with folded filter paper for separating solid particles from liquid
16   wooden test tube holder wooden object for holding test tubes when they are being strongly heated in a Bunsen Burner flame
17   Bunsen Burner gas burner used to provide heat for experiments
18   bosshead metal object with two screws used to hold clamps on a retort stand
19   test tube glass container that is tubular in shape and narrow
20   evaporation basin large porcelain container used to crystallise substances from solutions



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Answers: Sheet   71   More electricity 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   motor a mechanical device used to convert other forms of energy such as electricity into kinetic energy
  2   repulsion pushing away. This is what occurs when two bodies with the same electrical charge are placed close together
  3   lead storage battery rechargeable electricity producing battery commonly used in cars, contains sulfuric acid
  4   battery a collection of electricity producing cells
  5   ebonite rod black, opaque rod that can be negatively electrically charged by rubbing with wool
  6   wet cell a type of battery that uses different metals in a solution such as sulfuric acid to make electricity
  7   physical change changes in which no new substance is formed, eg, electricity being used to heat a piece of nichrome wire
  8   static electricity source of electrical energy obtained by charging insulators by rubbing
  9   motion movement, one of the things that electical energy can be used to provide, produced in an electric motor
10   attraction pulling together. This is what occurs when two bodies with different electrical charge are placed close together
11   change a new thing, energy, or substance formed from another thing, energy, or substance
12   chemical change change in which new substances are formed, eg, electricity being used to make copper from copper sulfate by electrolysis
13   heat energy released when electricity flows through a piece of resistance wire
14   thermocouple two pieces of different wires twisted together, which when heated produce a small electric current
15   energy electricity is a form of this because it can cause changes to occur
16   light energy released by a globe in an electric circuit
17   perspex rod clear, transparent rod that can be charged with positive electrical charge by rubbing with silk
18   electrolysis chemical change in which electricity is used to decompose a solution to simpler substances
19   changes forming new chemicals, physical movement, forming new states, nuclear rearrangements, speeding up, slowing down. Energy is involved in all of these occurrences
20   dry cell common type of battery that uses a zinc container, a paste of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide to make electricity



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Answers: Sheet   72   More electricity 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   circuit a series of wires and loads joined together so that an electric current can flow from the negative battery terminal to the positive terminal
  2   current a flow of electrons in a conductor, or a flow of ions in a solution
  3   conductor material that can carry a current, eg metal, ionic solution
  4   AC alternating current, in which electrons move back and forth
  5   power supply a battery, or a transformer rectifier, used to provide an electric current
  6   anion negatively charged atomic particle eg chlorine ion, sulfate ion
  7   negative terminal structure on a battery that is the source of electrons
  8   ion charged atomic particle, eg copper ion has a positive charge
  9   generator mechanical device that is used to convert kinetic energy into electrical energy
10   metals substances that have free electrons enabling them to conduct a current
11   cation positively charged atomic particle, eg hydrogen ion, copper ion
12   negative charge caused by the presence of an excess of electrons
13   DC direct current, in which electrons move in one direction only, from negative towards positive
14   load device that is using up the energy from an electric current to cause useful changes,eg motor, resistor, light globe
15   electrochemical series metals written in an order showing ability to cause electrical current in a battery or wet cell
16   electrons subatomic particle that forms an electric current, responsible for the negative charge of static electricity
17   alternator a type of generator used in cars with increased current output compared to older generators
18   positive terminal structure on a battery where the electrons return to the battery after passing through a circuit
19   positive charge caused by the presence of an excess of protons
20   proton subatomic particle that is in a nucleus and which carries a positive charge



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Answers: Sheet   73   Natural philosophy 1

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   pulse regular beat in arteries due to blood pressure changes, used by Galileo to time events
  2   metre the distance 1 650 763.73 wavelengths of orange red light from krypton 86 travels in a vacuum
  3   work the amount of change that a force causes to occur. Measured in Joules
  4   amplitude one of the factors of a pendulum which does not affect the period (time taken) for a swing: it is the size of a swing
  5   period time taken for one complete pendulum swing
  6   pendulum a swinging, weighted string
  7   displacement how far a force has caused an object to move, measured in metres. Shortest straight line distance between two points
  8   swing one of these is complete when a pendulum returns to its original, starting position
  9   Joule unit in which energy and work are both measured
10   length one of the factors of a pendulum, the one that actually does affect the time a swing takes
11   second one eighty six thousand four hundredth of a day. The fundamental unit of time
12   energy that which causes change. Measured in Joules
13   Galileo person who discovered that the pendulum could be used to time events
14   krypton element that is used in discharge tubes to provide light for measurement of the standard metre
15   Pisa cathedral where Galileo discovered that the period of a pendulum is the same for any amplitude of swing
16   Newton unit in which force is measured
17   time that which is measured in years, months, days, hours, minutes or seconds
18   mass one of the factors of a pendulum. Does not affect the time of a swing. Usually provided by a heavy object
19   force a push or a pull that causes work to occur, measured in Newtons
20   distance how far it is between two points, not via the most direct path, measured in metres



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Answers: Sheet   74   Natural philosophy 2

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   distance a scalar that is how far it is from one point to another
  2   weighted spring apparatus that undergoes simple harmonic motion when pulled down a short way and released and allowed to bounce up and down
  3   circular motion motion in which an object travelling at constant speed experiences a centripetal force at right angles to the direction of motion
  4   simple harmonic motion motion that is repeated to and fro and involves an opposing force that gets bigger if the displacement from a central position is increased
  5   trajectory the path taken by a projectile, parabolic in shape
  6   speed a scalar quantity found by dividing distance by the time taken
  7   balanced forces this is the situation when the vector sum of forces is zero, which means that there is no net force
  8   gravity force that causes projectiles to take a parabolic path
  9   change direction this occurs to the motion of an object when a force is applied at an angle to the direction of the motion
10   scalar a quantity that has magnitude (size) but does not take account of direction, eg. speed, distance, temperature
11   velocity a vector quantity found by dividing displacement by the time taken
12   vector a quantity that has both magnitude (size) and direction, eg force, velocity, displacement
13   projectiles objects that take a parabolic path because they are affected by the force of gravity
14   tension force pulling force in strings and springs, which are equal throughout the string or spring
15   accelerate increase in the rate of motion, one of the things that a force does to the motion of an object
16   parabola shape of a path taken by a projectile
17   force a push or pull that can accelerate, decelerate or change the direction of a moving object
18   displacement a vector that is the direct distance between two points
19   pendulum apparatus that undergoes simple harmonic motion when pulled to the side so it can swing back and forth
20   resultant the answer to a vector sum.



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Answers: Sheet   75   Natural philosophy 3

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   antinode place on a standing wave where there is a maximum vibration
  2   amplitude half the depth of a wave: the maximum distance a wave causes a particle to be displaced
  3   electromagnetic having both electrical and magnetic components, waves of this type include radio, TV, microwave, heat, light, UV, X-ray and gamma ray
  4   transverse wave waves in which the medium vibrates at right angles to the direction the wave is travelling, eg, light, water ripples
  5   resonate to cause to vibrate at a natural frequency, standing waves occur because of this
  6   wave equation v = f λ Velocity of waves = frequency of waves x wave length (lambda)
  7   photoelectric effect the ejection of electrons from metal that has been exposed to light above a certain frequency
  8   longitudinal wave waves in which the medium vibrates to and fro along the direction the wave is travelling, eg sound
  9   radio waves lowest frequency electromagnetic waves, the waves with the lowest energy content
10   wavelength distance between successive wave crests
11   speed distance per unit time, can be found for sound waves by timing the return of an echo over a known distance
12   gamma rays highest frequency electromagnetic waves, the waves with the highest energy content
13   frequency number of waves per second, the energy content of electromagnetic waves increases as this factor increases
14   reflection this occurs when waves bounce off a barrier, it can result in standing waves in a guitar string or column of air
15   standing wave an interference pattern in waves formed when two sets of waves waves of the same frequency and wavelength pass through each other in opposite direction
16   node place on a standing wave where there is no vibration
17   impeding obstructing or hindering the movement of waves, eg, damping sound on a guitar, reflective alfoil for heat
18   spectrum a range of wave frequencies or wavelengths, eg the rainbow of colours, the entire range of electromagnetic radiation
19   energy content ability to cause change, this is higher for electromagnetic waves of higher frequency
20   energy transfer waves generally do this with the energy that causes them to be produced, eg sea waves eroding a beach



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Answers: Sheet   76   Importance of water

Num. Answer Question/Statement
  1   photosynthesis chemical change in plants only, in which water is a reactant; produces glucose and oxygen
  2   acidic solution corrosive solution that forms when non-metal oxides such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide dissolve in water
  3   dissolve to dissappear into solution. A solute does this when mixed with a solvent such as water
  4   solute substance that dissolves in a solvent such as water
  5   voltameter glass tube apparatus used to breakdown water to hydrogen and oxygen with an electric current
  6   firm state of plant cells that are filled with water, assisting in support of the plant
  7   reaction product substance that is produced when a chemical change occurs, eg water formed during respiration
  8   temperature moderation maintaining a fairly constant temperature despite nearby large variations, eg water in the ocean keeps nearby coast cool in summer, warm in winter
  9   reaction medium substance that dissolves other substances enabling them to react without actually taking part in the reaction, eg solvents like water
10   hydrolysis the breaking down of a substance by reacting with water, eg maltose reacts with water to produce two glucose molecules
11   wilted state of a plant when its cells have insufficient water and are no longer able to support the plant
12   hydration water that is loosely bonded to molecules such as copper sulfate and cobalt chloride
13   basic solution corrosive solution that forms when metal oxides such as sodium oxide and potassium oxide dissolve in water
14   transport medium substances like water that help move other substances by dissolving them, eg urea
15   evaporative cooling causing a reduction in the temperature of surroundings during vaporisation of a liquid such as water
16   reactant substance that is used up during a chemical change, eg water being used in photosynthesis
17   support being held up, water does this by keeping plant cells firm or exerting upthrust on submerged objects
18   respiration chemical change in both plants and animals in which water is a product of reaction, releases energy by decomposing glucose
19   solvent substance that forms solutions by dissolving other substances, eg water dissolving salt
20   upthrust upward force helping to support objects that are completely or partially submerged in water



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